JUSTIN BIEBER BATTLING LYME DISEASE …Reveals Chronic Mono Too
The first case in the 2019 season was confirmed in August in Massachusetts. As of November 12, there have been 36 cases of the illness reported across 8 states. This is a sharp contrast to the 6 cases confirmed in 2018. More worrisome, one-third of the cases confirmed in 2019 have been fatal.Now, experts from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health have published a commentary in The New England Journal of Medicine describing the EEE virus along with research and development that is needed to address the growing threat of the virus and other vector-borne conditions.
The virus is typically spread between Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and birds that live in wetlands; however, other mosquito species can transmit the virus to humans and mammals. In the event of human infection, it takes approximately 3 to 10 days for symptoms to present.
Initial signs and symptoms include fever, muscle aches, nausea, and headache. Infection may progress to neurological EEE are “nonspecific” but progress rapidly and can be permanent. However, the authors of the report noted that 96% of individuals infected with EEE virus do not develop symptoms. Furthermore, specific diagnostic testing may not reveal the infection as the virus is difficult to isolate from clinical samples.
“Although point-of-care diagnostics for EEE and many other mosquito-borne causes of encephalitis are not available, currently they would be of limited value in the absence of effective treatment,” the authors of the report write.
Currently, there are no available antiviral drugs or vaccines that are safe and effective against EEE. At this point in time, patients with EEE are treated with supportive care including intensive care and ventilator assistance. Social support and counseling are recommended for the patient and their family members due to the serious, and sometimes long-term, effects of the infection.
According to NIAID’s statement, many compounds and candidates are currently in development. The authors note that monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated efficacy when given prior to infection in an animal model.
While there are several EEE vaccine candidates in development, the authors caution that these candidates may struggle to reach advance development and licensure. Vaccines that are mosquito-saliva based which are in development to protect against multiple mosquito-borne diseases are in early stages.
Moreover, due to the rare nature of the outbreaks which occur sporadically in unpredictable locations for short periods of time it is difficult to identify an appropriate target population for vaccination.
“In the absence of effective EEE vaccines and treatments, state and local health departments can provide an early warning of imminent human infections by surveilling horses, birds and mosquitoes, but these efforts are threatened by insufficient funding,” the authors said in the press release.
Despite the challenges to developing vaccines and treatments for EEE, the authors of the report caution that simply ignoring the virus would be irresponsible. While EEE outbreaks have been infrequent, a number of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya have been documented in the Americas in recent years.
“The spike in cases in 2019 and the looming presence of other, potentially deadly arboviruses in the United States and globally demand a national defense strategy for arboviruses and other vector-borne diseases,” the authors conclude.
Another detail to highlight is that the CDC does not mention these blood-sucking insects as a possible transmitter of Lyme borreliosis, which, although being low in the percentage shown in the studies, could be a factor in the spread of this disease by the world.
Introduction: Antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests are widely used for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, but ANAs are also commonly found in patients with various infections. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between infections and ANA status.
Methods: Patients that visited the Department of Infectious Diseases at Inha University Hospital between January 2007 and July 2018 were investigated. We analysed their ANA test results and reviewed rheumatic and infectious diagnoses of patients with positive ANA findings.
Results: Of the 9,320 patients during the study period, 1,111 underwent ANA testing and 110 tested positive. Seven of the 110 patients were previously diagnosed with ANA-positive disease, and 21 were diagnosed with autoimmune disease during the present study. Of the remaining 82 patients, 43 were confirmed with infectious disease. The most common pathogen was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 10), followed by Treponema pallidum (n = 5), Orientia tsutsugamushi (n = 5), Escherichia coli (n = 5), Bartonella henselae(n = 3), and human immunodeficiency virus (n = 3). Of the 39 patients without a confirmed pathogen, 7 were seropositive for O. tsutsugamushi, B. henselae, or Rickettsia spp. Patients were observed at an average of 24 weeks in our hospital. One patient developed systemic lupus erythematosus after being diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, and another patient developed adult-onset Still’s disease after being diagnosed with scrub typhus.
