Archive for the ‘Babesia’ Category

#LymeWarrior Q&A


by Jennifer Crystal


Q. You once mentioned that a scan helped doctors to learn that you weren’t getting enough oxygen to the left side of your brain. What type of scan was it? And how did doctors know the poor oxygenation was caused by Babesia and not by another tick- borne illness?

A. I have had both MRIs and SPECT scans. It was the SPECT scan that allowed my doctor to specifically see that the left side of my brain was not getting enough oxygen. That SPECT scan was done 11 years ago; you may want to talk to your doctor to see if that is still the most accurate scan you can get.

As I described in my Air Hunger post, Babesia is a parasite that feeds on the oxygen in the red blood cells, depriving the patient of much-needed oxygen. In my case, my doctor knew the infection had flared up again because of the scan. I was also having symptoms of babesia including air hunger, post-exertional fatigue, and hypoglycemia. It’s important that you find a Lyme Literate Medical Doctor (LLMD) who can accurately diagnose and treat you, and who will know your case if and when you relapse.

Q. How long does a Herxheimer reaction last, and is there anything that will help speed up the process or lessen its effects?

A. A Jarish-Herxheimer reaction commonly referred to as a “Herx”, is when bacteria dies off faster than the body can eliminate them, making the patient feel worse before they feel better. This can seem counter-intuitive because when you take medication for an infection, you expect to feel better. But when you’re killing off a lot of spirochetes—especially if you’ve been sick for a long time—a Herxheimer reaction is natural and can be viewed as a good sign that the medication is working.

That said, a Herx can feel awful. Your fatigue is worse, your body feels laden with toxins, and you can barely move from bed except to run to the bathroom. The actual elimination of dead bacteria can be surprisingly intense; the first time I had a Herxheimer reaction, I couldn’t believe how often I was in the bathroom, or what was coming out of me. I can only describe it as “toxic bodily waste.”

For me, Herxheimer reactions tended to last up to a week or two, and then pass. Sometimes they were just a couple days long. It all depends on the patient, though. I know patients who have Herxed for a month or more. No matter how intense your Herxheimer reactions are, though, there are a few things you can do to lessen your suffering. These techniques worked for me:

  • Pulse your medications: Some doctors will have their patients take their antibiotics for a certain number of days or weeks, or then have them stop for a while to allow the body time to eliminate the dead bacteria. Other doctors switch up medications at certain intervals. Personally, I took single day breaks from medication when the Herxheimer reactions were especially intense.
  • Figure out which of your medications is causing the Herxheimer reaction. Herxheimer reactions can be caused by herbal supplements, not just by antibiotics or antimalarial medication. I find it’s best to only change one thing at a time in my own protocol; if I increase a homeopathic drop, I wait awhile to see how that goes before altering the dosage on a medication.
  • Eat foods that are known to help you detox: For me, lemon and onion work well; other patients use apple cider vinegar, or even intravenous Vitamin C, though this last option did not work well for me. Remember, everyone is different and you and your doctor need to figure out what’s best for you.
  • Drink lots of water to help flush your system.
  • Sweat: Those pouring night sweats are annoying, especially when you’re changing pajamas and sheets several times a night, but it means the infection is leaving your body. Some people find that light exercise helps. For me, though, exercise only made me feel worse. Others use infrared saunas to increase sweating. Personally, I can not handle the intense heat.
  • Electrolytes: Because you’re sweating so much, your electrolytes may become depleted. I find it helps to drink an electrolyte-infused beverage (try ones that are just water-based, without added sugar) to keep my sodium and potassium levels balanced. Sweating out spirochetes or parasites isn’t all that different from doing an intense cardiovascular workout, so you should consider how the electrolyte water is helping you to replenish your body.
  • Lymphatic drainage: When I’m herxing, bacteria tends to back up in my head, and my integrative manual therapist does lymphatic drainage and cranial sacral therapy to help open up flow from my brain. He also does neurofascial processing on organs that help the body detox, such as the liver. Note: avoid deep tissue massage at these times since it can hold toxins deeper in your body, making you feel worse.

These are only the detox methods that have worked best for me. There are many others recommended by both patients and doctors. At the 2017 International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society conference in Boston, I heard about curcumin, also known as turmeric, a member of the ginger family that acts as an anti-inflammatory and which has many uses to help mitigate Herxheimer reactions. Talk with your LLMD, and with other patients, about what works best for you.

