Archive for the ‘Viruses’ Category

Death from Tick-borne Virus (SFTS)  July 25, 2017  BBC News

A Japanese woman died last year of a tick-borne disease after being bitten by a stray cat, Japan’s health ministry says, in what could be the first such mammal-to-human transmission.

The unnamed woman in her 50s had been helping the apparently sick cat.

Ten days later she died of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS), which is carried by ticks.

With no tick bite detected, doctors assume the illness could have been contracted via the cat.

“No reports on animal-to-human transmission cases have been made so far,” a Japanese health ministry official told the AFP news agency.

“It’s still not confirmed the virus came from the cat, but it’s possible that it is the first case,” the official added.

SFTS is a relatively new infectious disease emerging in China, Korea and Japan.

The virus is said to have fatality rates of up to 30% and is especially severe in people over 50.

According to Japanese media, SFTS first occurred in the country in 2013.

Japan’s health ministry said last year’s death was still a rare case but warned people to be careful when in contact with animals in poor physical condition.

Globally, tick bites are widely associated with transmitting Lyme disease which can lead to severe illness and death if left untreated.


**For more on Thrombocytopenia Syndrome**

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Symptoms and laboratory abnormalities are fever, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), leukocytopenia (low white blood cell count), and elevated liver serum enzyme levels. Multiorgan failure occurs in severe cases, and 6%–30% of case-patients die. The syndrome is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae). SFTS case-patients were first reported in China (1) and more recently were reported in Japan (2) and South Korea (3). Two case-patients with symptoms consistent with a similar virus, Heartland virus, were reported in the United States (4).

Ixodid tick species are implicated as vectors of SFTSV (1,5,6). One study described a SFTSV prevalence in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks, a major vector of SFTSV, of 0.46% minimum infection rate in South Korea (7); in another study, SFTSV was detected in ticks that had bitten humans (6). From these studies, we realized that SFTSV was common throughout the country. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of SFTS in South Korea and isolate the SFTSV to analyze its phylogenetic properties.  

The major signs and symptoms of the 35 case-patients, including fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (74%), fatigue (74%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukocytopenia (100%), were similar to those of case-patients in China and Japan (9).

For more on Bunyaviridae viruses:

*The enveloped RNA viruses are found in hematophagous arthropods (blood sucking) and include mosquitos, ticks, midges, flies, or sandflies as well as rodents except for Hantaviruses which are transmitted through contact with deer mice feces.

*Examples of Bunyaviridae viruses:  Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Hanta Virus or Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever, California encephalitis virus, Rift Valley fever, Bwamba Fever, Cache Valley Virus, and La Crosse Virus (Wisconsin).  According to the CDC, between 2004 and 2013 there were 787 total cases of La Crosse encephalitis and 11 deaths in the U.S.[7]  Looking at the distribution of cases across the United States by state, between 2004 and 2013 the most cases of La Crosse encephalitis was in North Carolina. North Carolina had 184 total cases, followed by Ohio with 178 total cases.[8]

*There was a Hantavirus outbreak at Yosemite in 2012.  Arboviruses:  Types, symptoms, and transmission  By Jenna Fletcher

*There are over 130 different arboviruses that affect humans.

*The three main genera are:  flavivirus (yellow fever, West Nile virus, Zika virus, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis), togavirus (Ross River virus, Eastern equine virus, Western equine virus), and bunyavirus (California encephalitis, La Crosse Virus, Jamestown Canyon virus).

*The viruses can be transmitted through insect bites, blood transfusion, organ transplant, sexual contact, congenitally.


Heartland Virus in Arkansas

Case of tick-borne illness, Heartland virus, found in Arkansas resident

26 days ago

Lone star tick, Thinkstock

LITTLE ROCK, Ark. (July 7, 2017) — Arkansas has identified its first case of Heartland virus, a relatively new tick-borne disease, in an individual living in the northwest part of the state.

