Archive for the ‘Babesia’ Category

TBD Serochip Will Identify Six Tick Borne Pathogens

https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/first-multiplex-test-tick-borne-diseases

INFECTIOUS DISEASE Feb. 16 2018

First Multiplex Test for Tick-Borne Diseases

PROMISING TO REVOLUTIONIZE DIAGNOSIS, A SINGLE BLOOD TEST CAN NOW ACCURATELY DETECT IF SOMEONE HAS LYME DISEASE AND/OR ONE OF SEVEN OTHER TICK-BORNE DISEASES

A new blood test called the Tick-Borne Disease Serochip (TBD Serochip) promises to revolutionize the diagnosis of tick-borne disease by offering a single test to identify and distinguish between Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, and seven other tick-borne pathogens. Led by scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, the research team reports details on the new test in the journal Nature Scientific Reports.

The researchers—who also include scientists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Roche Sequencing Solutions, Farmingdale State College, and Stony Brook University—sought to improve on existing tests for tick-borne diseases (TBDs), which have limited diagnostic accuracy and cannot test for more than one infection simultaneously. Currently, diagnosis of Lyme disease, the most common TBD, requires two separate tests. This cumbersome approach also relies on subjective criteria for the interpretation of results, and accurately identifies fewer than 40 percent of patients with early disease and results in false positives 28 percent of the time. The accuracy of the method used to diagnose TBDs Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia varies widely among testing laboratories. And for other tick-borne agents, specific blood tests are not yet available, or in the case of the potentially deadly Powassan virus or Heartland virus, are only performed in specialized laboratories.

“The number of Americans diagnosed with tick-borne disease is steadily increasing as tick populations have expanded geographically,” says Rafal Tokarz, PhD. “Each year, approximately 3 million clinical specimens are tested for TBDs in the U.S. Nonetheless, the true incidence of TBDs is likely greatly underestimated, as patients with presumed TBDs are rarely tested for the full range of tick-borne agents, and only a fraction of positive cases are properly reported,” adds Nischay Mishra, PhD. Co-lead authors Tokarz and Mishra are associate research scientists in the Center for Infection and Immunity.

The TBD Serochip can simultaneously test for the presence of antibodies in blood to more than 170,000 individual protein fragments. Version 1.0 can identify exposure to eight tick-borne pathogens present in the U.S., including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis), Babesia microti (babesiosis), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytic ehrlichiosis), Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), Heartland virus and Powassan virus. The researchers also included Long Island tick rhabdovirus, a novel virus they recently discovered in Amblyomma americanum ticks. As new tick-borne infectious agents are discovered, the TBD-Serochip will be modified to target them—a process the researchers say can be done in less than four weeks.

The TBD Serochip is also able to identify whether an individual is infected with more than one tick-borne pathogen. Individual ticks are frequently infected with more than one agent; Ixodes scapularis ticks alone can transmit at least five human pathogens. Evidence of exposure to other tick-borne pathogens in patients with Lyme disease has been well documented. In the new paper, the researchers report finding antibodies to another agent in 26 percent of blood specimens from patients with TBD.

In addition to its utility as a diagnostic platform, the TBD Serochip also provides a powerful research tool for studies of TBDs. The technology can be employed to discriminate individual antibody responses in patients with TBD and thus examine the interplay of TBD agents on disease manifestation and progression. It can also be used to assess the impact of genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens on the host immune response.

“Diagnosing tick-borne illness is a difficult journey for patients, delaying effecting treatment,” says senior author W. Ian Lipkin, MD, director of CII and John Snow Professor of Epidemiology at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. “The TBD Serochip promises to make diagnosis far easier, offering a single, accurate test for eight different TBDs. Early detection of infection enables rapid and appropriate treatment.”

Co-authors include Thomas Briese, Teresa Tagliafierro, Stephen Sameroff, Adrian Caciula, Lokendrasingh Chauhan, of CII; Jigar Patel and Eric Sullivan of Roche Sequencing Solutions, Madison, WI; Azad Gucwa of Farmingdale State College, Farmingdale, NY; Brian Fallon of Columbia University; Marc Golightly of Stony Brook University; Claudia Molins and Martin Schriefer of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Adriana Marques of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

This study was funded through grants from the Steven & Alexandra Cohen Foundation and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (AI109761). The content of study does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government. CII has filed an invention report and provisional patent application for the technology.

The Persistent Spiral – The Ancient History of Lyme Disease and Tick-Borne Infections

borrelia_burgdorferi

Looking through history with knowledgable eyes, historian M.M. Drymon underscores how tick-borne illness has been with us since the beginning of time, and that many prominent historical figures showed signs of it in her latest book, The Persistent Spiral – The Ancient History of Lyme Disease and Tick-borne Infections.

