Archive for the ‘Babesia’ Category

Five Genera of Pathogens Found in Ticks On Russian Dogs

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/30428925/

Dog survey in Russian veterinary hospitals: tick identification and molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens.

Livanova NN, et al. Parasit Vectors. 2018.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Species of Canidae in Russia can be infested with up to 24 different tick species; however, the frequency of different tick species infesting domestic dogs across Russia is not known. In addition, tick-borne disease risks for domestic dogs in Russia are not well quantified. The goal of this study was to conduct a nationwide survey of ticks collected from infested dogs admitted to veterinary clinics in Russian cities and to identify pathogens found in these ticks.

METHODS: Ticks feeding on dogs admitted to 32 veterinary clinics in 27 major cities across Russia were preserved in ethanol and submitted to a central facility for examination. After identification, each tick was evaluated for infection with known tick-borne pathogens using PCR.

RESULTS: There were 990 individual ticks collected from 636 dogs. All collected ticks belonged to the Ixodidae (hard ticks) and represented 11 species of four genera, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Rhipicephalus and Haemaphysalis. Four most common tick species were D. reticulatus, followed by I. persulcatus, I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. Ixodes persulcatus ticks were found to be infected with 10 different pathogens, and ticks of this species were more frequently infected than either D. reticulatus or I. ricinus. Ixodes persulcatus females were also more frequently co-infected with two or more pathogens than any other tick.

Pathogenic species of five genera were detected in ticks:

  • Anaplasma centrale, A. phagocytophilum & A. marginale (Anaplasma)
  • Babesia canis, B. microti, B. venatorum, B. divergens, B. crassa & B. vogeli (Babesia)
  • Borrelia miyamotoi, B. afzelii and B. garinii (Borrelia)
  • Ehrlichia muris, E. canis and E. ruminantu (Ehrlichia)
  • Theileria cervi (Theileria – a parasitic protozoan)
Anaplasma marginale, E. canis, B. crassa, B. vogeli and T. cervi were detected in I. persulcatus, and Babesia canis in D. marginatum, for the first time in Russia.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple ticks from four genera and 11 species of the family Ixodidae were collected from domestic dogs across Russia. These ticks commonly carry pathogens and act as disease vectors. Ixodes persulcatus ticks present the greatest risk for transmission of multiple arthropod-borne pathogens.

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**Comment**

It’s getting harder and harder for The Cabal to hide the polymicrobial nature of Lyme/MSIDS.  The data just keeps pouring in:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/30/study-shows-lyme-msids-patients-infected-with-many-pathogens-and-explains-why-we-are-so-sick/

For the first time, Garg et al. show a 85% probability for multiple infections including not only tick-borne pathogens but also opportunistic microbes such as EBV and other viruses.

I’m thankful they included Bartonella as that one is often omitted but definitely a player. I’m also thankful for the mention of viruses as they too are in the mix. The mention of the persister form must be recognized as well as many out there deny its existence.

Key Quote: “Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes.”

But there is another important point.

According to this review, 83% of all commercial tests focus only on Lyme (borrelia), despite the fact we are infected with more than one microbe.

And those tests miss half of all cases:  

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/12/lyme-testing-problems-solutions/  ...with the C6 Elisa its around 50% sensitive (in the context of the two tiered testing system on its own it has a sensitivity of 75%) because it misses about half of true positive cases….The Western Blot also has many problems with sensitivity at all stages but especially within the first month and again later on the more chronic it becomes.If you take the terrible sensitivity of both tests in the two tiered system you will start to see how testing positive consecutively on both is very unlikely, mathematically improbable and biologically almost impossible unless you are in the HLA autoimmune group which is comparatively rare.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/01/16/2-tier-lyme-testing-missed-85-7-of-patients-milford-hospital/  Dr. Sin Lee identifying faulty serology tests for Lyme disease in 85.7% of the walk-in patients in the Emergency Room of Milford Hospital.

Please note that all the studies showing the polymicrobial nature of tick borne illness  are foreign.

The Cabal has everyone in the U.S. in a head-lock.

Will the real researchers please stand up and be counted?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HHS Working Group Calls for Tick-Borne Disease Strategic Plan

https://ohsonline.com/articles/2018/11/15/hhs-working-group-calls-for-strategic-plan.aspx?m=1

HHS Working Group Calls for Tick-Borne Disease Strategic Plan

The Tick-Borne Disease Working Group, a federal advisory committee established by Congress in the 21st Century Cures Act, issued its first report Nov. 14.

The Tick-Borne Disease Working Group, an HHS advisory committee established by Congress in the 21st Century Cures Act, issued its first report Nov. 14. The document recommends that the National Institutes of Health create an NIH tick-borne disease strategic plan to address these diseases, including all stages of Lyme disease; that funding be dedicated within CDC to study babesiosis incidence; that the Department of Defense begin a study of tick-borne disease incidence among active-duty service members and their dependents; and that the Veterans Administration begin a study of tick-borne disease incidence and prevalence among veterans and eligible family members.