People become infected with Heartland virus through the bite of the Lone Star tick. Patients are most likely to be diagnosed with Heartland virus from May to September. Heartland virus causes a flu-like illness, including fever, headache, muscle aches, diarrhea, appetite loss, and feeling very tired. Most cases have low numbers of cells that fight infection and low numbers of cells that help blood clot. There is no vaccine or drug to prevent or treat the disease.

“It’s a flu-like illness where you’re stiff, you’re achy, you run a fever, you’ve got headaches, this one often has diarrhea, which isn’t always the case with some of the others, loss of appetite,” said Dr. Sue Weinstein, the state public health veterinarian. “It can get quite serious.  A lot of patients with this are hospitalized, but most recover.  There’s only been one death in the nation and that was in someone who was quite elderly and other medical issues at the time.”

In 2009, two people admitted to Heartland Hospital in Missouri were later found to be infected with this virus. Both recovered, but the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services began working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to learn more about the virus.

To date, more than 20 cases of Heartland virus disease have been identified in several states in Southeast and South Central United States, so it is not surprising that Arkansas has a case. Most patients require hospitalization for their illness but fully recover. One patient has died. The Arkansas patient has recovered fully.

Arkansas has some of the highest rates in the nation for tick-borne diseases such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), Ehrlichiosis, and Tularemia. Anaplasmosis and Lyme Disease may also occur. People who work or do activities outside, where they are exposed to ticks or insects, are more likely to be infected.

Preventing bites from ticks and mosquitoes are the best way to prevent these and other infections:

-Use insect repellents

-Wear long sleeves and pants

-Avoid bushy and wooded areas

-Perform thorough tick checks after spending time outdoors

For more information, visit


I’m sure those in Arkansas are relieved to finally be officially recognized.  Just last year two children were denied Lyme treatment due to it not being on the map:  Thanks to a mom who wouldn’t take no for an answer, Lyme Disease is finally recognized.

Arkansas officials ended up eating their words:

Ticks Found on Eyeball, Buttocks, and Penis

It’s High Time for Ticks, Which Are Spreading Diseases Farther
JULY 24, 2017

SOUTHAMPTON, N.Y. — This town is under siege from tiny invaders.

A doctor at Southampton Hospital recently pulled a tick off a woman’s eyeball. After a 10-minute walk outside, a mother reported finding a tick affixed to her 7-year-old daughter’s buttocks.

Another mother called the hospital in a “hysterical state,” according to the nurse who answered, because a tick had attached itself to her son’s penis.

Like many towns across the country, Southampton is seeing a tick population that is growing both in numbers and variety — at a time when ticks are emerging as a significant public health danger.

“Tick-borne diseases are a very serious problem, and they’re on the rise,” said Rebecca Eisen, a research biologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

“Even though you may live in an area where you didn’t have ticks in the past or your parents don’t remember having ticks, the distribution is changing,” she added. “More and more people are at risk.”

With the expansion of the suburbs and a push to conserve wooded areas, deer and mice populations are thriving. They provide ample blood meals for ticks and help spread the pests to new regions.

Originally from the Southeast, the lone star tick, for example, is heading north; it can now be found in 1,300 counties in 39 states. The blacklegged tick, also called the deer tick, is expanding its territory, too. In a recent study, Dr. Eisen reported a nearly 45 percent increase since 1998 in the number of counties with blacklegged ticks.

Thomas Mather, director of the University of Rhode Island’s TickEncounter Resource Center, said it used to get reports of three or four lone star ticks in the greater Chicago area each year. Now, it is receiving up to 15.

When a tick species marches into a new region, it poses a double-barreled threat, said Jerome Goddard, extension professor of medical and veterinary entomology at Mississippi State University.

First, the species brings diseases from its original location. Second, the ticks pick up new pathogens from animals in their new ecosystem.

Physicians and patients in a tick’s new home may be less familiar with the diseases it carries. They can overlook symptoms or attribute them to a different cause, delaying effective treatment.

The best known threat is Lyme disease. Cases in the United States increased from about 12,000 annually in 1995 to nearly 40,000 in 2015. Experts say the real number of infections is likely closer to 300,000.