Q. I know you’ve explained that you can’t give medical advice, but can you please tell me what your protocol was?

A. When you hear a story of someone in remission, it’s natural to want to know what they did to get there. But as I’ve explained in previous posts, telling you my specific protocol (which is ever-changing) is not the point, because every single case of tick-borne illness is different.  Even if your symptoms are similar to mine, our individual cases are guaranteed to be different in terms of how long we were sick, how long we went undiagnosed, whether our infections spread to the central nervous system, where else in the body the infections have spread, whether we have co-infections (and which particular ones), and, most importantly, how we responded to any given treatment. An antibiotic that worked well for me might not work at all for you. My protocol is tailored to my specific case, and yours needs to be, too. You and your LLMD may want to check out Dr. Richard Horowitz’s books Why Can’t I Get Better?and How Can I Get Better? Both books outline specific treatments for specific combinations of tick-borne illnesses.

In closing, let me say that in the past I’ve written about the big picture of what has helped me the most: a combination of medication and homeopathic supplements; nutritional supplements; a gluten-free, sugar-free diet; cognitive behavioral therapy; integrative manual therapy; talk therapy; and neurofeedback. I recommend a holistic or integrative approach that encompasses both Western and Eastern modalities as well as adjunct therapies. I recommend lots of rest and self-care. I recommend seeking out a helpful support system of concerned individuals. Unfortunately, I cannot recommend specific medications, and I hope you will understand that I withhold that information in the hope that you will find the right protocol fly working with your LLMD.

jennifer crystalOpinions expressed by contributors are their own.

Jennifer Crystal is a writer and educator in Boston. She is working on a memoir about her journey with chronic tick-borne illness. Contact her at


For more:

Coinfection Webinar: April 18, 2018


No questions about Lyme disease coinfections are off the table. Please feel free to ask common or uncommon questions, such as:

• What are telltale signs of a coinfection? • Which herbs are most helpful for overcoming coinfections? • Should you treat coinfections before addressing Lyme?  • What is the best treatment for coinfections?  • Is it possible to ever cure Lyme and its coinfections?  • Are all coinfections transmitted by ticks?  • How can you tell for sure when Lyme and coinfections are gone?  • How does treatment and diet for Lyme differ if you have a coinfection?  • How long will it take to feel good again?


Ask Dr. Rawls, Live Q&A Webinar


Zoonotic Babesia Microti in the NW U.S.: Evidence for the Expansion of a Specific Parasite Lineage

Zoonotic Babesia microti in the northeastern U.S.: Evidence for the expansion of a specific parasite lineage

The recent range expansion of human babesiosis in the northeastern United States, once found only in restricted coastal sites, is not well understood. This study sought to utilize a large number of samples to examine the population structure of the parasites on a fine scale to provide insights into the mode of emergence across the region. 228 Bmicroti samples collected in endemic northeastern U.S. sites were genotyped using published Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers. The genetic diversity and population structure were analysed on a geographic scale using Phyloviz and TESS, programs that utilize two different methods to identify population membership without predefined population data. Three distinct populations were detected in northeastern US, each dominated by a single ancestral type. In contrast to the limited range of the Nantucket and Cape Cod populations, the mainland population dominated from New Jersey eastward to Boston. Ancestral populations of Bmicroti were sufficiently isolated to differentiate into distinct populations. Despite this, a single population was detected across a large geographic area of the northeast that historically had at least 3 distinct foci of transmission, central New Jersey, Long Island and southeastern Connecticut. We conclude that a single Bmicroti genotype has expanded across the northeastern U.S. The biological attributes associated with this parasite genotype that have contributed to such a selective sweep remain to be identified.



More on Babesia:

Young Woman With Lyme Takes Her Life

Family’s battle with Lyme ends in deep tragedy

Our two daughters were ill for years and were misdiagnosed by countless specialists. Niki never had a tick bite that we saw nor a rash. Keara had a strange bite with a large solid oval rash around it when she was 2 years old; her pediatrician misdiagnosed it as a spider bite and she was never treated. Each child began to become ill around the age of 11 or so. Niki tested negative on the conventional two-tier Lyme testing and became sicker over the next 2 1/2 years until finally testing positive with IGeneX Labs. About a year later Keara would test positive with IGeneX as well. They both had Lyme, bartonella, and babesiosis. 