The DoD recommendation says the department should compile data on the impact of tick-borne diseases on military readiness and should create education and preparedness programs that address the unique risks service members face during training and on deployment and by their families.

The working group consists of 14 people appointed by the HHS secretary in December 2017. They include scientists, physicians, patients, patient advocates, and representatives of HHS, DoD, and the Office of Management and Budget.

Their report calls Lyme disease a growing public health threat, with about 300,000 new cases reported in the United States every year. A map of U.S. states in the report indicates the hardest-hit states, those reporting more than 12,856 cases each in 2004-2016, include Minnesota, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Maine.

Most Lyme disease patients who are diagnosed and treated early can fully recover, but 10-20 percent of patients suffer from persistent symptoms, which for some are chronic and disabling. The report says while studies indicate Lyme disease costs approximately $1.3 billion annually in direct medical costs in the United States,

“a comprehensive understanding of the full economic and societal cost remains unknown. It is likely orders of magnitude higher and potentially a $50- to $100-billion-dollar problem for the United States, although more research is needed.”

On Nov. 14, CDC reported that new data show tick-borne diseases are again on the rise, and that in 2017, state and local health departments reported a record number of cases of tick-borne disease to CDC. Cases of Lyme disease, anaplasmosis/ehrlichiosis, spotted fever rickettsiosis (including Rocky Mountain spotted fever), babesiosis, tularemia, and Powassan virus disease all increased—from 48,610 cases in 2016 to 59,349 cases in 2017. However, the 2017 data capture only a fraction of the number of people with tick-borne illnesses, according to CDC. According to the agency, between 2004 and 2016, the number of reported cases of tick-borne disease doubled and researchers discovered seven new tick-borne pathogens that infect people. The new data are from the Notifiable Disease Surveillance System.

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**Comment**

Bartonella is never mentioned yet it is a HUGE player in this madness.  There is little to no research showing how concurrent infection is playing into this.  Here’s a few recent studies:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/11/17/investigating-disease-severity-in-an-animal-model-of-concurrent-babesiosis-lyme-disease/  THESE FINDINGS SUGGEST THAT B. BURGDORFERI COINFECTION ATTENUATES PARASITE GROWTH WHILE B. MICROTI PRESENCE EXACERBATES LYME DISEASE-LIKE SYMPTOMS IN MICE.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/30/study-shows-lyme-msids-patients-infected-with-many-pathogens-and-explains-why-we-are-so-sick/  For the first time, Garg et al. show a 85% probability for multiple infections including not only tick-borne pathogens but also opportunistic microbes such as EBV and other viruses.
I’m thankful they included Bartonella as that one is often omitted but definitely a player. I’m also thankful for the mention of viruses as they too are in the mix. The mention of the persister form must be recognized as well as many out there deny its existence.

Key Quote:

“Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes.”

But there is another important point.

According to this review, 83% of all commercial tests focus only on Lyme (borrelia), despite the fact we are infected with more than one microbe. The review also states it takes 11 different visits to 11 different doctors, utilizing 11 different tests to be properly diagnosed. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181101/Tick-borne-disease-is-multiple-microbial-in-nature.aspx?

We have many problems, Houston, and much work is being left undone.

 

 

 

Investigating Disease Severity in an Animal Model of Concurrent Babesiosis & Lyme Disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30367867

2018 Oct 24. pii: S0020-7519(18)30240-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.06.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Investigating disease severity in an animal model of concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease.

Abstract

The incidence of babesiosis, Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases has increased steadily in Europe and North America during the last five decades. Babesia microti is transmitted by species of Ixodes, the same ticks that transmit the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. B. microti can also be transmitted through transfusion of blood products and is the most common transfusion-transmitted infection in the U.S.A. Ixodes ticks are commonly infected with both B. microti and B. burgdorferi, and are competent vectors for transmitting them together into hosts. Few studies have examined the effects of coinfections on humans and they had somewhat contradictory results. One study linked coinfection with B. microti to a greater number of symptoms of overall disease in patients, while another report indicated that B. burgdorferi infection either did not affect babesiosis symptoms or decreased its severity. Mouse models of infection that manifest pathological effects similar to those observed in human babesiosis and Lyme disease offer a unique opportunity to thoroughly investigate the effects of coinfection on the host. Lyme disease has been studied using the susceptible C3H mouse infection model, which can also be used to examine B. microti infection to understand pathological mechanisms of human diseases, both during a single infection and during coinfections. We observed that high B. microti parasitaemia leads to low haemoglobin levels in infected mice, reflecting the anaemia observed in human babesiosis. Similar to humans, B. microti coinfection appears to enhance the severity of Lyme disease-like symptoms in mice. Coinfected mice have lower peak B. microti parasitaemia compared to mice infected with B. microti alone, which may reflect attenuation of babesiosis symptoms reported in some human coinfections.

