Archive for the ‘research’ Category

Northern & Southern CA Cats have Bartonella and Rickettsia – Proven by 16S rRNA Next Gen Sequencing

Assessing Cat Flea Microbiomes in Northern and Southern California by 16S rRNA Next-Generation Sequencing.

Vasconcelos EJR, et al. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018.

Flea-borne diseases (FBDs) impact both human and animal health worldwide. Because adult fleas are obligately hematophagous and can harbor potential pathogens, fleas act as ectoparasites of vertebrates, as well as zoonotic disease vectors. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are important vectors of two zoonotic bacterial genera listed as priority pathogens by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID-USA): Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp., causative agents of bartonelloses and rickettsioses, respectively.

In this study, we introduce the first microbiome analysis of C. felis samples from California, determining the presence and abundance of relevant pathogenic genera by characterizing the cat flea microbiome through 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16S-NGS). Samples from both northern (NoCal) and southern (SoCal) California were assessed to expand current knowledge regarding FBDs in the state. We identified Rickettsia and Bartonella, as well as the endosymbiont Wolbachia, as the most abundant genera, followed by less abundant taxa. In comparison to our previous study screening Californian cat fleas for rickettsiae using PCR/digestion/sequencing of the ompB gene, the 16S-NGS approach applied herein showed a 95% level of agreement in detecting Rickettsia spp. There was no overall difference in microbiome diversity between NoCal and SoCal samples. Bacterial taxa identified by 16S-NGS in this study may help to improve epidemiological investigations, pathogen surveillance efforts, and clinical diagnostics of FBDs in California and elsewhere.



Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. are also diseases Lyme/MSIDS patients have to contend with.  There is no good, solid research studying the ability of ticks to transmit Bartonella, yet most of us out here in Lyme land have it.  Rickettsia’s out here too in plenty.  I would think this important issue would be dealt with.  Somehow patients are getting these diseases and its either happening by direct transmission or by being activated once they get Lyme and their immune systems become compromised.

Either way, this issue MUST be studied, resolved, and appropriately death with.

Mainstream medicine is completely lost when it comes to tick borne illnesses such as these.  Lyme is finally getting acknowledged due to shear numbers, but don’t kid yourself, thousands upon thousands have Bartonella and Rickettsia as well.  The one drug, one pathogen paradigm needs to be forgotten like a bad dream and researchers and doctors need to become educated on this complex 21st Century plague.

BTW:  Wolbachia is being widely used as a biocontrol.  Here’s why that may not be such a great idea:

It is my strong opinion that ALL of these factors are a perfect storm of events causing human suffering and disease.  Researchers need to zoom out and look at the big picture and the interconnection of things or we are doomed.

NY Governor Cuomo Announces Public-Private Research Collaboration to Advance Diagnosis and Treatment of Tick-Borne Diseases

For Immediate Release: 6/19/2018


Wadsworth Center Laboratory and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aim to Improve Diagnosis of Lyme Disease and Develop New Treatments

Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced a new, groundbreaking public-private research collaboration to advance the diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. The New York State Department of Health Wadsworth Center Laboratory and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. – a leading biotechnology company that invents life-transforming medicines for people with serious diseases, will collaborate to potentially develop improved diagnostics, prophylactics, and therapeutics for the diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases, starting with Lyme disease.

“This public-private collaboration harnesses the expertise of a world-leading biotech company to tackle one of the most pressing public health issues of our time,” Governor Cuomo said. “Together, Regeneron and the Wadsworth Center Laboratory have the potential to advance health research, develop life-saving treatments for Lyme disease, and address major gaps in our knowledge of tick-borne illnesses. New York is proud to help bolster our world-class, life sciences industry while investing in a safer, healthier Empire State for all.”

Tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, are among the fastest growing infectious diseases in the United States. When diagnosed correctly and treated, most Lyme disease patients recover within two weeks. However, proven diagnostic tests for Lyme disease have been mostly unchanged for the past 40 years and can have limitations when used at certain times during the course of illness, leaving patients and their providers frustrated, which may lead to missed opportunities for treatment.