Niki tolerated most antibiotics, treatments, and supplements fairly well while Keara struggled with each one she tried. Niki had to drop out of her first year of college due to pain, brain fog and the brutal side effects of the treatments and, as she slowly began to regain part of her health over several years, she was able to gradually return to studying to become a veterinarian. Keara’s worsening condition forced her to drop out of high school and to take homebound teaching for a year and a half but she was able to return to school for her senior year to take just enough credits to graduate.

KEARA’S LIFE: Binghamton woman, 19, loved fashion, adventure

FORUM SET: Register today and attend Lyme forum on April 17 — and get answers: Editorial

Keara began working in retail and wanted nothing more than to be like her peers. She was devastated that she was unable to go to college. She wanted to travel the world but was riddled with pain and disability.

 In February 2017 she took her own life at the age of 19. Her sister Niki will never have her little sister by her side as her maid of honor when she marries one day. Her brother will never be able to sing and play guitar and piano with Keara again. We, her parents, will never see our daughter grow and thrive, all due to the misdiagnosis of her tickborne diseases that affected every organ and every system of her body. We will never wrap our arms around Keara to hug and kiss her ever again.

Today I came across a small plastic bag of Keara’s trash. Finding and holding the empty, discarded false eyelashes package I found in the bag knocked the wind right out of me.  The old makeup brush in there still has her precious DNA attached to the dirty bristles, doesn’t it? Perhaps there’s some scant remnant of her scent, her essence on the brush. Grief rises up unexpectedly every day, several times a day now.

The outdated and ineffective Lyme guidelines caused both our daughters such immense and unnecessary suffering and yet as parents the guilt that we could have, should have, and would have done more will always plague us. Why didn’t we insist on more specialists, earlier recognition and more treatments? Why weren’t we able to protect our children? Why did we trust the doctors and tests? Why does the medical community and the CDC continue to throw up roadblocks to prevent early detection and adequate treatment? How many lives will continue to be devastated?


Binghamton resident Kaethe Mitchell is a school nurse with the Binghamton City School District and belongs to the Southern Tier Lyme Support, Inc., The Poughkeepsie Journal is holding a public form about Lyme at 6 p.m. on April 17 at Marist College. Attendees must register in advance at The event is almost sold out, and the Journal plans to carry video coverage of the forum on its website,

Stories like this one are the unfortunate truth many families have to live with.  Suicide is a very real issue that needs to be taken seriously with Lyme/MSIDS patients.
Please support patients and believe them.  They are swimming against an ocean current of tidal proportions.  If this is you, please know you aren’t alone and you can get support.  Start with your local Lyme/MSIDS support group in your state.  For a great list:

Fire – Good News for Tick Reduction

Fire & Ticks: The Impacts of Long-term Prescribed Fire on Tick Populations & Tick-borne Disease Risk

Approx. 1 hour

Published on Mar 29, 2018

This webinar by Dr. Liz Gleim, Assistant Professor of Biology & Environmental Studies from Hollins University explores the impacts of long-term prescribed fire on ticks & tick-borne disease risk and what appears to be some promising results linking fire & reducing disease risk.

Webinar found on the NAFSE website,

(slide show in link)

The research conducted in southwest Georgia concerned four tick species (slide 2):

  • Lone Star Tick – known for causing Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME), Ehrlichiosis ewingii (STARI)
  • Gulf Coast Tick – known for causing Rickettsiosis
  • American Dog Tick – known for causing Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
  • Black Legged Tick – known for causing Lyme Disease (LD), Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), and Babesiosis

Prior research (slide 5) have shown a discrepancy regarding whether or not controlled fire reduces tick abundance over time.  Gleim found that these prior studies did not take into account “real-world” management practices such as they were conducted in small areas and consisted of single-burns.

Gleim’s study consisted of 21 Total sites in 4 different categories (slide 7):

  1. 8 burned sites surrounded by burned areas
  2. 5 burned sites surrounded by unburned areas
  3. 5 unburned sites surrounded by unburned areas
  4. 3 control unburned sites surrounded by unburned areas

The study went for 2 years in which they did monthly tick surveys, took weather data, and did vegetative and host surveys (slide 8).  In the two years they collected over 47,000 ticks.

Tick abundance was in the following order (slide 10):

  1. Lone Star Tick
  2. Black Legged Tick
  3. Gulf Coast Tick
  4. American Dog Tick

Regarding fire on tick populations, they found the burned areas “flatlined” the tick populations whereas the control sites had typical tick abundance (slide 11) .  