These findings suggest that B. burgdorferi coinfection attenuates parasite growth while B. microti presence exacerbates Lyme disease-like symptoms in mice.

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**Comment**

Now fathom for a moment adding Bartonella, Mycoplasma, and a few viruses into this lovely soup and it becomes evident why patients are so ill.

This is not the first time a published study has shown attenuated parasite growth with concurrent infection.

http://www.wildcondor.com/dr-horowitz-on-babesiosis.html Dr. Krause published in the New England Journal of Medicine that when a patient has Lyme and Babesia, Lyme is found three-times more frequently in the blood, proving Babesia suppresses the immune system. https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/06/28/concurrent-babesiosis-and-lyme-in-patient/

I honestly can’t believe it’s taken this long for research to catch up with what all of us out here in Lyme-land have known for over 40 years.

Thirty Percent Finnish Ticks Carry at Least One Pathogen & Candidas Rickettsia Tarasevichiae Found for the First Time

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30355331

Parasit Vectors. 2018 Oct 24;11(1):556. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3131-y.

Tick-borne pathogens in Finland: comparison of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in sympatric and parapatric areas.

Laaksonen M1, Klemola T2, Feuth E3, Sormunen JJ2, Puisto A2, Mäkelä S2, Penttinen R4, Ruohomäki K2, Hänninen J4, Sääksjärvi IE4, Vuorinen I4, Sprong H5, Hytönen J3, Vesterinen EJ4,6.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Almost 3500 tick samples, originally collected via a nationwide citizen science campaign in 2015, were screened to reveal the prevalence and distribution of a wide spectrum of established and putative tick-borne pathogens vectored by Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus in Finland. The unique geographical distribution of these two tick species in Finland allowed us to compare pathogen occurrence between an I. ricinus-dominated area (southern Finland), an I. persulcatus-dominated area (northern Finland), and a sympatric area (central Finland).
RESULTS:
Of the analysed ticks, almost 30% carried at least one pathogen and 2% carried more than one pathogen. A higher overall prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was observed in I. ricinus than in I. persulcatus: 30.0% (604/2014) versus 24.0% (348/1451), respectively. In addition, I. ricinus were more frequently co-infected than I. persulcatus: 2.4% (49/2014) versus 0.8% (12/1451), respectively. Causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, i.e. bacterial genospecies in Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) group, were the most prevalent pathogens (overall 17%). “Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae” was found for the first time in I. ricinus ticks and in Finnish ticks in general. Moreover, Babesia divergens, B. venatorum and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were reported for the first time from the Finnish mainland.
CONCLUSIONS:
The present study provides valuable information on the prevalence and geographical distribution of various tick-borne pathogens in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks in Finland. Moreover, this comprehensive subset of ticks revealed the presence of rare and potentially dangerous pathogens. The highest prevalence of infected ticks was in the I. ricinus-dominated area in southern Finland, while the prevalence was essentially equal in sympatric and I. persulcatus-dominated areas. However, the highest infection rates for both species were in areas of their dominance, either in south or north Finland.

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**Comment**

Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae:

Causes human disease and is a new species of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group.  https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1303004

Symptoms:

  • hospitalized with fever
  • asthenia (weakness)
  • anorexia
  • nausea
  • headache
  • eschar (dead tissue that falls off healthy skin)
  • lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes)
  • meningitis-like manifestations: vomiting, neck stiffness, and Kernig’s sign.
  • Coma, renal dysfunction, respiratory acidosis then developed, and the patient died 4 days after admission to the hospital.
  • Laboratory tests showed a slight increase in the leukocyte count
  • elevated level of aspartate aminotransferase
  • proteinuria
  • increase in the level of cerebrospinal fluid protein and leukocyte count
  • Since none of the patients presented with rash, which is considered to be a typical sign of infections with species of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group their conditions were initially misdiagnosed, and they received penicillin G, leading to a prolonged hospitalization for approximately 20 days.
Babesia venatorum

Causes human disease: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/5/pdfs/12-1034.pdf  B. venatorum was first known as Babesia sp. EU1 and was named after the Latin word for hunter because the first reported infected patients were 2 occupational hunters from Austria and Italy.

Symptoms:

  • irregular fever (38.6°C–41.0°C) for 12 days
  • anemi
  • malaise
  • myalgia
  • fatigue
  • progressive weakness
  • shortness of breath
Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis:

Causes human disease:  https://jcm.asm.org/content/48/5/1956.full, and is an uncultured emerging bacterium that is in the family of Anaplasmosis. It’s close relatives Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum selectively infect the professional phagocytes monocytes/macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes, which suggests that “Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis” may display tropism for leukocytes also.  Until now, no one has been able to grow “Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis”, which explains why  blood cultures remain negative. 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2052297518300027

Symptoms:

  • immunosuppressive conditions
  • haematologic neoplasia
  • fever
  • myalgia (muscle pain)
  • arthralgia (joint pain)
  • Vascular events such as deep vein thrombosis, thromboembolic events, aneurysm and transitory ischemic accidents
  • skin manifestations, such as erythema nodosum or erysipelas-like rashes
  • elevated C-reactive protein levels
  • leukocytosis (neutrophilia) 
  • anemia

Ixodes ricinus tick, a.k.a castor bean tick, or sheep tick info:  http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/ixodes_ricinus.pdf  I. ricinus can also transmit a number of pathogens including Babesia divergens (babesiosis), louping ill virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Anaplasma phagocytophila (tick-borne fever of ruminants, human granulocytic anaplasmosis).  Add to this growing list “Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae,” a new species of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group.