First, she gives details of Ozti, the ancient man discovered in 1991 who represents the earliest documented case of Lyme Disease. Evidently, Ozti was carrying mushrooms with antibiotic qualities. He walked the forested area now located between Italy and Austria – one of the highest rates of modern LD in Europe. They even know he died in the Spring due to the intact pollen cells in his stomach.

Interestingly, from many standpoints, he had 57 tattoos – many in places that coincide with acupuncture points used to treat Lyme and pain relief – some 2,000 years before their documented use in China.  https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/26/otzi-iceman-new-tattoo_n_6546884.html

And while all these intimate details of a fellow sufferer are intriguing, the recent discovery of what Drymon calls the pot smoking, dispersed living, individualistic Bronze Age Cowboys, enlightens for sure. The discovery of the Yamnaya helps explain old Chinese books describing people of great height, deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards,and red or blonde hair. These nomadic horse breeding and cattle and sheep herding people contributed to many ancestries and very well may relate to how modern patients handle Lyme Disease (LD).  For more on the Yamnaya:  https://dna-explained.com/2015/06/15/yamnaya-light-skinned-brown-eyed-ancestors/

Drymon and many others believe genetics to be one reason some become so ill with tick-borne illnesses.

The Yamnaya were grassland inhabiters who eventually migrated into Northern Europe and may be the reason most of us can tolerate lactose, which was rare previously. They also might be a reason we don’t handle tick illness well. Since they lived outside tick infested areas, they most probably had immune systems inexperienced with Tick borne illness (TBI’s) and when exposed suffered with autoimmune illness.

Drymon states the Chinese had more experience treating LD due to historically inhabiting temperate forests which harbor ticks. Traditional Chinese medicine indicates this fact by having treatments for spirochetal diseases and specific herbs for Bell’s palsy, joint pain, inflammation, heart problems, fever and skin diseases, and convulsions – all of which are TBI symptoms.

Fast forward to the Crusades and the fact both King Richard I and Philippe Augustus II became ill and nearly succumbed to Trench Mouth which is caused by Bacillus fasiformis & Borrelia vincenti (a strain of borrelia, and also a spirochete). Richard apparently became ill again later with Autumnal Fever which has a relapsing nature and is proposed to be tick-borne.

Then there’s Catherine of Aragon, lover of the hunt, who after staying at a hunting lodge, survived The Sweat and was periodically ill from that point on. A physician of the time described The Sweat as a pestilence with copious sweating, stinking, redness of face and body, continual thirst, with a great headache.  Symptoms followed a pattern – sudden flu-like symptoms, apprehension, headaches, shivering, with muscle aches, and fatigue. Then came gut pain, vomiting, a hot and sweaty stage followed by headaches and delirium. There were also chest pains and difficulty breathing with great fatigue. (Sound familiar?)  If patients didn’t die, they were repeatedly afflicted. It seemed to be a summer illness found in rural families.  It also made many chronically affected for life.

There is no record of The Sweat until the landing of Henry Tudor’s soldiers in Wales after camping in forest edge environments. After that there were periodic outbreaks and two hundred and fifty years later an identical illness appeared in the exact same region. Another physician noted that black marks were sometimes on the skin.

Drymon lists the symptoms of numerous tick borne infections and how they look precisely like The Sweat. Symptoms of Borrelia miyamotoi cause high relapsing fevers, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, heart problems, shortness of breath, and a whole slew of neurological symptoms. Babesia is known to cause drenching sweats, anxiety, fatigue, headache, muscle, chest, and hip pain, and the ever lovely shortness of breath.

Poor Catherine struggled through seven pregnancies and her confessor reported that one knee pained her. If the babies weren’t still-born, they all died young except one daughter who became Queen Mary I. After Catherine was put to death by Henry, his next wife, Anne Boleyn battled The Sweat as well, and after marrying Henry also had a series of miscarriages with the only surviving heir being a daughter who became Queen Elizabeth I.  Catherine and Anne had a lot in common, including the same husband, and while Drymon didn’t go over the probability of sexual transmission, there is evidence:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/02/24/pcos-lyme-my-story/ and https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/02/06/lyme-in-the-southern-hemisphere-sexual-transmission/

Regarding pregnancy and TBI’s, fertility problems, miscarriages, birth defects and still births, are all possibilities.  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/15/pregnancy-in-lyme-dr-ann-corson/  Autopsy’s have revealed borrelia in the placenta, spleen, fetal myocardium, kidneys, liver, arachnoid space of fetal mid brain, and bone marrow.  https://durayresearch.wordpress.com/about-2/seven-provocative-p2/

After Anne was put to death by Henry, and all likenesses of her were ordered to be destroyed, one of the few surviving pictures show a protruding lymph node below her jaw – another common TBI symptom.