Greater than 95% leaf litter = 2X more ticks (slide 12)

High tree density = 6X more ticks

Regarding black legged ticks:

Burning reduced the black legged tick population by 78%

High tree density = 17X more ticks

Recent precipitation = 2X more ticks

Gleim was concerned about the effects of red imported fire ants (RIFA) on the ticks (slide 14 & 15)

Ticks:  Evidence has shown that Imported fire ants reduce populations of certain tick species by preying on engorged female ticks filled with blood and eggs or small hatching ticks. Non-engorged ticks freeze in place and “play possum” when examined by a foraging ant, thus escaping their fate as ant food!

There is limited data only the effects of RIFA on Lone Star Ticks.

So they did 3 treatments (slide 16) putting engorged Lone Star & Gulf Coast Ticks as well as nymphs into each enclosure and releasing them them during months that they were determined to be naturally active (slide 17):

  1. Burned habitat with Fire Ants
  2. Burned habitat without Fire Ants (this doesn’t happen naturally)
  3. Unburned habitat without Fire Ants (this doesn’t happen naturally)

They found (slide 18) no significant effect of RIFA on either tick species and that Gulf Coast Ticks did better than the Lone Star Ticks in the burned habitat with higher temperatures and the Lone Star Ticks did better in the unburned habitat.  The ticks did not have to survive burning; however, they had to survive the habitat after the vegetation was alive and well.

They found (slide 19) that burning gave an open canopy with sunlight being able to reach through to the forest floor causing higher temps and lower humidity.  The unburned sites conversely had closed canopy with a leaf litter understory causing lower temps and higher humidity which is more conducive for tick populations.

In essence – fire causes a forest structure that is less conducive to tick populations and lowers ticks and pathogen prevalence (slide 20).

The bottom line is they found (slide 21):

No Borrelia burgdorferi in the black legged ticks they collected.

  • .02 infected ticks per hour in all burned sites
  • .70 infected ticks per hour in unburned sites

Burning gave a 98% reduction in ticks.



Well, now we know. Burning SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES TICKS.  Let there be no question.

I’m very thankful for this work as it lays to rest the idea that burning isn’t worth it.  I would say that a 78-98% reduction in ticks to be worth it!   These data indicate that regular prescribed burning is an effective tool for reducing tick populations and ultimately may reduce risk of tick-borne disease.

Those of you in states where funding is increasing for tick reduction, copy this off and get it to your representatives.  Burning is not toxic like pesticides often used to reduce ticks.  It also works.  I have to think it’s economical compared to many other options as well.















What is Air Hunger, Anyway?


By Jennifer Crystal MARCH 22, 2018


When I tell people I have chronic Lyme and some of its co-infections, they often look at me quizzically and ask: “What’s a co-infection?” I explain that in addition to Lyme ticks can transmit other diseases as well. I get an understanding nod until I say the names of the diseases. Rarely have people heard of them: Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella. One of my graduate school professors got so tired of trying to say “Babesia” that he jokingly renamed it “babelicious.”

I get a similar reaction when I tell people that a chief symptom of Babesia is air hunger. Some hear the term and think of marathon runners or asthma patients. Most really have no idea what it actually means. Literally, it means to be hungry for air. But how is that related to Babesia, and what does the symptom actually entail?

Babesia is a parasite that eats the oxygen in red blood cells. This result is low blood oxygen levels in the body. When you are hungry for food, your stomach might grumble, and you might feel a gnawing or emptiness, a craving for sustenance. You might become lightheaded or even faint. The same is true when your blood is hungry for oxygen, except you feel the hunger in your cells rather than in your stomach.

You know when exercising how you can feel your blood pumping, whereupon endorphin release makes you vivacious and energized? That feeling when your muscles are a little tired from running or biking, but you’re also exhilarated, hitting that “runner’s high” when you feel like you can do a million jumping jacks?

I used to feel that, too. I used to ski for eight hours in the back bowls of the Rocky Mountains, bouncing through mogul fields with reckless abandon. And at the end of the day, my body would be loose and limber. I was tired, sure, but it was nothing that a good meal and a good night’s sleep couldn’t fix. The next morning, I’d be ready to ski again.

