Seropositivity to Midichloria mitochondrii (order Rickettsiales) as a marker to determine the exposure of humans to tick bite.
, Krey V2
, Daschkin C2,3
, Cafiso A1
, Sassera D4
, Maxeiner HG5
, Modeo L6
, Nicolaus C2
, Bandi C7,8
, Bazzocchi C1,8,9
Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick species parasitizing humans in Europe, and the main vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the continent. This tick species also harbors the endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii, and there is strong evidence that this bacterium is inoculated into the vertebrate host during the blood meal. A high proportion of tick bites remains unnoticed due to rarity of immediate symptoms, implying the risk of occult tick-borne infections in turn a potential risk factor for the onset of chronic-degenerative diseases. Since suitable tools to determine the previous exposure to I. ricinus bites are needed, this work investigated whether seropositivity toward a protein of M. mitochondrii (rFliD) could represent a marker for diagnosis of I. ricinus bite.
We screened 274 sera collected from patients from several European countries, at different risk of tick bite, using an ELISA protocol. Our results show a clear trend indicating that positivity to rFliD is higher where the tick bite can be regarded as certain/almost certain, and lower where there is an uncertainty on the bite, with the highest positivity in Lyme patients (47.30%) and the lowest (2.00%) in negative controls.
According to the obtained results, M. mitochondrii can be regarded as a useful source of antigens, with the potential to be used to assess the exposure to ticks harboring this bacterium. In prospect, additional antigens from M. mitochondrii and tick salivary glands should be investigated and incorporated in a multi-antigen test for tick bite diagnosis.
This is an interesting study with future potential. Essentially they are saying since Lyme is so hard to detect – find its friends and you may find Lyme.
I’ve written about endosymbionts before, particularly Wolbachia:
Briefly, endosymbionts are organisms living in the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship – which isn’t always of mutual benefit. An example of a mutualistic relationship is the protozoan endosymbionts inside a termite which help it to break down the wood it eats.
However, in the case of Wolbachia, while the benefit between itself and the worms it lives in may be mutualistic, it’s caused harm in dogs being treated for heart worm. Heart worm medication causes Wolbachia to be released into the blood and tissues causing severe Inflammation in pulmonary artery endothelium which may form thrombi and interstitial inflammation. Wolbachia also activates pro inflammatory cytokines. For human Lyme/MSIDS patients this could translate out to a similar result when they are treated for worms, which ticks also carry.
What I find interesting here is that both Midichloria and Wolbachia are in the same subclass of Rickettsidae and order Rickettsiales. Guess who else is in these groups?
Both of which cause a variety of human and animal illness.
The question of course is, could these supposedly harmless endosymbionts be responsible for more than they are given credit for? Testing for them may not only reveal that Lyme is present but in fact that they are contributing to the problem. Sounds like an exciting field of discovery.
Endocarditis caused by Bartonella Quintana, a rare case in the United States
Bartonella quintana is a relatively rare cause of endocarditis in the United States (USA). Historically it was linked with trench fever, but cardiac involvement seems to be more prevalent recently. There are some known risk factors associated with Bartonella quintana endocarditis such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, alcoholism, homelessness and poor hygiene. We report a case of 37-year-old African man, with culture negative endocarditis, emboli and rising B. quintana and B. henselae IgG titers. B. quintana DNA was subsequently detected from the mitral valve sample with 16S rRNA gene and ribC primer sets. Eventually, blood culture for B. quintana was positive after 21 days. Patient was successfully treated with doxycycline and gentamicin. There have been a few cases of B. quintana endocarditis in the USA and most of them were associated with HIV infection, homelessness or alcoholism. The case reported here highlights the importance of high clinical suspicious for Bartonella species in blood culture negative endocarditis in the USA in appropriate setting and will help to increase awareness among physicians for early diagnosis and treatment.