Drymon goes through the various theories of what caused The Sweat, and logically refutes them all except for tick-borne illness. One telling quote by John Josselyn in the early seventeenth century states,

“there be infinite numbers of tikes hanging upon the bushes in summer time that will cleave to a man’s garments and creep into his breeches eating themselves in a short time into the very flesh of a man. I have seen the stockins of those that have gone through the woods covered with them.”

Evidently ticks were a problem then too.

Dr. John Caius who treated patients with The Sweat recommended regular burnings of fields and forest understory, as well as insect repellents and herbal treatments such as enula root and wormwood, herbs that are known even today to have action against borrelia and Babesia.

Drymon also discusses burnings in her other book, Disguised as the Devil,
https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/10/08/did-lyme-create-witches/, another fascinating read about TBI’s and the witchcraft hysteria. She draws a connection between the fact that burnings were often abandoned in times of war due to upheaval and the absence of men to do the job. This in turn allowed ticks to propagate which in turn probably meant more people got infected – particularly women of that era who wore long dresses that essentially became tick drags.

Unfortunately, this effective method of reducing the tick population is frowned upon today due to the fear of pollution. Drymon states the ramifications of burning should quantified to determine its seriousness and if accommodations could be made.

While the entire book is fascinating, and frankly a lot of fun to read, one of the most important take-aways for me is the ever present issue of reducing ticks safely, effectively, and economically.

Burning is such a simple yet brilliant method that it begs to be used.

Being a Lyme patient and advocate, I’ve read about burning before. In fact, when I asked an older Wisconsin Representative who has lived here his whole life why this practice was abandoned, he repeated precisely what Drymon said about folks being concerned about pollution. He also said burnings worked and he wished they were still being done.

When I asked well known and respected entomologists in Integrated Pest Management, they assured me that burnings weren’t successful and gave me a 1998 study conducted in Connecticut using a single controlled burn on two different days with varying burn intensities. The results state that in both burns ticks were reduced substantially (74% and 97%). What the authors felt made it unsuccessful was an abundance of ticks in the fall – meaning, they felt it was temporary.  

I detect much more excitement from those in the field when you mention releasing GMO mice, lacing pellets with pesticides for rodents to eat, and high powered acaricides.  All things that cost a lot of money and have significant blow-back to the environment and humans.  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/06/21/first-frankenbugs-now-frankinmice/ and https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/07/10/wolbachia-the-next-frankenstein/

I was thankful for Drymon’s usage of a 2014 burn study performed in Georgia and Florida over a two year time period that indicates regular prescribed burning is an effective tool for reducing ticks and probably reduces disease as well.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112174

I think we need to seriously revisit burning.

Drymon’s book reminds us that tick borne illness is as old as time and if we are going to get well it would behoove us to learn from the past.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forget Ebola, Sars and Zika: Ticks are the Next Global Health Threat

https://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2018/jan/25/forget-ebola-sars-and-zika-ticks-are-the-next-global-health-threat

Forget Ebola, Sars and Zika: ticks are the next global health threat

Ticks carry a wide array of pathogens – and environmental changes mean they are spreading

A blacklegged tick - also known as a deer tick.

Since the beginning of our species we have been at war. It’s a continuous, neverending fight against the smallest of adversaries: armies of pathogens and parasites. As we have developed new ways to survive and stop them, they have evolved ever more complex and ingenious methods to thwart our efforts.

Humans have faced numerous attempts to challenge our dominance on planet Earth and from the Black Death to the Spanish flu, we have weathered them all. However, since the start of the 21st century, with its trend towards global interconnectedness, these onslaughts are ever-increasing. In the past 17 years we have battled Sars, the Ebola virusMers, and more recently the mysterious mosquito-borne Zika virus. These diseases seeming to appear from nowhere and rapidly ravage our populations. One commonality is that they almost always originate in animals before jumping across to people, and few parasites are as good at jumping between animals and people as the tick.

Ticks could be best described as the used syringes of the natural world due to their promiscuous feeding habits. Most ticks go through three stages in their lives and feed on a different host at each stage, whilst simultaneously collecting hitchhiking microbes in their blood meals. Ticks also have one of the widest distributions of any vector on Earth – they can be found on every continent, including frigid Antarctica. This combination of ubiquity and a bad habit for accumulating pathogenic microbes make ticks some of the most dangerous vectors on the planet.