Conclusion: This study showed that various relationships exist between infections and rheumatic diseases. In particular, several patients with a positive ANA test result were found to have intracellular infections such as mycobacterial infections, syphilis, or scrub typhus.
https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/11/04/24514/ EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS: A KEY PLAYER IN CHRONIC ILLNESS and TIPS TO TREAT REACTIVATED EBV
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have developed a new method to separate between two different types of a common herpes virus (HHV-6) that has been linked to multiple sclerosis. By analyzing antibodies in the blood against the most divergent proteins of herpesvirus 6A and 6B, the researchers were able to show that MS-patients carry the herpesvirus 6A to a greater extent than healthy individuals. The findings, published in Frontiers in Immunology, point to a role for HHV-6A in the development of MS.
Multiple sclerosis, MS, is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. The cause of the disease is unclear, but one plausible explanation is a virus tricks the immune system to attack the body’s own tissue. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has previously been associated with MS, but in those studies, it wasn’t possible to distinguish between 6A and 6B. Through virus isolation from ill individuals, researchers have been able to show that HHV-6B can cause mild conditions such as roseola in children, but it has been unclear if HHV-6A is the cause of any disease.
According to estimates, as many as 80 percent of all children are infected with the HHV-6 virus before 2 years of age, and many also carry protection in the form of antibodies against this particular virus for the rest of their lives. But since it hasn’t been possible to tell the two variants apart post-infection, it has been difficult to say whether HHV-6A or B is a risk factor for MS.
In this study, however, the researchers were able to distinguish between the A and B virus by analyzing antibodies in the blood against the proteins–immediate early protein 1A and 1B (IE1A and IE1B)–that diverge the most between the two viruses.
“This is a big breakthrough for both the MS and herpes virus research,” says Anna Fogdell-Hahn, associate professor at the Department of Clinical Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet and one of the study’s senior authors. “For one, it supports the theory that HHV-6A could be a contributing factor to the development of MS. On top of that, we are now able, with this new method, to find out how common these two different types of HHV-6 are, something we haven’t been able to do previously.”
The researchers compared antibody levels in blood samples of some 8,700 MS-patients against more than 7,200 healthy people whose gender, date of birth, date of blood sample and other factors matched those with MS. They concluded that people with MS had a 55 percent higher risk of carrying antibodies against the HHV-6A protein than the control group. In a sub-group of almost 500 people, whose blood samples were drawn before the onset of the disease, the risk of developing MS in the future was more than doubled if they had a 6A viral infection. The younger the people were when the virus was first discovered in the blood, the higher the risk was of developing MS in the future. HHV-6B, on the other hand, was not positively associated with MS. Instead MS-patients had lower levels of antibodies toward IE1B than those without MS.
Antibodies toward Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), another herpes virus that is also associated with MS, were analyzed with the same method and the researchers were able to show that individuals affected with both viruses had an even greater risk of MS. This indicates that several virus infections could be acting jointly to increase the risk of MS.
“Both HHV-6A and 6B can infect our brain cells, but they do it in slightly different ways. Therefore, it is now interesting to go forward and attempt to map out exactly how the viruses could affect the onset of MS,” says Anna Fogdell-Hahn.
Funding: The research has been financed by grants from the Swedish Research Council, Stockholm County Council, Swedish Brain Foundation, KAW Foundation, Margareta af Ugglas Foundation, MultipleMS Horizon 2020, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada and the Swedish Society of Medical Research. Some of the researchers have previously received grants/fees by pharmaceutical companies in various contexts. See full scientific article for further information.
Press Office – Karolinska Institute
The image is credited to UPF.
Original Research: Open access
“Increased Serological Response Against Human Herpesvirus 6A Is Associated With Risk for Multiple Sclerosis”. Anna Fogdell-Hahn et al.
Frontiers in Immunology doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02715.