But scientists are finding ticks carry more than just Lyme: At least a third of known tick-borne pathogens were found in the last 20 years. Heartland virus and Bourbon virus, which can prove fatal, were discovered in just the last five years.

Powassan virus, a rare but dangerous pathogen that can cause permanent brain damage or death, can be passed from tick to human in just 15 minutes. It was discovered in 1958, and an average of seven cases are reported each year. Earlier this month, a resident of Saratoga County, N.Y., who had Powassan disease died.

Dr. Gary Wormser, founder of the Lyme Disease Diagnostic Center at New York Medical College, said the most worrisome tick-borne contagion he sees is babesiosis, which can cause malaria-like symptoms and require hospitalization. A few of his patients have died from it; several required intensive care.

Before 2001, babesiosis was not found in Westchester, N.Y. But Westchester Medical Center has diagnosed at least 21 cases in the past year.

A study of babesiosis in Wisconsin found a 26-fold increase in the number of cases between 2001 to 2003, and 2012 to 2015.

In places where the lone star tick is gaining prevalence, doctors also are seeing an increase in cases of alpha-gal syndrome, a strange allergy to red meat induced by tick bites.

Alpha-gal is a sugar molecule carried by the lone star tick. When the tick bites a human, it activates the immune system, which starts producing alpha-gal antibodies.

The body becomes wired to fight alpha-gal sugar molecules, which are abundant in red meat. Eating meat can trigger allergic reactions, from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock.

Dr. Erin McGintee, an allergist and immunologist at ENT and Allergy Associates in Southampton, sees two to three cases of alpha-gal syndrome per week during tick season. Since diagnosing her first case in October 2010, she has seen more than 380 patients.

“The cases are definitely increasing over time,” she said.

That is no surprise to Karen Wulffraat, administrative director of Southampton Hospital’s Tick-Borne Disease Resource Center.

“The calls about lone star tick bites are increasing in number, even overtaking the blacklegged tick,” which is native to the Northeast, she said.

Cathy Ward and her husband bought a summer home in Southampton in 1984, and moved there permanently eight years ago.

Ms. Ward remembers taking her son Bill to the nearby wildlife refuge as a child, where he would fill his hands with birdseed and stand with his arms outstretched until birds came and perched on them.

Now when Bill Ward visits with his young daughter, Taylor, his mother tells them the refuge is off limits — it is a breeding ground for ticks.

“It wasn’t a concern when Bill was young,” Ms. Ward said. “Now you have to protect yourself all the time. You don’t know where you’re going to pick up a tick.”

She will not garden in the yard anymore, and has it sprayed for ticks annually. Despite that, her granddaughter got a tick while visiting during the Fourth of July weekend. The family found it before it had bitten her, but it was a shock nonetheless.

“It’s scary, because we don’t know which diseases they carry,” said Mr. Ward.

Brian Kelly, owner of East End Tick and Mosquito Control, has noticed the change, too. His company now sprays people’s lawns instead of just their bushes because lone star ticks are more aggressive than the native blacklegged ticks, and tend to venture further from the woods.

“People can walk across their lawn barefoot to get the newspaper and get a tick,” he said.

As human exposure to ticks continues to increase, it’s likely that even the rarest infections they carry will become more common, Dr. Goddard said.

“This really has a human toll that a lot of people don’t recognize,” he said.


Clinical Association: Lyme Disease and Guillain-Barre

According to this abstract in The American Journal of Emergency Medicine,  the authors state an association between GBS and Lyme is rare; however, the following article states that Epstein-Barr, also known as Mono, is an infection that triggers Guillain-Barre as well as mycoplasma and cytomegalovirus.

Dr. Garth Nicolson states that Mycoplasma is the most common co-infection with Lyme (borrelia).  Cytomegalovirus (herpes virus family) is also a coinfection to LD.

Which leaves EBV.

In Dr. Waisbren’s book, Treatment of Chronic Lyme Disease, the majority of his 51 cases of chronic Lyme had high EBV titers.  He also states,

“As will be seen in other cases, the Epstein-Barr virus may be a candidate for a co-infection associated with LD.”  