Then I got Lyme, Babesia, and Ehrlichia. At first, before the illnesses were properly diagnosed, I simply noticed that I couldn’t keep up with my fellow skiers as I used to. I tired more easily, needed more breaks, and often experienced blood sugar crashes and lightheadedness after a particularly intense run. Skiing at a high altitude means there’s less oxygen available, to begin with, but what I didn’t know was that a blood parasite was also compromising my oxygen levels.

As the tick-borne illnesses slowly took over my body, my post-exertional fatigue and hypoglycemia increased. Sometimes I’d experience these symptoms when I was simply walking down the street. I started to get terrible migraines, always after exercise but sometimes just after a long day of teaching, and sometimes for no apparent reason at all. What I didn’t know was that the oxygen level of my red blood cells was getting lower and lower, causing these debilitating symptoms.

One day towards the end of my second year of teaching in Colorado, I tried to go for a short hike near my apartment. I barely made it a few feet up the dirt path before I found myself gasping for air. I wanted to take a deep breath, but couldn’t get one. As I clutched my chest, another hiker asked if I was okay. “Asthma,” I wheezed, even though I’d never experienced that condition before.

A doctor did diagnose asthma but didn’t explain the sudden onset. He didn’t realize that my gasping for breath was a literal manifestation of air hunger caused by Babesia. Instead, he gave me an inhaler, which I sometimes needed to use in class; in the middle of a lecture, I would get so lightheaded and short of breath.

Later, when I was finally diagnosed with and treated for tick-borne illnesses, I experienced Herxheimer reactions so bad that skiing, hiking and even walking became activities of the past; I could barely get up a flight of stairs. Often my arms and legs would feel jumpy like I was having a panic attack. This is because they weren’t getting enough oxygen; the jumpiness was their way of “grumbling” like a stomach does when it needs food. My limbs felt, how can I put this? They felt empty, the opposite of the way they used to feel when they were pumped full of healthy oxygenated blood during exercise. I wanted to take a deep breath and send the air right to my limbs, right to my cells, to re-invigorate them, but I couldn’t.

Overeager during treatment, I started physical therapy too soon, and paid for it. A mere thirty seconds on a stationary bike left my limbs gasping for air. It seemed like a thick molasses was seeping through my whole body, weighing me down. A heavy sensation crept into my head, filling it with pressure until I was overtaken by a full-blown migraine. After, I was in bed for a week.

The good news about that experience is that it told my doctor I needed to increase my Babesia treatment. Anti-malarial medication got me back on my feet, eventually back on the stationary bike, and, finally, back on my skis. I don’t think I’ll ever be able to bounce through moguls for eight hours at a time again, but I can ski a full morning without getting air hunger. I can paddle-board or canoe for hours. Sometimes, when I push myself too hard, I feel a tightening in my chest for a day or two after exercise. And sometimes I begin to feel air hunger in my cells as I’m walking around the city, getting that jumpy feeling in my limbs when I climb a flight of stairs or get a headache shortly after exercise. This tells me that it’s time to increase the homeopathic drops I now take to keep Babesia at bay.

Now I can say to my doctor, “I’m starting to feel some air hunger,” and he knows exactly what we need to do. Hopefully, this explanation will be a revelation for those readers who, like me, were so long perplexed by this frightening undiagnosed symptom.

Opinions expressed by contributors are their own.

Jennifer Crystal is a writer and educator in Boston. She is working on a memoir about her journey with chronic tick-borne illness. Contact her at



Great example of a nasty Babesia symptom.  My husband struggled particularly with the blood sugar crashes that could come on at any time, necessitating his keeping protein bars with him at all times.  He would literally begin shaking.  It was a frightening symptom that thankfully passed with treatment.

Besides air hunger, Babesia is known to cause horrific headaches and dizziness as well as chest pressure.  The good news is proper treatment will alleviate and often eliminate these symptoms, but doxycycline won’t do it.  You need proper anti-malarial drugs to kill this monster.




Wed Nite @ The Lab – Talk on Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Disease

Approx. 1:24:00

Wednesday Nite @ The Lab
Published on Jan 16, 2018

“Susan Paskewitz’s talk will focus on the activities of the newly created Midwest Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Disease. The center was established in 2017 as a response to the increasing rate of human illness caused by tick and mosquito-transmitted diseases in the region, including Lyme disease and West Nile encephalitis. In addition to these familiar problems, new ticks, mosquitoes, and pathogens have been discovered. Solving these issues will require a new generation of trained vector biologists, cooperation and collaboration among public-health professionals and scientists, and creative and innovative research to reduce human and insect contact.”