Regeneron and the Wadsworth Center Laboratory will jointly research how the causative agent of Lyme disease, the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, replicates when a human is bitten by a tick carrying the bacterium, and how the host’s immune response is activated. This information will potentially advance the development of improved diagnostics, prophylactics, and new therapeutics. Over the course of five years, Regeneron will invest up to $48 million in this research and the state will reimburse 50 percent of Regeneron’s research costs up to a total reimbursement of $24 million through the New York State Life Sciences Initiative. Additionally, up to $6 million will be provided to Wadsworth Center Laboratory through the Life Sciences Initiative.

The groundbreaking collaboration between Regeneron and the Department of Health’s Wadsworth Center Laboratory builds on Governor Cuomo’s $750 million commitment to support construction of a new worldclass, stateoftheart Wadsworth Center Laboratory public health laboratory in the Capital Region that will promote collaborative public-private research. Redesigned as “A Lab for The 21st century,” Wadsworth will function as a magnet for future private sector investments where employees, visiting researchers, company executives, and academic partners cross paths to accelerate innovation and value creation. As one of the world’s largest public health research laboratories, this modern facility and committed co-investment will serve as a flagship project for the state, signaling a strong and long-term commitment to the Capital Region’s life sciences industry.

The Wadsworth Center Laboratory serves a vital role in the Department of Health’s efforts to protect and promote the health of New York residents. Building on more than a century of excellence as the state’s public health laboratory, the Wadsworth Center Laboratory continues as a premier biomedical institute that merges clinical and environmental testing with fundamental, applied and translational research. Today, laboratory scientists use both classical and contemporary approaches to study environmental and biological questions related to human health and disease, which will support the collaboration with Regeneron.

Regeneron is a science-driven, world-leading biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Tarrytown, New York that discovers, develops and manufactures innovative medicines. Regeneron was established as a biotech start-up in 1988 in New York City, and the following year, under the leadership of then-Governor Mario Cuomo, Empire State Development invested $250,000 to support the company’s growth. Within years, the state realized a 300-percent return on that investment. Regeneron is now the largest biotech company in New York State and one of the largest in the world, with several approved treatments and a robust pipeline of compounds all developed in New York laboratories.

Regeneron is progressing several important potential infectious disease treatments, all of which were built and tested using the company’s proprietary VelociSuite platforms. Regeneron’s Rapid Response capability speeds development of potential treatments by using their VelociGene and VelocImmune technologies to quickly develop fully human antibodies specific to a particular pathogen and create a genetically humanized model to test and validate these antibodies. The company recently delivered its investigational Ebola treatment, REGN-EB3, to the Democratic Republic of the Congo for potential use in the ongoing outbreak.

ESD President, CEO & Commissioner Howard Zemsky said, “Empire State Development is proud to incentivize this innovative partnership between Regeneron and the Wadsworth Center Laboratory that both advances human health and spurs the growth of a world-class life science research cluster in New York.”

Department of Health Commissioner Dr. Howard Zucker said, “The Department’s Wadsworth Center Laboratory is home to some of the nation’s premier research scientists, and by partnering with a first-class organization like Regeneron, we are taking a significant step forward in developing a more accurate and efficient test to diagnose and ultimately treat these devastating diseases. Governor Cuomo understands the important role research plays in improving the health and well-being of New Yorkers.”

“As a proud New York biotech company, we appreciate the continued commitment of Governor Cuomo’s administration to make New York the ideal location to progress innovative life science research,” said Leonard S. Schleifer, M.D., Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Regeneron. “We are looking forward to expanding the potential impact of our infectious disease program and collaborating with the Wadsworth Center Laboratory on potential solutions for tick-borne diseases, which are increasing in incidence and can be extremely difficult to diagnose and treat.”