Ioxodes persulcatus tick, a.k.a. Taiga tick info:  http://www.bristoluniversitytickid.uk/page/Ixodes+persulcatus/25/#.W-mzZREeteI  Transmits Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis and Lyme disease.

Babesia divergens, B. venatorum and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were reported for the first time from the Finnish mainland.

This article demonstrates why many in “Lyme land” remain ill.

You can’t diagnose what you can’t see, grow, and test for.

Authorities have absolutely no idea what is infecting everyone, and Lyme is only the tip of the ice-berg.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gestational Lyme & Other Tick-borne Diseases – Dr. Jones

Dr. Charles Ray Jones – Rock Star

FB_IMG_1541741969447From left, Sherry Sievewright, Wisconsin Lyme Network, Dr. Charles Ray Jones, Alicia Cashman, Madison Lyme Support Group

Dr. Charles Ray Jones specializes in treating Lyme/MSIDS patients.  He has treated over 12,000 children with Lyme/MSIDS, and spoke recently at the Chicago ILADS convention.

Here is the executive summary of his presentation:

  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) can be transmitted via ticks, gestationally, breast milk, and semen (yes, that means sexually).  While there isn’t a large NIH double-blind study, clinically LLMD’s are finding infected couples.  For more data on animals:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/02/24/pcos-lyme-my-story/  (Scroll down to info on sexual transmission)

 

  • Gustafason & Burgess demonstrated gestational Bb infection in dogs.  Of the inoculated bitches, 80% became infected who then birthed mostly infected pups.1

 

  • A retrospective study showed 480 children with gestational Lyme/MSIDS. Diagnosis was based on clinical physical and history. 3

 

  • About 10% of Dr. Jones’ patients are infected gestationally.

 

  • Two cases of in vitro fertilization caused embryonic infection.

 

  • Mothers not treated resulted in 50% gestational transmission compared to mothers treated with 1 antibiotic resulting in a 25% transmission.  70% of infected mothers reported a difficult pregnancy.  ALL children improved with appropriate antibiotic treatment.  

 

  • Antibiotic treatment for Pregnant mothers:
  1. Amoxil 1000mg every 8 hours
  2. Ceftin 500 mg every 12 hours
  3. Omnicef 300 mg-600mg twice daily
  4. Mepron 750mg twice daily
  5. Zithromax 500mg twice daily
  • Other options for those who can not tolerate oral antibiotics:
  1. Bicillin 1.2 million units IM 1-3 times weekly
  2. Ceftiaxone 2 gms IV daily
  3. Cefotaxime 6 gms daily either continuous infusions or 2gms IV every 8 hours
  • Top 6 gestational Lyme symptoms:
  1. 90% low muscle tone (delays in motor skills, excess flexibility, drooling)
  2. 80% irritability (impulsive, risky behavior, interrupts, anger/mood swings)
  3. 72% fatigue
  4. 69% pain
  5. 60% low grade fevers with pale skin & dark circles under eyes
  6. 50% painful joints with stiffness & decreased range of motion
  • Coinfection rate found in study.3
  1. 30% Bartonella
  2. 20% Babesia
  3. 7% Strep
  4. 6% Ehrlichiosis
  5. 5% Leptospirosis
  • Male Child Case Study Findings.  Daily fevers between 101-102 degrees with severe joint pain, could not process stimuli, and poor muscle control.  Mother was infected with Bb during pregnancy and child had numerous tick bites.  Was initially diagnosed with a virus and was told he’d “grow out of it.”  Grandparents in desperation hired a priest to exorcise him.  Within 3 months of a clinical diagnosis of Bb (Western Blot positive) and multiple TBI’s (Babesia, Bartonella, Mycoplasma) and appropriate antibiotic treatment, he was doing well in school & athletics, and improved on all perimeters.  Treatment is ongoing.