So why ticks? And why now?

Partly, it’s because ticks have been understudied for so long that only recently have we begun to realise just how much they affect our health. It took until 1975 for the infamous Lyme disease even to be formally described, and today the list of microbes found within ticks grows ever larger every year as numerous new species are discovered.

An engorged tick removed from a host.
An engorged tick removed from a host. Photograph: Astrid860/Getty Images/iStockphoto

Changing ecosystems are also forcing ticks into closer contact with humans. Perhaps the most immediate changes are being driven by land clearing, which is forcing wildlife into closer contact with humans; with wildlife come ticks and the diseases they carry. Climate change has also been implicated: as the climate gets warmer, some ticks are expanding their ranges into places where cool winter temperatures previously limited their distribution. Geographical boundaries are also being eroded as rapid transport links environments which were previously isolated from one another. This presents easy opportunity for ticks to cross borders and spread to new habitats they may not have previously occupied.

In short, our manipulation of the environment has set the stage for a tick-driven health crisis.

Ticks can carry an extremely wide array of human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Within the long list of human ailments caused by ticks, several dangerous diseases stand out.

https://interactive.guim.co.uk/uploader/embed/2017/08/ticks_lyme_disease/giv-3902DdVd63hb2z2v/

While the recognition of Lyme disease has led to a greater study of the bacteria which cause it and more frequent testing for patients, it has been a double-edged sword, as its notoriety has overshadowed equally important diseases like tick-borne rickettsiosis (TBR). TBR is caused by a number of different bacteria distributed across the globe. Unfortunately, TBR often presents with signs and symptoms similar to Lyme disease, such as rashes, joint and muscle pain, and fatigue. Although deaths are rare when TBR is treated with antibiotics like doxycycline, when the disease is incorrectly diagnosed or adequate medical infrastructure is lacking, mortalities can still occur.

Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by a protozoan called Babesia, a species related to the microbe which causes malaria. The disease is rarely tested for by doctors and the global levels of human infection are unknown, although some researchers believe that they may be much higher than present rates of diagnosis indicate. Infections can be highly variable, with about a quarter of infected adults showing no signs of the disease, while others will die from the infection. In truth the disease is still poorly understood in humans, which is compounded by the fact that several species of Babesia cause the disease and the signs and symptoms can be wide-ranging and often include fever, fatigue, anaemia, and nausea – all common features of other illnesses.

The distinctive “bullseye” marking caused by a bite from a deer tick.
The distinctive “bullseye” marking caused by a bite from a deer tick. Photograph: anakopa/Getty Images/iStockphoto

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is perhaps the most terrifying disease spread by ticks, as there are no treatments available, and mortality rates can be as high as 40% in infected humans. To put it into perspective, that mortality rate is similar to untreated cases of Ebola or the bubonic plague. The World Health Organisation views CCHF virus as having a high chance of causing human disease epidemics and has accordingly directed considerable funding towards finding a treatment, although to date none have been developed. The wide distribution of tick vectors capable of spreading the disease coupled with the ability of common domestic animals such as sheep and cattle to maintain the CCHF virus in their blood at high levels means the potential for CCHF to expand into new regions like Europe is highly probable.

While only discovered in 2009, SFTS virus (severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome) has sparked widespread fear through much of Asia, especially in Japan where 57 people have died of the disease since 2013. Signs of the disease can range in severity from relatively mild, like fever and diarrhoea, to severe, which can include multiple organ failure. The fact that the epidemiology of the disease is so poorly known makes predicting and controlling its spread difficult. It is also known to be carried by at least two cosmopolitan tick species which are spread throughout the world from the UK, to the US, and even Australia. That might sounds bad enough, but things are even worse: although the disease typically gets to humans via a tick, from there it can spread to other humans or their pets and back again into ticks who feed on infected hosts.

Ticks are ubiquitous, dangerous, and are coming into ever greater contact with us. We must recognise that the next public health crisis may come from our backyards rather than a remote equatorial jungle in Africa or Asia.

_____________

**Comment**

I’m thankful the article points out that other pathogens are involved.  For those with Lyme as well as these other pathogens (which is common), they typically have more severe cases and require longer and more extensive treatment.  

Ticks carry many viruses, and tick bites as well as vaccines can ignite dormant viruses in the body:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/12/02/scottish-doctor-gives-insight-on-lyme-msids/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/11/04/24514/  Many Lyme/MSIDS patients have reactivated Epstein Bar Virus (EBV).

