Archive for the ‘research’ Category

Patient Contracts Babesia From a Blood Donor: Only 14 States Test For It

https://danielcameronmd.com/patient-contracts-babesia-blood-donor/

PATIENT CONTRACTS BABESIA FROM A BLOOD DONOR

babesia-blood-donor

Babesia is most commonly transmitted through a tick bite but it can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion. To minimize the risk to the public, blood banks now screen donors for Babesia in endemic states.

In their article “Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing chronic red cell exchange,” Costa and colleagues describe a patient who contracted Babesia from a donor living in Ohio, a state that is not considered endemic for Babesia

According to the authors, a 30-year-old man with sickle cell disease (SCD) required approximately 10 units of red blood cells every 3–4 weeks throughout his childhood.

Approximately 2 months after a red blood cell exchange, he presented with fever, neck pain, and photophobia. Several days later, he developed a persistent fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and loss of appetite.

He was diagnosed with Babesia through identification of parasites in his red blood cells and positive antibodies. He was also borderline positive on an antibody test for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

“Prior to laboratory-based blood donor screening for Babesia, transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) was a leading infectious risk to the blood supply in the United States.”

The young man was treated for Babesia with azithromycin and atovaquone for 10 days with resolution of his symptoms. He was not treated for Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

The patient lived in a state endemic for Babesia but did not recall a tick bite.

“A donor lookback investigation was initiated with the blood supplier,” the authors wrote. They found that in the preceding 6 months, the patient had received 65 units of blood, with 58 units screened for Babesia.

Unfortunately, “One of the donors of the 7 untested units was B. microti seropositive,” the authors wrote. The donor lived in a state not requiring Babesia screening.

“Our case demonstrates the continued vulnerability of the US blood supply to Babesia.”

“The seropositive donor had not had any symptoms of babesiosis; he lived in Ohio and reported being very active over the past year, including hiking and camping in several states (Ohio, Tennessee, and North Carolina),” the authors wrote.

In 2019, the FDA recommended testing of blood donors for Babesia in the 14 states where almost all cases of Babesia have been reported. “The policy confined to 14 states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin),” wrote the authors.

Authors Conclude:

“Heightened awareness and health care provider education are imperative, especially in non-endemic [states] where clinicians may not be accustomed to diagnosing community-acquired or TTB, placing transfusion recipients at risk of delayed diagnosis and severe disease.

References:
  1. Costa V, Mercure-Corriveau N, Gourneau J, et al. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing chronic red cell exchange. Transfusion. Jan 13 2023;doi:10.1111/trf.17244

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**Comment**

Once again, the madness of limiting potential infection to certain geographical areas despite the ability of people, animals, and bugs to move around is completely asinine.  Yet, here we are – still in the madness.

For more:

The Many Presentations of the Lyme Disease rash

https://danielcameronmd.com/many-presentations-lyme-disease-rash/

THE MANY PRESENTATIONS OF THE LYME DISEASE RASH

lyme-disease-rash

The general public, as well as practicing clinicians often believe that the rash indicative of Lyme disease always presents in a bull’s-eye pattern. This is not correct. In this study, investigators sought to characterize various presentations of the rash in Lyme disease patients, in an effort to assist clinicians in recognizing the broad spectrum of EM lesions.

In the study “The Spectrum of Erythema Migrans in Early Lyme Disease: Can We Improve Its Recognition?,” investigators examined images of lesions from 69 participants, including 43 men and 26 women, suspected to have early Lyme disease.  The majority of participants (83%) presented with a single lesion.¹

The images were retrospectively evaluated by a dermatologist and a family practitioner with expertise in early Lyme disease.

The authors found that 35 lesions (51%) were erythema migrans (EM); 23 lesions (30%) were considered to be possible early EM or tick bite reactions, and 11 (16%) were thought not to be EM, but rather other diagnoses, including ringworm, allergic contact dermatitis, and mosquito bites.

“Only two lesions (6%) were observed with a classic bull’s eye or ring-within-a-ring pattern.”

EM rashes were reported most frequently to appear on the abdomen, thigh, back and hip.

Participants with an EM rash reported the following symptoms: chills, fever, night sweats, headache, fatigue, body aches, nausea and neuralgia.