 

  • Gestational treatment options:
  1. Combination of penicillin, cephalosporins, macrocodes, atovaquone (tetracycline, doxycyline & minocycline not usually used in those under 8) 

 

  • A 1995 study by Gardner showed 15% abnormal babies in treated mothers vs 67% of abnormal babies in mothers not treated.4

 

  • A 1989 study by MacDonald showed the following Lyme infection outcomes during pregnancy.5
  1. prematurity
  2. fluid in the brain
  3. blindness
  4. Sudden infant death syndrome
  5. blood infection
  6. Fetal death
  7. cardiovascular system anomalies
  8. growth retardation
  9. respiratory distress
  10. excess of bilirubin in the blood

References:

  1. Gustafson, J.M., E.C Burgess, et al.(1993). “Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. “Am J Vet Res 54(6): 882-890
  2.  Xiao, J., et al. 2011. “How Different Strains of Parasite Infection Affect Behavior Differently”. Infection and Immunity. March 2011 . Quoted in science daily, March 22, 2011.
  3.  Jones, Charles Ray, Smith, Harold, Gibb, Edina and Johnson, Lorraine JD, MBA, “Gestational Lyme Disease Case Studies of 102 Live Births, Lyme Times, 2005”. 
  4. Gardner, T. (1995). Lyme disease. Infectious disease of the fetus and newborn infant. J. S Remington and J.O Klein. Philadelphia, Saunders. Chapter 11:447- 528. 
  5. MacDonald, A.B. (1989) “Gestational Lyme Borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. “Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 15(4): 657-677. 
  6. Goldenberg, R.L and C. Thompson (2003) “The infectious origin of stillbirth”. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(#): 861-873.

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More on Pregnancy with Lyme/MSIDS:

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/06/19/33-years-of-documentation-of-maternal-child-transmission-of-lyme-disease-and-congenital-lyme-borreliosis-a-review/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/05/24/new-berlin-mom-given-life-altering-lyme-disease-diagnoses-after-pregnancy/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/15/pregnancy-in-lyme-dr-ann-corson/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/24/congenital-transmission-of-lyme-myth-or-reality/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/02/26/transplacental-transmission-fetal-damage-with-lyme-disease/  (Great videos here)

https://www.lymedisease.org/lyme-basics/lyme-disease/children/  Great read on Lyme/MSIDS in children.

https://www.lymedisease.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Image15-Jones-ABT.pdf  “Rationale for Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy in Treating Lyme Disease.”  By Charles Ray Jones, M.D.

Zoonotic Implications of Changing Tick Populations

https://www.americanveterinarian.com/news/zoonotic-implications-of-changing-tick-populations

October 25, 2018

Zoonotic Implications of Changing Tick Populations

As environmental changes allow tick populations to spread, the zoonotic risk of tickborne diseases increases.

By Kate Boatright, VMD

Between 1940 and 2004, the majority of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide were zoonotic. Of these, nearly one-quarter were arthropod vector-borne diseases, with ticks being the most common vector. In the United States, tickborne diseases account for about 95% of vector-borne diseases.

A recent review article in Veterinary Sciences examined many factors of tick biology, including the changing geographic distribution of tick populations and the impact of this change on associated tickborne diseases.

Ixodes Ticks and Associated Pathogens

Ixodid ticks exist worldwide. Warmer temperatures and changing humidity have allowed for northern expansion in North America, Europe, and Russia. Many significant zoonotic pathogens are carried by these ticks:

  • Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is now seen throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe.
  • New Borrelia species identified worldwide have been implicated as additional causative agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia mayonii) and a relapsing fever (Borrelia miyamotoi).
  • Babesiosis, caused by over 100 different Babesia species, is especially significant for cattle and humans. Human babesiosis cases are expected to be seen in Canada due to the increased number of Ixodes scapularis ticks, and new Babesia species are now seen in regions not previously known to have babesiosis.
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), equine anaplasmosis, and febrile diseases in ruminants, cats, and dogs. Reports of HGA in the United States increased by a factor of 12 between 2001 and 2011.
  • Co-infections are common in individuals exhibiting disease from an Ixodes tick vector. Ten percent of individuals infected with Anaplasma also had antibodies to B burgdorferi or Babesia microti.
Ambylomma Ticks and Ehrlichia

In the United States, Amblyomma americanum ticks have expanded both north and west as white-tailed deer populations have increased in these regions. All life stages of this tick species can feed on humans and deer, increasing the potential for transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, the most common causes of human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

In the rest of the world, other Amblyomma ticks serve as vectors for multiple species of Ehrlichia, including new genetic variants classified as Candidatus Neoehrlichia species in Europe and Asia. For veterinarians, heartwater disease, caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium, is an increasingly important reportable disease of ruminants in Africa and the Caribbean.

Viral Vector-Borne Diseases

Vector-borne viruses are another emerging global zoonotic threat. Many tick species carry viruses of increasing public health importance:

  • Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in China and Amblyomma americanum in the United States are known vectors of closely related viruses causing severe fever and thrombocytopenia. In the United States, this virus is known as heartland virus.
  • Bourbon virus was recently discovered in the United States.
  • Powassan virus is reemerging in North America.
  • Tickborne encephalitis viruses are broadening in range throughout Europe as reforestation and movement of dogs allows the range of their vector, Dermacentor reticulatus, to expand into Germany, the Netherlands, and Poland.
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is spreading to multiple countries in the Mediterranean, likely due to the transportation of its tick vector, Hyalomma marginatum, by birds from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe to Central Europe.
Take-Home Message

Practitioners in both veterinary and human medicine must remain aware of the changing geography of ticks and associated vector-borne diseases. The discovery of the Asian tick H longicornis in New Jersey and Virginia should be an important reminder of the fact that

“ticks and tickborne pathogens do not recognize international boundaries.”