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/01/16/a-strange-itch-trouble-breathing-then-anaphylactic-shock/

The Cabal still denies ticks transmit Bart; however, many feel otherwise.  This is why all the research in the world put out by the Cabal will never touch Bart.  It doesn’t fit the narrative.  The fly in the ointment is similar to sexual transmission for Lyme, the organisms have been found but there isn’t conclusive proof of transmission.  Many of these pathogens are fastidious and hard to study in a lab.  All case studies are ignored.

I’m always fascinated that Bartonella and Mycoplasma are rarely mentioned in regards to coinfections by mainstream news – as according to experts Dr. Nicholson and Dr. Breitshwerdt, they are probably the TOP coinfections with Lyme.  

More on Bartonella:  

https://www.northcarolinahealthnews.org/2013/12/05/bartonella-is-everywhere-so-why-dont-we-know-more-about-it/  Bartonella is a bacteria transmitted by fleas, ticks, animals, even spiders, but few people know about it.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/01/03/bartonella-treatment/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/11/03/first-report-of-bartonella-quintana-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-complicated-by-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/23/opthalmic-manifestations-of-bartonella-infection/

More on Myco:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/02/07/mycoplasma-treatment/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2015/08/12/connecting-dots-mycoplasma/

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/3/1/97-0103_article  This 1997 article even implicates Myco with Gulf War Syndrome, despite the CDC denying, denying, denying it.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/08/26/interstitial-cystitis-and-lyme-disease/

 

Phase II Malaria Meds – 100% Cured – Good for Babesia?

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/01/180119090342.htm

Promising malaria medication tested
New combination of drugs proves effective and well-tolerated; further studies planned

January 19, 2018

Universitaet Tübingen

Summary:
An international research team has conducted successful phase II clinical tests of a new anti-malaria medication. The treatment led to a cure in 83 cases.

FULL STORY

Researchers tested the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a combination of the drugs Fosmidomycin and Piperaquine. 

An international research team has conducted successful phase II clinical tests of a new anti-malaria medication. The treatment led to a cure in 83 cases. The new combination of drugs was developed by Professor Peter Kremsner of the Tübingen Institute of Tropical Medicine and the company DMG Deutschen Malaria GmbH. The study was recently published in Clinical Infectious Diseases and is freely accessible.

In the study, the researchers tested the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a combination of the drugs Fosmidomycin and Piperaquine. The twofold medication was administered for three days to patients aged one to thirty who were infected with malaria via the Plasmodium falciparum pathogen. In the 83 evaluable cases, there was a 100% cure rate. Patients tolerated the treatment well, and it led to a swift reduction of clinical symptoms. Safety issues were limited to changes in electrocardiogram readings, as had been described for Piperaquine.

The study was conducted at the Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné (CERMEL) in the African country of Gabon; CERMEL has close ties with the University of Tübingen. Financial support came from the nonprofit organisation Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).

“This study represents a milestone in the clinical research into Fosmidomycin,” says Tübingen Professor of Tropical Medicine Peter Kremsner. The substance was originally extracted from Streptomyces lavendulae and today can be produced synthetically. It blocks a metabolic pathway for the production of Isoprenoid in the malaria pathogen. This makes the malaria pathogen unable to metabolize or reproduce. Because Isoprenoids are formed via a different synthesis path in the human body, humans have no target structures for Fosmidomycin. For this reason humans tolerate the drug well and suffer barely any side effects. In addition, this unique mechanism excludes the possibility of cross-resistance to the drugs used in earlier malaria treatments.

The new combination meets WHO guidelines for combination therapies. The two drugs mechanisms against differing target structures means that they attack the parasite in the bloodstream independently of one another. This meets WHO requirements for a fast and effective treatment of the acute phase of infection, and for protection against relapse due to reappearance of the infection. The researchers say the effective mechanism helps to delay the formation of a possible resistance. Further studies are in planning to optimize dose.

Journal Reference:

Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Jonathan Remppis, Moritz Sievers, Rella Zoleko Manego, Lilian Endamne, Lumeka Kabwende, Luzia Veletzky, The Trong Nguyen, Mirjam Groger, Felix Lötsch, Johannes Mischlinger, Lena Flohr, Johanna Kim, Chiara Cattaneo, David Hutchinson, Stephan Duparc, Moehrle Joerg, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Bertrand Lell, Michael Ramharter, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Benjamin Mordmüller, Peter G Kremsner. Efficacy and safety of fosmidomycin-piperaquine as non-artemisinin-based combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria – A single-arm, age-de-escalation proof of concept study in Gabon. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2017; DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix1122

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02198807    Evaluation of Fosmidomycin and Piperaquine in the Treatment of Acute Falciparum Malaria (FOSPIP)
Verified June 2015 by Jomaa Pharma GmbH.