Most EM lesions appeared:

  • Uniform (51%)
  • Pink (74%)
  • With an oval shape (63%)
  • Well-defined borders (92%)

What did early EM or tick bite reactions look like? They “were typically <5 cm in size (74%), red (52%), round lesions (61%), with a punctum present (100%),” according to the authors.

Lesions that were not EM rashes appeared: pink or red (64%), round (55%), or uniform (45%) lesions, but also had raised (25%) or irregular borders (33%).

“EM commonly occurs in forms that are not the classic bull’s eye.”

“Only 14 (20%) participants overall had positive laboratory evidence for LD; these included 13 (37%) of the participants with EM-classified lesions,” the authors wrote.

VIEW PHOTOS OF EM RASHES

The authors suggest that “education should deemphasize the bull’s eye form and stress the wide variability in EM instead and the fact that many of them present as a uniform, homogeneous lesion.”

The authors conclude:

  • “Patients often present with lesions that may represent the very early stage of EM or tick bite reactions, and most patients will test negative on currently available laboratory tests…”
  • “Clinicians may not be aware of all existing variations, such that some LD patients with EM may not be immediately recognized and promptly diagnosed and treated. Hence, further improvements in terms of clinician awareness and recognition of EM are needed.”

A High Quality Ixodes Scapularis Genome Advances Tick Science

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41588-022-01275-w

Published: 

A high-quality Ixodes scapularis genome advances tick science

Abstract

Ixodes spp. and related ticks transmit prevalent infections, although knowledge of their biology and development of anti-tick measures have been hindered by the lack of a high-quality genome. In the present study, we present the assembly of a 2.23-Gb Ixodes scapularis genome by sequencing two haplotypes within one individual, complemented by chromosome-level scaffolding and full-length RNA isoform sequencing, yielding a fully reannotated genome featuring thousands of new protein-coding genes and various RNA species. Analyses of the repetitive DNA identified transposable elements, whereas the examination of tick-associated bacterial sequences yielded an improved Rickettsia buchneri genome. We demonstrate how the Ixodes genome advances tick science by contributing to new annotations, gene models and epigenetic functions, expansion of gene families, development of in-depth proteome catalogs and deciphering of genetic variations in wild ticks. Overall, we report critical genetic resources and biological insights impacting our understanding of tick biology and future interventions against tick-transmitted infections.

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**Comment**

I hate to be the bearer of bad news, but this sudden concern about tick genomes is all due to the mad gold-rush on mRNA products that are the new popular trend every researcher vying for government grants is seeking today, including industry, governmental, and educational institution tick researchers. You see, by doing innocuous-seeming research on genomes. genetically altered organisms (GMOs), and “climate change,” – they can continue to get paid and keep their labs running like a well-oiled machines, despite the very real impact on the environmentincluding humans.  After all, researchers are smart people and clearly understand that if you study things like contaminants in vaccines, your lab gets shut down and your position gets terminated.  Doctors are told to “zip it” regarding vaccine injury or their licenses are suspended. You essentially get “Wakefielded,” and life as you know it changes forever.

Few people are willing to swallow that red pill.

It’s far easier to just give The Cabal what they want and refrain from making any waves.

This is why ZERO transmission studies regarding Lyme/MSIDS have been done in decades.  It’s why mainstream research will never admit in a million years that Lyme/MSIDS is persistent. They simply don’t want that Pandora’s box opened or even questioned.  Better to continue using nearly 40 year old research showing the potential of transmission but declaring it doesn’t exist due to some arbitrary cut-off made for a pre-determined outcome.

Our corrupt public health agencies have been declaring things for a long time.

Despite the absolute flop of the COVID mRNA genetherapy injections, the massive numbers of sudden deaths (SADS), heart issues, and other life-altering adverse reactions, the mRNA platform is being forced down our throats, like it or not, – despite experts warning, indeed shouting, that it is unstable, untested and unsafe.  It doesn’t even work well, but The Cabal simply changes definitions, manipulates thresholds, waives normal testing requirements, hides and recategorizes data, and then rubber stamps approval.

Hey, when you’re in charge, you can seemingly do whatever you want.