About the Speaker

Paskewitz is the director of the Midwest Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Disease and the chair of the Department of Entomology at UW–Madison. Her research focuses on the ecology, epidemiology, and management of ticks and mosquitoes. She teaches classes in global health, medical and veterinary entomology, and the One Health concept, during which she enjoys working with undergraduate and graduate students who seek to gain experience in public health, infectious disease, and vector-biology research. Paskewitz earned her bachelor’s and master’s degrees at Southern Illinois University–Carbondale and her doctorate at the University of Georgia–Athens.



4:45 Believe it or not, Wisconsin used to have cases of Malaria.

Zika, discovered in 1947, wasn’t even in our hemisphere. Very few people infected until 2007 when there were 13-14 cases. 2015 it showed up in Brazil. First time a mosquito spread disease that is also sexually transmitted. A medical entomologist felt he gave it to his wife and then wrote a paper on it.

(I guess we need a medical entomologist to infect his/her wife with Lyme/MSIDS so that a paper can be written to prove sexual transmission…..) Please see: and

UW did a lot of work on Zika. Cases in the U.S. occurred when people traveled abroad, became infected, were bit by mosquitoes here, and then spread from there. Only 63 infected people in 2016, 9 more in 2017.

Do we have the mosquitoes that can pick up the virus and transmit it? The Yellow Fever mosquito is the one transmitting Zika. The mosquito is here in U.S. but NOT in WI.  The Asian Tiger mosquito is a secondary vector that transmits the same viruses but not as well. Has a wider distribution and is a daytime feeder.

She looked in all the records – couldn’t find the Asian Tiger in Wisconsin.  It is found in Illinois and Indiana.  However, since that time they have laid many traps and found the Asian Tiger Mosquito here but she doesn’t feel they are abundant or wide spread.  She also feels they won’t survive our winters but experiments are in progress.  Females bite, lay eggs in wet aquatic spots, as larvae need water to grow.

(The same sort of diligence needs to happen in the world of Lyme.  For instance, borrelia has been found in other insects, but entomologists downplay it and say numbers are small.  This is a great example of how Lyme is treated differently then other diseases that are big money-makers for researchers.)

25:32 The Lone star tick has popped up in a number of places in WI – she doesn’t feel they will survive our winters.

Spent a lot of time talking about mosquito issues happening down South.

She admits the Center was created due to Zika.  

(Don’t be shocked when all the research dollars go to Zika & not tick borne illness despite the much higher prevalence of TBI’s in WI)

Wisconsin has cases of West Nile, La Crosse Virus, and Jamestown Canyon Virus – which has increased human cases – they don’t know why.

They are working on a bacterial based topical repellent.  Also working on using fish and copepods to eat mosquitos at the larval stage.

38:00 TICKS

Ticks transmit Lyme Disease – a lot and it’s not just in the North. Could pick it up anywhere in Wisconsin.

Please see:

Map showing Deer tick population between 1907-1996 and 1907-2015 –

Our entire state is infested.  

Sky rocket of LD in WI CONFIRMED.  She admits the CDC says the cases are hugely underestimated – more like 30,000 cases per year in WI.

WI is a hotspot for newly emerging TBI – Anaplasma, Ehrlichia muris, borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever), Babesia divergens (in Michigan but Paskowitz feels it’s probably here too).

Anaplasma seeing 400-600 cases a year in WI.  Again, much underreporting.

44:00 talks about tick distribution maps.

Please see: (go to page 6 and read about Speilman’s maps which are faulty but have ruled like the Iron Curtain, and have been used to keep folks from being diagnosed and treated)

They are working on a way for public to take pictures of ticks, send it to the lab and get answers.

Trying to reduce the risk….they think it’s the nymphs that do most of the transmission because they are tiny and we don’t feel them.

Larvae and nymphs love little rodents
Adults love adults, dogs, and deer

50:00 what we can do to stop LD

52:30 One experiment removed buckthorn – looked like a significant impact after first year but nothing after that.

53:20 tick tubes for micefound a decrease in host-seeking nymphs with this seen it three years running.

Trying to come up with a do it yourself toolkit to implement methods for tick control.

55:55 Working on the tick app – to pool info to show where we are picking up the ticks so education can be more targeted.

ends @ 58:30 then questions

Funding by:  CDC, NIH, USDA, WI Dept HEalth services, WI Dep Natural resources