Waisbren often treated this co-infected patients that had EBV with 1000mg of Valtrex three times a day with good success.  He also used gamma globulin (4cc twice a week).

I think this is another great example of proclaiming something is rare when little research has been done.  Until Lyme patients are routinely tested for GB, I think it unwise to assume a connection is rare.  Researchers need to tread carefully in all things related to TBI’s, understanding that their words have been used against patients for decades.

Time to admit there’s a lot we frankly just don’t know.


Another Dies From Powassan

New York Man Dies From Tick Carrying Brain Swelling Virus


The daughter of a man who lived just outside the Hudson Valley is warning the public after her father died from a tick that carries a rare brain swelling virus.

In early May or late April, 74-year-old Charles Smith of Saratoga County discovered a tick bite near his elbow. Ten days later, Smith became very sick and was rushed to a hospital.

After a number of tests, he was diagnosed with the Powassan virus and died in early
June, reports WYNT.

The Powassan virus is spread by the same deer tick that carries Lyme disease. Powassan, which in some cases has been fatal, attacks the nervous system and can cause a dangerous brain swelling.

Other symptoms can include vomiting, weakness, confusion, seizures and memory loss.

There is currently no treatment for the virus, which according to the CDC kills around 10% of people who become sick. Half are left with permanent neurological problems.

At the families urging, on Wednesday, the New York State Department of Health confirmed that Smith was diagnosed with the Powassan virus.

“Why has it taken us to to contact you to make people aware?” Stephanie wondered to WYNT.

To decrease your risk of being infected with the Powassan virus the CDC recommends using tick repellents, wearing long sleeves and pants, avoiding bushy and wooded areas and doing thorough tick checks after spending time outdoor.

Correction: This article originally stated that the death of 17-year-old Poughkeepsie High School Joseph Elone in 2013 was from Powassan virus.
While Powassan virus was initially suspected, Elone in fact died of Lyme carditis, according to the Lyme Action Network.


If you’ve read the articles I’ve posted this summer about Powassan you will realize it can no longer be called “rare.”  Too many have died in such a short period of time.

Also, the daughter of the deceased makes a valid point:  she had to contact authorities.  This is a huge reason why they are stating it is “rare.”  How many people are going to think of contacting authorities when they are grieving a loved one?  This should be a reportable disease in every state, requiring health professionals to report it.  This should also hold true for every other tick borne infection.  Those of us with boots on the ground know full well these infections are NOT rare – just rarely diagnosed and reported.

Despite what authorities say, there are things you can do for viruses besides hydrate people:  Ozone was first used in medicine at the end of the 19th century to treat tuberculosis.  During World War I, medics used it to disinfect wounds. Since the 1950s, ozone therapy has gained popularity throughout the world. More than 45,000 physicians in 50 countries now administer ozone.  Ozone is typically administered with one of two different IV methods:

Major Auto-Hemotherapy (MAH), in which blood is drawn from the patient, exposed to ozone and re-injected into the patient.

Direct Intravenous Ozone Therapy (DIV), in which oxygen and ozone are directly infused into the patient’s bloodstream.  Here ozone has an inhibitory effect upon parasites.  The parasites are subjected to an increased oxidative stress, and their reproductive cycle is disrupted. Ozonation was carried out at a concentration of 80 µg/ml in a RBC suspension. Optimal growth inhibition was obtained by applying ozone twice, i.e. immediately before and after infection.  More About Viruses
“In each reproducing cell in our bodies there are two substances: RNA and DNA – the ‘helix’ form discovered by Crick and Watson. They contain the genetic blueprint for the cell, and the whole body. Viruses are not cells, they are either RNA or DNA genetic material – but not both – surrounded by a coat of protein. Since they have only half of the genetic material, they cannot reproduce on their own. They multiply by attaching themselves to the inner RNA or DNA of normal cells, taking it over and forcing the cell to make more of the virus. Picture slave labor. They wait there and emerge when our defenses are down! Outside of their host cell they are basically inert so it is clear that they are ‘hiding out’ in the cells, and must be uncovered within the cell to be destroyed before they manifest their destructive potential. This is where the amazing property of ozone to invade diseased cells, uncovering and destroying the disease or virus, is so effective.”