Collaborator:
Centre de Recherche Médicale de Lambaréné

Brief Summary:
The objective of this study is to explore the role of fosmidomycin and piperaquine as non-artemisinin-based combination therapy for acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum when administered over three days.
Together, fosmidomycin and piperaquine fulfil the WHO criteria for combination therapy by meeting the three key parameters of having different modes of action and different biochemical targets while exhibiting independent blood schizonticidal activity. Like the artemisinins, fosmidomycin is fast-acting, has an excellent safety record and is active against existing drug-resistant parasites. Piperaquine has a long half life protecting fosmidomycin as a much shorter lived molecule against selection of resistant parasites and will provide post-treatment prophylaxis.

Experimental: Fosmidomycin-Piperaquine
Fosmidomycin sodium capsules 450 mg, dosage: 30mg/kg twice daily for 3 days Piperaquine phosphate tablets 320 mg, dosage: 16 mg/kg once a day for 3 days

______________

**Comment**

It appears this works for Babesia as well:  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0019334&bw=1  Babesia divergens, a related parasite that also infects human erythrocytes and is also known to induce an increase in membrane permeability, displays a similar susceptibility and uptake behavior with regard to the drug. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells do apparently not take up the compounds, and the drugs are inactive against the liver stages of Plasmodium berghei, a mouse malaria parasite.

The big caveat; however, is that many Lyme/MSIDS patients are persistently infected with Babesia and need far more than 3 days for acute treatment:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/01/16/babesia-treatment/  Dr. Krause published in the New England Journal of Medicine that when a patient has Lyme and Babesia, Lyme is found three-times more frequently in the blood, proving Babesia suppresses the immune system.

Testing which is poor as these organisms are not often found in high enough numbers in the blood, as well as people present subclinically. In other words, their Lyme case is more severe and they have malarial-type symptoms, but they can’t find Babesia in the blood in a Giemsa stain. It takes a trained eye to identify Babesia, which produces a Maltese Cross form, which may or may not be present in a particular smear. Also, doctors have been taught that besides the day and night sweats and chills, patients are supposed to get hemolytic anemia and their liver functions go up or their platelet count might go down (thrombocytopenia). The fly in the ointment is that only certain strains of Babesia do this. Many strains do not cause these symptoms – but doctors aren’t educated on these finer points. Also, to hide from the immune system, the various species produce offspring that have different exterior proteins, or genotypes. http://www.townsendletter.com/July2015/babesia0715_2.html According to Dr. Schaller, there is immense variation and pre-2015 treatments were “weak and showed ignorance of the power of Babesia – it is vastly harder to kill than malaria.”

 

Headaches and Lyme/MSIDS

https://globallymealliance.org/my-1-headache-trigger-lyme-disease/

th

By Jennifer Crystal

Skiing has always been part of my life. I went to a college in Vermont that had its own ski run. After graduation, I moved to Colorado to teach high school, and to become a ski instructor. It was supposed to be the high point of my life, and in many ways it was, but there were also some very low points because I was wrestling with undiagnosed tick-borne illnesses.

One such low found me on the bathroom floor, writhing in pain from an excruciating migraine. The throbbing started over my left eye, working its way up over that side of my head and around the back to my neck. I felt as if my brain was going to explode out of my skull.

“It’s probably from the altitude,” a doctor later told me. In the years since I had started developing strange symptoms—fever, joint aches, exhaustion, hand tremors, hives—I grew accustomed to doctors writing them off with a simple explanation.

But altitude was not causing my migraines. In fact, I was suffering from Lyme disease, Ehrlichia, and Babesia, the last being a tick-borne parasite that consumes oxygen in red blood cells. Due to these infections, a scan would later show that I was not getting enough oxygen to the left side of my brain. Living at a high altitude certainly didn’t help this situation, but the root cause was the fact that my oxygen levels were already compromised by infection.

Babesia is not the only tick-borne disease that can cause headaches; so can Ehrlichia and relapsing fevers. But with or without co-infections, the vast majority of Lyme disease patients complain of headaches as a chief symptom, with pain ranging from moderate to severe. Many patients, myself included, have encountered migraines so debilitating they’re relegated to bed in a dark room due to pain, light sensitivity and nausea. Though tick-borne diseases can cause pain throughout the cranium, migraines are usually focused to one side. As a child, I had four surgeries to correct weak muscles in my eyes, especially on the left, leaving scar tissue over that eye. I later learned that Lyme bacteria, spirochetes, like to hide out in scar tissue, which may explain why my migraines always started over that eye.