Thus, “a robust international disease monitoring network” is needed to protect both human and animal health from both known and emerging tick-borne diseases.
Dr. Boatright, a 2013 graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, is an associate veterinarian in western Pennsylvania. She is actively involved in her state and local veterinary medical associations and is a former national officer of the Veterinary Business Management Association.

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**Comment**

Independent Canadian tick researcher states it’s migrating birds and photoperiod allowing tick populations to spread, not climate issues:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/13/study-shows-lyme-not-propelled-by-climate-change/

This groundbreaking study:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/30/study-shows-lyme-msids-patients-infected-with-many-pathogens-and-explains-why-we-are-so-sick/ shows a 85% probability for multiple infections in patients suffering from tick borne disease, including not only tick-borne pathogens but also opportunistic microbes such as EBV and other viruses.

Key Quote:

“Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes.”

Eighty three percent of all commercial tests focus only on Lyme (borrelia), despite the fact we are infected with more than one microbe. It takes 11 different visits to 11 different doctors, utilizing 11 different tests to be properly diagnosed. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181101/Tick-borne-disease-is-multiple-microbial-in-nature.aspx?

Time for things to change.

 

 

Study Shows Lyme/MSIDS Patients Infected With Many Pathogens and Explains Why We Are So Sick

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-34393-9?fbclid=IwAR3k-zPy2rJu8OuFl3HHqJ0twLPJvQrxiIUALUs0T-BuuJ50_1VQVwcflIQ (Please see comment at end of article)

Evaluating polymicrobial immune responses in patients suffering from tick-borne diseases

Kunal Garg, Leena Meriläinen, Ole Franz, Heidi Pirttinen, Marco Quevedo-Diaz, Stephen Croucher & Leona Gilbert
Scientific Reportsvolume 8, Article number: 15932 (2018)   https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34393-9

Abstract
There is insufficient evidence to support screening of various tick-borne diseases (TBD) related microbes alongside Borrelia in patients suffering from TBD. To evaluate the involvement of multiple microbial immune responses in patients experiencing TBD we utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Four hundred and thirty-two human serum samples organized into seven categories followed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention two-tier Lyme disease (LD) diagnosis guidelines and Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. All patient categories were tested for their immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) responses against 20 microbes associated with TBD. Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes. We have established a causal association between TBD patients and TBD associated co-infections and essential opportunistic microbes following Bradford Hill’s criteria. This study indicated an 85% probability that a randomly selected TBD patient will respond to Borrelia and other related TBD microbes rather than to Borrelia alone.

A paradigm shift is required in current healthcare policies to diagnose TBD so that patients can get tested and treated even for opportunistic infections.
Please see link for full article.  Snippets below:

Introduction
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have become a global public health challenge and will affect over 35% of the global population by 20501. The most common tick-borne bacteria are from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group. However, ticks can also transmit co-infections like Babesia spp.2, Bartonella spp.3, Brucella spp.4,5,6,7,8, Ehrlichia spp.9, Rickettsia spp.10,11, and tick-borne encephalitis virus12,13,14. In Europe and North America, 4–60% of patients with Lyme disease (LD) were co-infected with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Rickettsia11,15,16. Evidence from mouse and human studies indicate that pathogenesis by various tick-borne associated microbes15,16,17 may cause immune dysfunction and alter, enhance the severity, or suppress the course of infection due to the increased microbial burden18,19,20,21,22. As a consequence of extensive exposure to tick-borne infections15,16,17, patients may develop a weakened immune system22,23, and present evidence of opportunistic infections such as Chlamydia spp.24,25,26,27, Coxsackievirus28, Cytomegalovirus29, Epstein-Barr virus27,29, Human parvovirus B1924, and Mycoplasma spp.30,31. In addition to tick-borne co-infections and non-tick-borne opportunistic infections, pleomorphic Borrelia persistent forms may induce distinct immune responses in patients by having different antigenic properties compared to typical spirochetes32,33,34,35. Nonetheless, current LD diagnostic tools do not include Borrelia persistent forms, tick-borne co-infections, and non-tick-borne opportunistic infections.

The two-tier guidelines36,37,38 for diagnosing LD by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have been challenged due to the omission of co-infections and non-tick-borne opportunistic infections crucial for comprehensive diagnosis and treatment39,40. Emerging diagnostic solutions have demonstrated the usefulness of multiplex assays to test for LD and tick-borne co-infections41,42. However, these new technologies do not address seroprevalence of non-tick-borne opportunistic infections in patients suffering from TBD and they are limited to certain co-infections41,42. Non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes can manifest an array of symptoms24,29 concerning the heart, kidney, musculoskeletal, and the central nervous system as seen in patients with Lyme related carditis43, nephritis44, arthritis45, and neuropathy46, respectively. Therefore, Chlamydia spp., Coxsackievirus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human parvovirus B19, Mycoplasma spp., and other non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes play an important role in the differential diagnosis of LD24,29. As the current knowledge regarding non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes is limited to their use in differential diagnosis of LD, it is unclear if LD patients can present both tick-borne co-infections and non-tick-borne opportunistic infections simultaneously.