Although MAH improves many diseases and conditions, it rarely eliminates them. So many doctors prefer DIV, which is safer to perform, yet more powerful in its effects.  “DIV is the only way you can get rid of something,” says Robins.  According to proponents, ozone therapy is broadly effective because it attacks and removes disease-causing agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, molds, yeast, and toxic metals.

Although ozone therapy is often denigrated by mainstream physicians in the U.S., in other countries such as Germany, it is considered safe and a standard of care.  “When people ask why ozone therapy isn’t more available in the United States, I say it’s because it’s not a patentable medicine and the drug companies can’t make any money off it,” says Robins. “That’s probably the main reason why it’s been suppressed.”

For a list of ozone therapists, go to

More on Powassan:

An unpublished 2010 study showed more than 15% of Lyme patients had Powassan. A study completed in May of 106 patients with suspected acute tick borne disease showed 10.4 % had Powassan.

Coppe Labs in Wisconsin is a CLIA certified lab – the only other lab that tests for Powassan besides the CDC.  They also test for many other viruses and can tell if the virus is active or latent.

Start Treatment if TBI’s are Suspected  Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 July;84(7):555-567


  • Tickborne illnesses should be considered in patients with known or potential tick exposure presenting with fever or vague constitutional symptoms in tick-endemic regions.
  • Given that tick-bite history is commonly unknown, absence of a known tick bite does not exclude the diagnosis of a tick-borne illness.
  • Starting empiric treatment is usually warranted before the diagnosis of tickborne illness is confirmed.
  • Tick avoidance is the most effective measure for preventing tickborne infections.


The article delineates symptoms, transmission, reservoirs, testing, and treatment of the following TBI’s:  Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Rickettsiosis, Ehrlichioses, Babesiosis, Tickborne relapsing fever, Borrelia miyamotoi, Southern Tick-associated Rash illness, Tularemia, and Tickborne viral infections.



I need to address the following statements at the end of the article:

“Knowledge of the geographic locations of potential exposure is paramount to determining which tickborne infections to consider, and the absence of a tick bite history should not exclude the diagnosis in the correct clinical presentation.

Clinicians need to tread carefully here.  Many patients have been denied testing and treatment due to a map.  These maps should be viewed with the same suspicion as the testing.  




Until you tell the fox, squirrel, bird, deer, lizards, and hundreds of other reservoirs to stay put, ticks will be traveling everywhere along with the pathogens they carry.  Since Lyme Disease (borrelia) has been found in every continent except for Antarctia (it will be found there too), you can assume that means ticks are there too.  

I’m glad the authors stated this:

In addition, it is important to recognize the limitations of diagnostic testing for many tickborne infections; empiric treatment is most often warranted before confirming the diagnosis.”132_fail316x316

For those of us in this war, this “empiric treatment” by mainstream medicine is new.  Patient after patient has had to wait for test results before doctors will treat them.  Often, since the testing is so poor, it comes back negative and the patient is sent packing, even if the patient has every symptom in the book.  The next step is for authorities to admit and acknowledge that diagnosis of Tick borne infections is a clinical one.  This means doctors need to learn a whole lot more.  For docs willing to learn, please see:

Even the CDC is stating to treat empirically: CDC spokesperson at end of video.

Another very important point needs to be made.  The CDC has pushed this one pathogen for one tick mantra for too long.  Many patients are co-infected making cases infinitely more complex and challenging to treat.  Lyme literate doctors trained by ILADS understand this and treat accordingly.  Until mainstream medicine realizes and admits people can have numerous pathogens, and treat for them, people will not get better.


One last point is that mycoplasma, Bartonella, and other pathogens are not included here but are quite common in patients.  Both of these pathogens are persistent and adept at surviving.  More research needs to be done on these co-infections.