So why are headaches so common for Lyme patients? Spirochetes can enter the central nervous system by crossing the blood-brain barrier. This barrier is supposed to protect the brain from infection, but spirochetes are tricky and swift and can coil their way across, causing headaches for their victims.

Lyme is an inflammatory disease, so once spirochetes enter the central nervous system, they cause swelling there. In his book Why Can’t I Get Better? Solving the Mystery of Lyme & Chronic Disease, Dr. Richard Horowitz equates this inflammation to a fire that ignites heat, redness, pain, and loss of function.[1] Feeling like my brain was going to explode out of my skull was not really hyperbole; my head was indeed swollen, but I just couldn’t see it the way I would be able to if  I’d had a swollen ankle or knee.

At my lowest points of illness, I got migraines several times a week. I tried to try to push through the pain. I wanted to be living my life, teaching and skiing. But I always paid a high price for not listening to my body—or in this case, to my brain. Ignoring the headache only increased the pain, sometimes sending me to bed for two or three days at a time. I got prescription medication, which I learned to take as soon as I felt a headache coming on, rather than trying to wait it out. I also found that staying hydrated, eating foods rich in iron, and stretching gently—to help increase blood flow—sometimes helped alleviate my headaches.

The best treatment, however, was rest. If you have a swollen ankle or knee, you stay off that joint, giving it time to heal. The same is true for your brain. Your head needs time to recover from inflammation, and nothing has helped that process more for me than sleep. Though I rarely get migraines these days, I still get pressure on the left side of my head when I get tired or neurologically overwhelmed. I never want to spend a day in bed, but one is better than being there for several days—and it’s certainly better than writhing on the bathroom floor. A day spent recuperating means more days on the slopes, and I’ll take as many of those as I can get.

[1] Horowitz, Richard I. Why Can’t I Get Better? Solving the Mystery of Lyme & Chronic Disease. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 2013. (186)


Opinions expressed by contributors are their own.

Jennifer Crystal is a writer and educator in Boston. She is working on a memoir about her journey with chronic tick-borne illness. Do you have a question for Jennifer? Email her at  jennifercrystalwriter@gmail.com

________________

**Comment**

Infection driven inflammation is the name of the game here and anything you can do to lower both will help the headaches.

Since this was a major thorn for me my quest for relief has led me to numerous modalities.  One is systemic enzymes:  

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/04/02/why-docs-miss-msids-wobenzym/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/04/22/systemic-enzymes/

My husband nearly destroyed his liver taking Ibuprofen for Lyme/MSIDS pain.  

The other is ruling out Chiari and/or any other physical causes:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/04/02/chiari/  Normally Chiari is thought of as a congenital abnormality; however, within 1 week I met 3 people with a MSIDS diagnosis who also have Chiari. Coincidence?  Brain infections can cause it.

Next down the rabbit hole is MSM (a derivative of DMSO – without the smell):  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/01/03/the-invisible-universe-of-the-human-microbiome-msm/  MSM stands for Methylsulfonylmethane and is 34% sulfur by weight. Sulfur plays a crucial role in detoxification and is an important antioxidant for producing glutathione.  It has been used for decades for pain and inflammation.  

There are also MSM creams – but beware and do your reading.  Many have toxic additives and perfumes.  

And then of course, DMSO:

I promised I would write an in-depth article on both DMSO and its derivative MSM but there’s a lot to read!  I have personally tried both with excellent results.  MSM is as safe as water but please read about it in the link above as the process in which it’s made is important.  

As to DMSO, it’s safe as well but since it’s a solvent (penetrating agent) it demands scrupulous attention to detail, plus you may not enjoy the garlic/oyster smell it gives.  You also need to find pure DMSO.  

http://www.alternative-medicine-digest.com/dmso.htmlOver 100,000 articles have been written about medical DMSO uses. In 1963, when the FDA approved human testing, all studies showed it to be safe and non-toxic. One study revealed changes in the lens of the eye in specific lab animals; however, when a number of human studies were done around the world in the late sixties, no human eye damage was found.

After two human studies done on human volunteers in prison, Dr. Richard Brobyn stated: “A very extensive study of DMSO use was conducted at three to 30 times the usual treatment dosage in humans for three months. DMSO appears to be a very safe drug for human administration, and, in particular, the lens changes that occur in certain mammalian species do not occur in man under this very high, prolonged treatment regimen. I am very glad to be able to present these data at this time, so that we can permanently dispel the myth that DMSO is in any way a toxic or dangerous drug.”