A few points of interest:
- Patient’s chief complaints: progressive shortness of breath, chest pain, occasional non-drenching night sweats, fatigue, unintentional ten pound weight loss, and intermittent sharp chest pain radiating to the neck
- Past medical history significant for latent tuberculosis infection and treatment completed 3 months prior to the presentation
- While living in the Democratic Republic of Congo before migrating to Indiana, patient had a cow at his home and used to drink raw cow’s milk
- Had Janeway Lesions on hands & feet http://www.healthgala.info/2017/08/Janeway-lesion-Pictures-Definition-Symptoms-Causes-Treatment.html
- Was considered immunocompetent
For more: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/01/04/endocarditis-consider-bartonella/
Borrelia miyamotoi infection leads to cross-reactive antibodies to the C6 peptide in mice and men
“I am Barbara Johnson. I am a biochemist by training and I am speaking today on behalf of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concerning serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Specifically, my statement is in support of (the) IDSA recommendation in the guidelines to use two-tiered serology (an ELISA screening test followed by Western Blots if ELISA positive) to support the diagnosis of Lyme disease in patients who have manifestations other than acute erythema migrans. – IDSA Lyme Disease Review Panel Hearing, July 30, 2009
For more dirty deeds done dirt cheap: ConflictReport
While I’ve already posted the information that research at the military’s leading biodefense center in Fort Detrick, Maryland is being suspended due to problems with disposal of dangerous materials, https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/08/07/fort-detrick-lab-shut-down-after-failed-safety-inspection-all-research-halted-indefinitely/, this article includes a list of select agents and toxins considered a potential severe threat to human and animal health. Article found here: https://ww w.nytimes.com/2019/08/05/health/germs-fort-detrick-biohazard.html
The institute, which has about 900 employees, studies germs and toxins that could be used to threaten the military or public health. It also investigates disease outbreaks and carries out research projects for government agencies, universities and drug companies, which pay for the work.
The select agents and toxins list is found here. According to the NBACC website, the facility conducts research on pathogens for which there is no vaccine or treatment. https://www.selectagents.gov/SelectAgentsandToxinsList.html
Interestingly, the following from the list are transmitted by ticks:
For more: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/07/31/tick-expert-admits-to-working-on-ticks-dropping-them-out-of-airplanes/
It is interesting the lab is suddenly closing down at the exact time an amendment passes the House telling the Department of Defense to investigate tick bioweaponization….
Burgdorfer, the discoverer of the Lyme bacterium, was a key member of this project team. He worked on weaponizing ticks and teamed up with fellow tick expert James Oliver at the Ft. Detrick bioweapons headquarters to develop ways to mass produce infected ticks so that they could be dropped from airplanes on enemy territory. These claims are backed up by interviews with these scientists, as well as with extensive government documentation from multiple reliable sources, all listed in BITTEN…(the book by Kris Newby).
Dr. Burgdorfer, “was engaged for 3 years on classified projects (Army) from which findings could not be published because of their impact on national defense.” https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/08/06/kris-newby-responds-to-telfords-criticism-of-bitten/
Another article on the lab assisting the FBI: http://www.progressive-charlestown.com/2017/06/just-hold-your-breath.html
Tick-borne pathogens Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. may trigger endocarditis.
Infections caused by tick-borne pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. are capable of causing serious lesions of the mitral and aortic valves, leading to a need for valve replacement.
The aim of the study was to determine whether such cases are sporadic or frequent. An additional goal was to establish effective diagnostic methods to detect these infections.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
The study involved 148 patients undergoing valve replacement. Blood samples were drawn for serological testing. Samples of the removed mitral and aortic valves were tested with PCR and immunohistochemical staining.
Specific antibodies to
- Bartonella spp. were detected in 47 patients (31.7%) and in 1 of the healthy controls (1%) (p < 0.05)
- B. burgdorferi spirochetes were found in 18 of the patients (12.2%) and in 6 blood donors from the control group (5.8%) (p < 0.1)
- Rickettsia spp. were detected in 12 (8.1%)
- C. burnetii phase I and II antigens in the serum of 1 patient. All the participants in the control group were seronegative to C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. antigens.
- PCR tests for detection of Bartonella spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. DNA in the valve samples were all negative.
Inflammation foci with mononuclear lymphoid cells in the aortic and mitral valves were seen in sections stained with hematoxiline and eozine. In sections dyed using the indirect immunofluorescence method with hyperimmune sera, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. were found.
The results obtained indicate that laboratory diagnostics for patients with heart disorders should be expanded to include tests detecting tick-borne zoonoses such as bartonelloses, Lyme borreliosis, rickettsioses and Q fever.
This article shows that tick borne pathogens are common with patients needing heart valve replacements. Unfortunately, testing still isn’t accurate. Finding antibodies, authorities would argue, doesn’t mean a person has symptoms; however, this issue desperately needs further research as finding antibodies does indicate the presence of pathogens.
A point to be made about the low percentage of those testing positive for Lyme might be due to the fact they only tested one strain: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. There are 300 strains worldwide and 100 in the U.S. (and counting).
Bartonella is similar in the fact that a recent article pointed out that a 14-year-old boy with PANS caused by Bartonella henselae infection was NOT seropositive. Only one of the three blood samples tested positive before culturing and only two tested positive after culturing. A single blood draw might have missed confirming a diagnosis of bartonellosis.
How many doctors are going to hunt these infections to ground? How many have the time and doggedness it requires to find them? It’s far more likely they will take the results from a singular test, close the book, and move onto the next patient.
We desperately need accurate tests that pick up ALL the pathogens.
MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF TWO UNCONVENTIONAL CASES OF BARTONELLA NEURORETINITIS.