For the first time, we evaluate the involvement of Borrelia spirochetes, Borrelia persistent forms, tick-borne co-infections, and non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes together in patients suffering from different stages of TBD. To highlight the need for multiplex TBD assays in clinical laboratories, we utilized the Bradford Hill’s causal inference criteria47 to elucidate the likelihood and plausibility of TBD patients responding to multiple microbes rather than one microbe. The goal of this study is to advocate screening for various TBD microbes including non-tick-borne opportunistic microbes to decrease the rate of misdiagnosed or undiagnosed48 cases thereby increasing the health-related quality of life for the patients39, and ultimately influencing new treatment protocol for TBDs.

Results
Positive IgM and IgG responses by CDC defined acute, CDC late, CDC negative, PTLDS immunocompromised, and unspecific patients to 20 microbes associated with TBD (Fig. 1) were utilized to evaluate polymicrobial infections (Figs 2–4). Patient categories included CDC acute (n = 43), CDC late (n = 43), CDC negative (n = 46), PTLDS (n = 31), immunocompromised (n = 61), unspecific (n = 31), and healthy (n = 177).

Polymicrobial infections are present at all stages of tick-borne diseases.

Microbes include Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto persistent form, Borrelia afzelii persistent form, Borrelia garinii persistent form, Babesia microti, Bartonella henselae, Brucella abortus, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Rickettsia akari, Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma fermentans, and Human parvovirus B19 (HB19V).

In Fig. 2A, 51% and 65% of patients had IgM and IgG responses to more than one microbe, whereas 9% and 16% of patients had IgM and IgG responses to only one microbe, respectively. Immune responses to Borrelia persistent forms (all three species) for IgM and IgG were 5–10% higher compared to Borrelia spirochetes in all three species (Fig. 2B). Interestingly, the probability that a randomly selected patient will respond to Borrelia persistent forms rather than the Borrelia spirochetes (Fig. S2) is 80% (d = 1.2) for IgM and 68% for IgG (d = 0.7). Figure 2A and B indicated that IgM and IgG responses by patients from different stages of TBDs are not limited to only Borrelia spirochetes.

In Fig. 3 sub-inlets, more than 50% of the patients reacted to only the individual Borrelia strains suggesting that Borrelia antigens are not cross-reactive. If patients were cross-reacting among antigens, a larger percentage of the patients would be seen with the combination of all three species (Fig. S2). These results provide evidence to suggest that the inclusion of different Borrelia species and their morphologies in current LD diagnostic tools will improve its efficiency.

Discussions
The study outcome indicated that polymicrobial infections existed at all stages of TBD with IgM and IgG responses to several microbes (Fig. 2). Results presented in this study propose that infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not obey the one microbe one disease Germ Theory. Based on these results and substantial literature11,15,16,17,27,49,50,51 on polymicrobial infections in TBD patients, we examined the probability of a causal relationship between TBD patients and polymicrobial infections following Hill’s nine criteria47.

An average effect size of d = 1.5 for IgM and IgG (Fig. 4A) responses is considered very large52. According to common language effect size statistics53, d = 1.5 indicates 85% probability that a randomly selected patient will respond to Borrelia and other TBD microbes rather than to only Borrelia. Reports from countries such as Australia27, Germany49, Netherlands11, Sweden50, the United Kingdom51, the USA15,16, and others indicate that 4% to 60% of patients suffer from LD and other microbes such as Babesia microti and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). However, previous findings11,15,16,27,49,50,51 are limited to co-infections (i.e., Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, or Rickettsia species) in patients experiencing a particular stage of LD (such as Erythema migrans). In contrast, a broader spectrum of persistent, co-infections, and opportunistic infections associated with diverse stages of TBD patients have been demonstrated in this study (Fig. 2). From a clinical standpoint, the likelihood for IgM and IgG immune responses by TBD patients to the Borrelia spirochetes versus the Borrelia persistent forms, and responses to just Borrelia versus Borrelia with many other TBD microbes has been quantified for the first time (Fig. S2).

Borrelia pathogenesis could predispose individuals to polymicrobial infections because it can suppress, subvert, or modulate the host’s immune system18,19,20,21,22 to create a niche for colonization by other microbes54. Evidence in animals55 and humans11,15,16,27,49,50,51 frequently indicate co-existence of Borrelia with other TBD associated infections. Interestingly, IgM and IgG immune levels by patients to multiple forms of Borrelia resulted in immune responses to 14 other TBD microbes (Fig. 4B). In contrast, patient responses to either form of Borrelia (spirochetes or persistent forms) resulted in reactions to an average of 8 other TBD microbes (Fig. 4B). Reaction to two forms of Borrelia reflected an increase in disease severity indicating biological gradient for causation as required by Hill’s criteria47.