So far I’m taking 1/2 tsp of MSM crystals in water twice a day.  All pain gone.  POOF!  If there is any pain ever, I use a DMSO gel topically on the specific area of pain – typically the base of my skull.  Within minutes, pain gone.  POOF!

Please read about DMSO before trying as it burns and itches for a spell.  Do not itch it.  You also need to read about concentrations as some are too strong for topical application.  I use the 70% DMSO gel.  Some are more sensitive and need a lower percentage.   It also has a lovely smell to it – but hey, I’ll smell like an oyster any day than deal with the pain!  Also, hands and anything DMSO touches has to be scrupulously clean.  It must dry (takes about 20-30 min) before putting any clothing on it as the dyes, etc will go into your body.  

I’ve called numerous places to find out what the ingredient (such as rose smell) is in certain DMSO creams.  I’m not getting straight answers so I’m not using it.  I’d rather deal with the smell than introduce yet another foreign substance into my body.

Of course the question begs to be asked, “Would taking liquid DMSO internally aid with getting antimicrobials/antivirals deeper into the body?”  My hunch is yes, if you can stand the smell.

Stay tuned.  More to come.

 

Blacklegged Tick – Increasing Public Health Concern

  • The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is becoming more widespread in the eastern United States.
  • The number of I. scapularis-borne microorganisms recognized to be pathogenic in humans is increasing.
  • The incidence of I. scapularis-borne disease cases continues to increase.

The geographic distribution of human cases of I. scapularis-borne diseases is expanding.

There is a critical need for control approaches with proven capacity to reverse the growing public health problem imposed by I. scapularis.

In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis.

In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. scapularis-borne disease cases, have increased. Despite knowledge of when and where humans are most at risk of exposure to infected ticks, control of I. scapularis-borne diseases remains a challenge. Human vaccines are not available, and we lack solid evidence for other prevention and control methods to reduce human disease. The way forward is discussed.

______________

**Comment**

Hopefully this memo is getting out to practitioners so that long-gone are the days where a patient is told, “It can’t be Lyme because there isn’t any Lyme here.”  

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/09/24/arkansas-kids-denied-lyme-treatment/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/24/no-lyme-in-oklahoma-yeah-right/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/11/03/ld-not-in-australia-here-we-go-again/

Feel free to copy this article and show it to health practitioners.  They NEED to know what we all have known for decades.

See the blue link in the beginning of the article for graphs and images.  For some reason I wasn’t able to upload them here.  Again, all data needs to be viewed with skepticism for a myriad of reasons, the main one being that everything regarding TBI’s is underreported and even the CDC acknowledges this – which demonstrates how severe the problem truly is.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/08/24/canine-maps-better-than-the-cdcs-in-predicting-lyme-disease/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/12/the-cdc-needs-a-good-dictionary/

Promising research testing for ALL bacteria in ticks:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/01/15/developing-new-tests-to-identify-all-bacteria-in-ticks-drexel-university/

We need to know:

Bb Persistence, if it’s a STD, it can be spread congenitally, via breast milk, urine and body fluids, other possible vectors such as mosquitoes and spiders, how to kill these suckers without killing ourselves and pets, and many other issues that have either been ignored completely or the science is so old is has dust on it.

 

Blood Screening for Babesiosis Using Enzymatic Assays

Screening of patient blood samples for babesiosis using enzymatic assays

Primus S, Akoolo L, Schlachter S, Parveen N.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, online first 2017 Nov 12.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.11.003

Abstract

Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Transmitted by Ixodes ticks, the causative agent Babesia microti is an intraerythrocytic parasite that causes mild to deadly disease. Transmission of B. microti can also occur by transfusion of infected blood and blood products resulting in transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB), which carries a high risk of fatality.

To effectively manage this rise in B. microti infections, better screening tools are needed, which require minimal manipulation of the samples before testing. To this end, we tested two enzymatic assays, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), for efficacy in diagnosis of babesiosis. The results show that AST and ALT activity is significantly higher in the plasma of B. microti-infected patients.

Moreover, statistical analysis revealed that these assays have high sensitivity and positive predictive values, which highlights their usefulness as diagnostics for babesiosis. These standardized enzymatic assays can be used to perform high-throughput, large-scale screens of blood and blood products before they are certified safe for transfusion.

____________

For more on Babesia:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/01/16/babesia-treatment/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/12/15/blood-screening-for-babesia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/07/09/2600-increase-in-babesia-in-12-years-in-wisconsin/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/11/19/seroprevalence-of-babesia-in-individuals-with-ld/