Please see:  If ticks are co-infected, so are patients.



Wolbachia – The Next Frankenstein?

Transmission electron micrograph of Wolachia within an insect cell

Credit:  Public Library of Science/Scott O’Neill

The latest in the effort for world domination over bugs and the diseases they carry is Wolbachia, a Gram-negative bacterium of the family Rickettsiales first found in 1924 and in 60% of all the insects, including some mosquitoes, crustaceans, and nematodes (worms). For those that like numbers, that’s over 1 million species of insects and other invertebrates. It is one of the most infectious bacterial genera on earth and was largely unknown until the 90’s due to its evasion tactics. It’s favorite hosts are filarial nematodes and arthropods.

Wolachia obtains nutrients through symbiotic relationships with its host. In arthropods it affects reproductive abilities by male killing, parthenogenesis, cytoplasmic incompatibility and feminization. However, if Wolbachia is removed from nematodes, the worms become infertile or die. These abilities are what make it so appealing for insect controlcytoplasmic incompatibility, which essentially means it results in sperm and eggs being unable to form viable offering.  (Nifty slide show here)

It also makes it appealing for use in human diseases such as elephantiasis and River Blindness caused by filarial nematodes, which are treated with antibiotics (doxycycline) targeting Wolbachia which in turn negatively impacts the worms. Traditional treatment for lymphatic Filariasis is Ivermectin but they also use chemotherapy to disrupt the interactions between Wolbachia and nematodes. This anti-Wolbachia strategy is a game-changer for treating onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis.

Lyme/MSIDS patients often have nematode involvement.  Both Willy Burgdorfer, the discoverer of the Lyme bacterium, as well as Richard Ostfeld, an animal ecologist found nematode worms in ticks. Since then, some provocative research involving nematodes, Lyme/MSIDS, dementia, and Alzheimer’s has been done.  Yet, according to many, Wolbachia is the next eradicator of Dengue Fever and possibly Malaria, chikungunya, and yellow fever because it stops the virus from replicating inside mosquitoes that transmit the diseases. The approach is also believed to have potential for other vector-borne diseases like sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly.  Evidently, Wolbachia does not infect the Aedes aegypti mosquito naturally, so researchers have been infecting mosquitoes in the lab and releasing them into the wild since 2011. The article states it hopes that the method works and expects infection rates in people to drop and hopes that the mosquitoes will pass the bacterium to their offspring, despite it disappearing after a generation or two of breeding and needing to “condition” the microbes to get them used to living in mosquitoes before injecting them. They also state Wolbachia is “largely benign for mosquitoes and the environment,” and “To humans, Wolbachia poses no apparent threat.” Their work has shown that the bacterium resides only within the cells of insects and other arthropods. They also state that tests on spiders and geckos that have eaten Wolbachia mosquitoes are just fine and show no symptoms. An independent risk assessment by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organizatioin (CSIRO), Australia’s national science agency, concluded that, “Release of Wolbachia mosquitoes would have negligible risk to people and the environment.”

Interestingly, trials are underway in Vietnam, Indonesia, and now Brazil.

They state that scaling up operations to rear enough Wolbachia mosquitoes is too labor-intensive and in Cairns they are going to put Wolbachia mosquito eggs right into the environment. Evidently, other researchers are wanting to release genetically modified (GMO) mosquitoes that carry a lethal gene, and they’ve done it, and it’s causing an uproar:  As of July 14, 2017, Google’s bio-lab, Verily Life Sciences,  started releasing Wolbachia laced mosquitoes in California as part of project, Debug Fresno to reduce the mosquito population.  Numerous studies show unexpected insertions and deletions which can translate into possible toxins, allergens, carcinogens, and other changes.  Science can not predict the real-life consequences on global pattens of gene function.

So, why question the use of Wolbachia as a bio-control?

For Lyme/MSIDS patients, 3 words: worms and inflammation.