Increased Serological Response Against Human Herpesvirus 6A Is Associated With Risk for Multiple Sclerosis
Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A or HHV-6B involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology has remained controversial mainly due to the lack of serological methods that can distinguish the two viruses. A novel multiplex serological assay measuring IgG reactivity against the immediate-early protein 1 from HHV-6A (IE1A) and HHV-6B (IE1B) was used in a MS cohort (8,742 persons with MS and 7,215 matched controls), and a pre-MS cohort (478 individuals and 476 matched controls) to investigate this further. The IgG response against IE1A was positively associated with MS (OR = 1.55, p = 9 × 10−22), and increased risk of future MS (OR = 2.22, p = 2 × 10−5). An interaction was observed between IE1A and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody responses for MS risk (attributable proportion = 0.24, p = 6 × 10−6). In contrast, the IgG response against IE1B was negatively associated with MS (OR = 0.74, p = 6 × 10−11). The association did not differ between MS subtypes or vary with severity of disease. The genetic control of HHV-6A/B antibody responses were located to the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region and the strongest association for IE1A was the DRB1*13:01-DQA1*01:03-DQB1*06:03 haplotype while the main association for IE1B was DRB1*13:02-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:04. In conclusion a role for HHV-6A in MS etiology is supported by an increased serological response against HHV-6A IE1 protein, an interaction with EBV, and an association to HLA genes.
Lyme disease can cause delayed neurologic symptoms similar to those seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) such as weakness, blurred vision caused by optic neuritis, dysesthesias (sensations of itching, burning, stabbing pain, or “pins and needles”), confusion and cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Lyme disease symptoms may also have a relapsing-remitting course. In addition, Lyme disease occasionally produces other abnormalities that are similar to those seen in MS, including positive findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
These similarities in symptoms and test results have led some people with MS to seek testing for the presence of antibodies to Borrelia, to determine if their neurologic symptoms are the result of Lyme disease or truly MS. The distinction is important because Lyme disease, especially when treated early, often responds to antibiotic therapy, whereas MS does not.
Studies examining Lyme disease & MS
Two studies have examined the overlap in diagnosis of MS and Lyme disease. The studies were conducted in parts of Long Island, New York, an area where Lyme disease is endemic, or regularly found.
In the first study, people who had Borrelia antibodies in their blood as well as a variety of neurologic symptoms considered to be “MS-like,” were evaluated with MRI, evoked potentials (EP) and CSF analysis, including a test for the presence of Borrelia antibodies in the spinal fluid.
While those with the MS-like illness had the highest incidence of abnormal MRIs and were the only ones among those studied to have abnormal EP and oligoclonal bands in their spinal fluid (indicating an abnormal immune response), they did not prove to have any Borrelia antibody in their spinal fluid.
The researchers concluded that the few patients with the MS-like symptoms probably had these symptoms due to MS and had also been exposed to the Borrelia bacterium.
A companion study looked for the presence of Borrelia antibodies in the blood of 100 people with the diagnosis of possible MS. Of 89 people who in fact turned out to have definite MS, only one had Borrelia antibodies. The researcher concluded that “…infection with Borrelia is infrequent in MS patients who live in an endemic area. Lyme disease is unlikely to be a significant factor in the differential diagnosis of MS.” Furthermore, the presence or antibodies to Borrelia does not prove that Borrelia is causing the neurological symptoms, only that there has been previous infection with the organism.
Today I posted an article of a U.S. patient who had an enlarged spleen, skin lesions, and anemia. Blood testing did not reveal bartonellosis, but the spleen was eventually removed and tissue tests revealed the presence of Bartonella bacilliformis. This is a species of Bartonella that is primarily transmitted by sand flies in South America. The patient, it turns out, had visited South America three years earlier. https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/26/bartonellosis-a-hidden-cause-of-splenomegaly/
The following article shows the various sandflies which look a bit like mosquitoes. Please note they are found in the Southern U.S. as well.
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/flies/Lutzomyia_shannoni.htm Full Article Here with pictures
Phlebotomine sand flies are of considerable public health importance because of their ability to transmit several viral, bacterial, and protozoal disease-causing organisms of humans and other animals.