Study: Controlled Burns Reduce Ticks, Lyme Disease

https://www.bayjournal.com/news/wildlife_habitat/study-controlled-burns-reduce-ticks-lyme-disease/article

Study: Controlled burns reduce ticks, Lyme disease

By Ad Crable

Jan. 13, 2023

Prescribed fire

A prescribed fire takes place at the Arboretum at Penn State. (Courtesy of the Arboretum at Penn State)

As tick-borne Lyme disease continues to spread in Pennsylvania and other Chesapeake Bay drainage states, a new study suggests more use of prescribed burns on public and private forests could help reduce both the numbers of ticks and incidence of the disease.

In a paper published in Ecological Applications, researchers from Penn State, the U.S. Forest Service and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection said the increased use of prescribed fire by forest managers to control invasive plants, improve wildlife habitat and restore ecosystem health can also help knock down the tick problem.  (See link for article)

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**Comment**

For more:

    How Common is Lyme Carditis in Patients Referred For Pacemaker Implantation?

    https://danielcameronmd.com/lyme-carditis-in-patients-pacemaker-implantation/

    HOW COMMON IS LYME CARDITIS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION?

    Doctor looking at ECG machine to diagnose lyme carditis in patient admitted for a pacemaker.

    Atrioventricular blocks (AVBs) due to an infection have rarely been reported. However, “Borrelia burgdorferi is increasingly noted as responsible for a considerable number of infection-related AVBs, and AVBs have been reported as the most common clinical presentation of [Lyme carditis],” according to the authors of a newly published study.

    By Dr. Daniel Cameron

    In the study “Prevalence of Lyme Carditis in Patients with Atrioventricular Blocks,” Kaczmarek and colleagues aim to identify patients in whom Lyme carditis (LC) should be considered as the underlying cause of AV conduction disturbances.¹

    Investigators examined 130 patients with AVB who had been consecutively admitted over a 12-month period, to the Department of Electrocardiology Medical University of Lodz, Poland, for implantation of a permanent pacemaker.

    All of the patients underwent serological testing for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl).

    The majority of the patients had arterial hypertension (64.6%), approximately 1 in 4 had ischemic heart disease (26.2%) and 1 in 5 suffered from diabetes (19.9%) and dyslipidemia (21.9%).
    “Atrial fibrillation was reported by 23 patients (17.7%). One sixth (22; 16.9%) of the patients had a history of heart failure, including 13 individuals (10.0%) with a reduced and mildly reduced ejection fraction,” according to Kaczmarek et al.

    Lyme carditis in patients admitted for pacemaker implants

    Out of the 130 patients, 30 (23.1%) individuals tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. “IgM seropositivity indicating acute phase was found in 16 of them (12.3%), which together with clinical scenario of AVB led to initial diagnosis of LC.”

    The authors found that Lyme carditis was assumed as the initial diagnosis in 16 patients based on ABV and IgM Bbsl seropositivity.

    In 10% of these patients, Lyme carditis was identified as the potential cause of AV conduction disturbances.

    “In clinical practice, patients with [Lyme carditis] diagnosis at admission typically receive antibiotics, which seem to be highly effective in resolving advanced atrioventricular conduction abnormalities.”

    The clinical characteristics were similar between the Lyme carditis and non-LC group. Nearly 40% of patients in both groups had complete heart block, while second-degree AVB was identified in over 50% of patients in the LC and non-LC group.

    The patients did not exhibit any signs or symptoms of acute myocarditis or endocarditis. “Therefore, the atrioventricular conduction disturbances were found to be the unique clinical presentation of [Lyme carditis] in our study group.”

    Additionally, Lyme carditis patients were younger and more often exhibited constitutional symptoms of infection, along with fluctuating atrioventricular conduction abnormalities.

    Authors Conclude:

    • “Lyme carditis should be considered as the initial diagnosis in a relatively high number of patients (8%) admitted with atrioventricular blocks for a permanent pacemaker implantation.”
    • “The prevalence of LC was even higher (12%) in the patients without obvious causes of a cardiac conduction system dysfunction.”
    • “We confirmed that the fluctuating nature of AVBs reported previously in case reports should be taken into account as a strong predictor of LC in patients referred for a pacemaker implantation.”
    • “We suggest that atrioventricular conduction behavior observed on ECG monitoring should be included in the diagnostic process of AVBs that could be potentially [Lyme carditis-related].”