Dogs treated for heart worm (D. immitis) have trouble due to the heart worm medication causing Wolbachia to be released into the blood and tissues causing severe Inflammation in pulmonary artery endothelium which may form thrombi and interstitial inflammation. Wolbachia also activates pro inflammatory cytokines. Pets treated with tetracycline a month prior to heart worm treatment will kill some D. immitis as well as suppress worm production. When given after heart worm medication, it may decrease the inflammation from Wolbachia kill off.

The words worms and inflammation should cause every Lyme/MSIDS patient to pause. Many of us are put on expensive anthelmintics like albendazole, ivermectin, Pin X, and praziquantel to get rid of worms and are told to avoid anything causing inflammation due to the fact we have enough of it already. We go on special anti-inflammatory diets and take systemic enzymes and herbs to try and lower inflammation.

Seems to me, many MSIDS/LYME patients when treated with anthelmintics, will have Wolbachia released into their blood and tissues causing wide spread inflammation, similarly to dogs.

And that’s not all.

According to a study by Penn State, mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia are more likely to become infected with West Nile – which will then be transmitted to humans.“This is the first study to demonstrate that Wolbachia can enhance a human pathogen in a mosquito, one researcher said. “The results suggest that caution should be used when releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into nature to control vector-borne diseases of humans.” “Multiple studies suggest that Wolbachia may enhance some Plasmodium parasites in mosquitoes, thus increasing the frequency of malaria transmission to rodents and birds,” he said.  The study states that caution should be used when releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into nature.

So besides very probable wide spread inflammation, and that other diseases may become more prevalent due to Wolbachia laced mosquitoes, studies show Wolbachia enhances Malaria in mosquitos. Lyme/MSIDS patients are often co-infected with Babesia, a malarial-like parasite that requires similar treatment and has been found to make Lyme (borrelia) much worse. It is my contention that the reason many are not getting well is they are not being treated for the numerous co-infections.  Some Lyme/MSIDS patients have Malaria and Lyme.

Regardless of what the CDC states, all the doxycycline in the world is not going to cure this complicated and complex illness.

Lastly, with Brazil’s recent explosion of microcephaly, the introduction of yet another man-made intervention (Wolbachia laced mosquitos) should be considered in evaluating potential causes and cofactors. And while the CDC is bound and determined to blame the benign virus, Zika, there are numerous other factors that few are considering – as well as the synergistic effect of all the variables combined. Microcephaly could very well be a perfect storm of events.

I hate bugs as much as the next person, but careful long-term studies of Wolbachia are required here.  “Despite the intimate association of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis, the population structure, evolutionary history, and historical biogeography of the pathogen are all contrary to its arthropod vector.

In short, borrelia (as well as numerous pathogens associated with Lyme/MSIDS), is a smart survivor.

While borrelia have been around forever with 300 strains and counting worldwide, epidemics, such as what happened with Lyme Disease in Connecticut are not caused by genetics but by environmental toxins – in this case, bacteria, viruses, funguses, and stuff not even named yet.

Circling back to Wolbachia.

Hopefully it is evident that many man-made interventions have been introduced into the environment causing important health ramifications: Wolbachia laced mosquitoes and eggs, GMO mosquitoes including CRISPR, and in the case of Zika in Brazil, whole-cell pertussis vaccinations (DTap) for pregnant women up to 20 days prior to expected date of birth, a pyriproxyfen based pesticide applied by the State in Brazil on drinking water, as well as aerial sprays of the insect growth regulators Altosid and VectoBac (Aquabac, Teknar, and LarvX, along with 25 other Bti products registered for use in the U.S.) in New York (Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and The Bronx) to combat Zika. “We feel it’s critical that the scientific community consider the potential hazards of all off-target mutations caused by CRISPR, including single nucleotide mutations and mutations in non-coding regions of the genome … Researchers who aren’t using whole genome sequencing to find off-target effects may be missing potentially important mutations. Even a single nucleotide change can have a huge impact.”

All of this is big, BIG business.

Is the introduction of Wolbachia another puzzle piece in the perfect storm of events causing or exacerbating human health issues?

The jury’s still out, but it’s not looking good – particularly for the chronically ill.