Lutzomyia shannoni Dyar is a proven vector of vesicular stomatitis virus and a suspected vector of visceral leishmaniasis and sand fly fever in Florida. It is one of the more thoroughly studied species of phlebotomine sand flies in North America.
In the United States, it has been found through the southern states from Florida to Louisiana plus Arkansas, Tennessee, South and North Carolina. This species has been found as far north as Maryland and Delaware.
At least 60 species in the Old World genus Phlebotomus or New World genus Lutzomyia are vectors of several vertebrate pathogens, including a group of parasitic flagellate protozoa, Leishmania spp., which may cause cutaneous, visceral or muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis; the bacterium, Bartonella bacilliformis causing Oroya fever; and several arboviruses causing sand fly fever and vesicular stomatitis (Lane 1993).
University of Florida Entomology & Nematology
NORTH CAROLINA — State health officials said hundreds of people in North Carolina are infected by tick-borne illnesses each year, but deaths are rare.
Former Senator Kay Hagan died this week from complications from a tick bite.
Infectious Disease Expert, Dr. Christopher Ohl, said he sees a handful of patients each year who have been bitten by ticks.
He added lyme disease and viruses are rare in North Carolina, but there three tick-borne infections to worry about here.
“One is Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which is in the spotted fever group. The other is ehrlichia or ehrlichiosis, which comes from that little tick which you may have seen that has a big white spot on its back, the lone star tick. And then the third one is a kind of group of infections related to Rocky Mountain spotted fever,” said Dr. Ohl.
Health officials said they can be treated by antibiotics. (See link for full story and news video)
The article stupidly states that Lyme disease and viruses are rare in North Carolina. I’m from Wisconsin and just had an infected North Carolina patient contact me yesterday. Now why on earth would someone from NC contact me? I’ll tell you why – they aren’t believed down South: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/05/31/no-lyme-in-the-south-guess-again/
https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/09/24/arkansas-kids-denied-lyme-treatment/ This one really gets me….listen to what this bonehead had to say:
According to Dr. Naveen Patil, Director of the Infectious Disease Program, ADH,
“We don’t have Lyme Disease in Arkansas, we have the ticks that transmit Lyme Disease but we don’t have any recorded cases of Lyme Disease.”
Dr. Ohl says to just wait and see if you develop symptoms. Stupid, stupid advice. This “wait and see” approach is dooming patients to a life-time of suffering. According to ILADS:
And a recent study states that treating prophylactically if TBI’s are suspected is warranted: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/07/12/start-treatment-if-tbis-are-suspected/. Also see: https://www.lymedisease.org/lyme-basics/lyme-disease/diagnosis/, and https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/09/02/microbiologist-holly-ahern-on-lyme-disease-how-did-we-get-here/.
Ixodes scapularis is responsible for transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Powassan virus to humans. We present a case of an 87-year-old man who presented with fever and altered mental status. Initial workup revealed haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, mild hepatitis and acute kidney injury. Patient tested positive for B. burgdorferi and Babesia microti, and was started on doxycycline, atovaquone and azithromycin. He also underwent exchange transfusion twice. After some initial improvement, patient had acute deterioration of mental status and appearance of neurological findings like myoclonus and tremors. Therefore, testing for arboviruses was done and results were positive for Powassan virus. During a protracted course of hospitalisation, patient required intubation for respiratory failure and temporary pacemaker for unstable arrythmias from Lyme carditis. Patient developed permanent neurological deficits even after recovery from the acute illness.
This right here is an example of the polymicrobial aspect of Lyme disease that doctors are not considering. The continued blindness of the medical community on the true nature of tick-borne disease is unbelievable. The only reason this patient made the books is due to the severity of the case. There are many, many patients in Lyme-land who have these exact same pathogens but are flying under the radar of mainstream medicine due to the fact they haven’t been hospitalized yet. https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/30/study-shows-lyme-msids-patients-infected-with-many-pathogens-and-explains-why-we-are-so-sick/