Multiple microbial infections in TBD patients seem plausible because ticks can carry more than eight different microbes depending on tick species and geography56,57. Moreover, Qiu and colleagues reported the presence of at least 18 bacterial genera shared among three different tick species and up to 127 bacterial genera in Ixodes persulcatus58. Interestingly, research indicates Chlamydia-like organism in Ixodes ricinus ticks and human skin59 that may explain immune responses to Chlamydia spp., seen in this study (Fig. 2). Additionally, prevalence of TBD associated co-infections such as B. abortus, E. chaffeensis, and opportunistic microbes such as C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and M. pneumoniae have been recorded in the general population of Europe and the USA (Table S2). However, true incidence of these microbes is likely to be higher considering underreporting due to asymptomatic infections and differences in diagnostic practices and surveillance systems across Europe and in the USA. More importantly, clinical evidence for multiple microbes has been reported in humans11,15,16,27,49,50,51, and livestock55 to mention the least. Our findings regarding the presence of polymicrobial infections at all stages of TBD further supports the causal relationship between TBD patients and polymicrobial infections (Fig. 2). Various microbial infections in TBD patients have been linked to the reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased disease severity39.

An association between multiple infections and TBD patients relates well to other diseases such as periodontal, and respiratory tract diseases. Oral cavities may contain viruses and 500 different bacterial species60. Our findings demonstrate that TBD patients may suffer from multiple bacterial and viral infections (Fig. 4). In respiratory tract diseases, influenza virus can stimulate immunosuppression and predispose patients to bacterial infections causing an increase in disease severity61. Likewise, Borrelia can induce immunosuppression that may predispose patients to other microbial infections causing an increase in disease severity.

Traditionally, positive IgM immune reaction implies an acute infection, and IgG response portrays a dissemination, persistent or memory immunity due to past infections. Depending on when TBD patients seek medical advice, the level of anti-Borrelia antibodies can greatly vary as an Erythema migrans (EM) develops and may present with IgM, IgG, collective IgM/IgG, or IgA62. This study recommends both IgM and IgG in diagnosing TBD (Figs 5 and S4–S6) as unconventional antibody profiles have been portrayed in TBD patients. Presence of long-term IgM and IgG antibodies have been reported in LD patients that were tested by the CDC two-tier system. In 2001, Kalish and colleagues reported anti-Borrelia IgM or IgG persistence in patients that suffered from LD 10–20 years ago63. Similarly, Hilton and co-workers recorded persistent anti-Borrelia IgM response in 97% of late LD patients that were considered cured following an antibiotic treatment64.

Similar events of persistent IgM and IgG antibody reactions were demonstrated in patients treated for Borrelia arthritis and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans65, chronic cutaneous borreliosis66, and Lyme neuroborreliosis67. A clear phenomenon of immune dysfunction is occurring, which might account for the disparities in LD patient’s antibody profiles and persistence. Borrelia suppresses the immune system by inhibition of antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation18, reducing Langerhans cells by downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on these cells19, stimulating the production of interleukin-10 and anti-inflammatory immunosuppressive cytokine20, and causing disparity in regulation and secretion of cytokines21. Other studies have demonstrated low production or subversion of specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in patients with immune deficiency status22.

In the USA alone, the economic healthcare burden for patients suffering from LD and ongoing symptoms is estimated to be $1.3 billion per year69. Additionally, 83% of all TBD diagnostic tests performed by the commercial laboratories in the USA accounted for only LD70. Globally, the commercial laboratories’ ability to diagnose LD has increased by merely 4% (weighted mean for ELISA sensitivity 62.3%) in the last 20 years71. This study provides evidence regarding polymicrobial infections in patients suffering from different stages of TBDs. Literature analyses and results from this study followed Hill’s criteria indicating a causal association between TBD patients and polymicrobial infections. Also, the study outcomes indicate that patients may not adhere to traditional IgM and IgG responses.

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**Comment**

For the first time, Garg et al. show a 85% probability for multiple infections including not only tick-borne pathogens but also opportunistic microbes such as EBV and other viruses.

I’m thankful they included Bartonella as that one is often omitted but definitely a player.  I’m also thankful for the mention of viruses as they too are in the mix.  The mention of the persister form must be recognized as well as many out there deny its existence.

Key Quote:  Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes.”

But there is another important point.

According to this review, 83% of all commercial tests focus only on Lyme (borrelia), despite the fact we are infected with more than one microbe.  The review also states it takes 11 different visits to 11 different doctors, utilizing 11 different tests to be properly diagnosed.  https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181101/Tick-borne-disease-is-multiple-microbial-in-nature.aspx?

This is huge.  Please spread the word.