Senator Sue Serino, Chair of the Task Force on Lyme and Tick-Borne Diseases said, “Since taking office, I have heard from countless New Yorkers who have suffered gravely as a result of an inaccurate Lyme Disease diagnosis and lack of advancement in this field. Last year, Senator Kemp Hannon and I held a joint hearing to help the state improve its response to the Lyme and tick-borne disease epidemic. At that time, we urged the state to lead the way and make a significant investment in this critical area. As Chair of the Senate’s Task Force on Lyme and Tick-Borne Diseases, I am proud that the voices of so many who have been suffering in silence for far too long are finally being heard. I thank the Governor for giving this issue the attention it deserves and I look forward to the day when false negatives and inaccurate results are a thing of the past and patients in New York can receive the effective, quality care they deserve.”

Senator Neil D. Breslin said, “The growth of health care treatments and services have become key economic drivers for New York’s economy. The Governor’s focus on expanding these industries provides a major boost to the Capital Region by supporting our academic institutions, attracting top scientists, and advancing treatments for diseases like Lyme that impact so many of our residents. I look forward to the continued development of treatments through this new collaboration, and thank Regeneron for working with the state of New York to provide stronger communities for the next generation.”

Assembly Member Patricia A. Fahy said, “The Governor’s comprehensive Life Sciences initiative is drawing world-class researchers Upstate to be part of the transformative health advances that are being discovered right here in the Capital Region. I am proud of the life-changing R&D that Wadsworth and Regeneron have already accomplished, and by partnering on this latest endeavor, New Yorkers across the state will reap the benefits of newly developed diagnoses and treatments.”

Assembly Member John T. McDonald III said, “Lyme Disease and tick-borne diseases are ongoing healthcare concerns especially in New York State. I applaud this public-private partnership that advances the research surrounding these diseases and will hopefully provide innovative solutions to this issue. The Governor’s new investment to support the partnership between Regeneron and Wadsworth Center Laboratory will take these efforts even further by leveraging the assets found in the Capital Region to develop new, potentially life-saving treatments for tick-borne illnesses. I proudly support projects that aim to keep the health of all New Yorkers a top priority.”

Albany County Executive Daniel P. McCoy said, “I commend Governor Cuomo for investing in the development of new treatments for Lyme disease here in the Capital Region at the Wadsworth Center. By supporting New York State’s growing life science research cluster, this partnership will help create jobs, develop new life-saving health services and support an improved quality of life for our residents.”

Albany Mayor Kathy Sheehan said, “As summer approaches, New Yorkers are reminded of the dangers of tick-borne illnesses. This collaborative public-private partnership will bring together world-class scientists and health researchers to uncover new treatments and preventative measures at the Capital Region’s premiere public health laboratory. Thank you to Governor Cuomo for supporting this critical public health project and investing in Albany’s Wadsworth Center Laboratory.”

New York State’s $620 Million Life Science Initiative

In the FY 2018 state budget includes a $620 million initiative to spur the growth of a world-class life science research cluster in New York, as well as expand the state’s ability to commercialize this research and grow the economy. The Governor’s multi-faceted initiative includes, $100 million to expand the Excelsior Jobs Program Tax Credit to the life sciences industry, $100 million for a life sciences research and development refundable tax credit program, and $320 million in other forms of investment.

To support the development of wet-lab and innovation space, the initiative includes state capital grants for operating support and investment capital for early stage life science companies that leverage an additional match of at least $100 million from the private sector.

The Life Science sector encompasses the fields of biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, biomedical technologies, life systems technologies, and includes organizations and institutions that devote the majority of their efforts to the various stages of research, development, technology transfer and commercialization. Every day, firms in this sector are developing new medical and pharmaceutical breakthroughs that have the potential to save lives, whether through new therapies or the early detection of diseases like autism and cancer. These firms are also making significant advancements in the realms of agriculture and environmental biotechnologies, helping create a cleaner and more sustainable future.

By strengthening incentives, investing in the facilities, and improving access to talent and expertise, New York will significantly increase its share of industry-funded research and development, support the commercialization of existing academic research, and usher in the next generation of advanced technologies. Beyond the advancements in science, this initiative will position New York as a magnet for emerging manufacturing- based enterprises to bolster regional economies and create thousands of jobs.


Ischemic Stroke: Do Not Forget Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Ischemic Stroke: Do Not Forget Lyme Neuroborreliosis.

Moreno Legast G, et al. Case Rep Neurol Med. 2018.

Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare cause of ischemic stroke; it has only been described in case reports and mostly in Europe. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for Lyme neuroborreliosis but the association with a cerebral ischemic presentation is not always straightforward. We here describe the case of an 83-year-old man for whom we strongly suspect Lyme neuroborreliosis as the etiology of his stroke. This case reminds us of the importance of a thorough history taking (i.e., tick bite) and to perform the adequate ancillary tests accordingly (lumbar puncture) so as to propose validated treatment.



This is rich.  They explain that cerebral ischemic presentation is not always straightforward yet announce with confidence that Lyme is a rare cause of it.  How do you know?  Just because it isn’t bountiful in the literature does not mean isn’t out here.  Remember, the testing only gets about 50% of those infected.  All those folks are misdiagnosed with something else.  Anything but Lyme/MSIDS!   Is anyone even looking for it?  Nope.

Don’t call anything about Lyme/MSIDS rare.  It’s just a matter of time before articles burgeon with all the ways it presents itself.  Until that time, just know, it’s out here – a lot.

Also, please know that one of the only ways Lyme/MSIDS has made the map is by case studies.  Research on all things in Lyme land is abysmal, so take the case studies seriously.


33 Years of Documentation of Maternal-Child Transmission of Lyme Disease and Congenital Lyme Borreliosis – A Review

33 Years of Documentation of Maternal-Child Transmission of Lyme Disease and Congenital Lyme Borreliosis – A Review

by Sue Faber, RN, BScN


‘Transplacental transmission, adverse outcomes and reports of congenital infection of Borrelia Burgdorferi have been clearly documented over the last 33 years (1985 to 2018) by multiple international physicians, researchers, scientists and other experts. As entire families worldwide are affected by Lyme borreliosis resulting in serious debilitating illness and complex multi-systemic chronic infection, we must take this alternate mode of transmission – from mother to child in pregnancy, seriously.

For Lyme disease to be passed from mother to child in pregnancy drastically changes the narrative, we know that, it opens up new issues and challenges – however, recognizing it for what it is, is the right thing to do. It means upheaval and reordering and re-prioritizing in what has been taught and rethinking many areas of concern which perhaps have been looked over – but we must remember – we have no choice but to act with the highest integrity and honesty.

We have no option but to constructively engage, discuss and determine solutions and a clear path forward which will be a light for those who suffer, a beacon of Hope and healing. We need to prevent more miscarriages, stillbirths and babies from being born with Lyme and tick-borne illnesses – potentially leading to chronic pervasive, persistent and often disabling illness’. Sue Faber, RN.  (Excerpt below.  Please see link for more studies)

“Now we have found a spirochete capable of spreading transplacentally to the organs of the fetus, causing congenital heart disease and possible death of the infant.”

Dr. Willy Burgdorfer – The Enlarging Spectrum of Tick-Borne Spirochetoses: R. R. Parker Memorial Address, Reviews of Infectious Diseases. Vol 8, No 6. November-December 1986.

“It is clear that B. Burgdorferi can be transmitted in the blood of infected pregnant women across the placenta into the fetus. This has now been documented with resultant congenital infections and fetal demise. Spirochetes can be recovered or seen in infant’s tissues including the brain, spleen and kidney. The chronic villi of the placenta show and increase in Hofbauer cells as in luetic placentitis. Inflammatory changes of fetal or neonatal changes are not as pronounced as in the adult, but cardiac abnormalities, including intracardiac septal defects, have been seen. It is not known why inflammatory cells are so sparse from maternal transmission, but it is possible that an immature immune system plays a role.”

Dr Paul Duray and Dr Allen Steere – Clinical Pathologic Correlations of Lyme Disease by Stage. 1988.

“It is anticipated that more infants and fetuses with complications related to gestational Lyme borreliosis will be diagnosed in the future as the diagnosis is more frequently considered; it eventually will be possible to better describe the various clinical manifestations of congenital Lyme borreliosis.

“ order for infants with congenital Lyme borreliosis and therefore initiation of prompt antibiotic therapy of the congenitally infected infant usually depend on suspicion or confirmation of Lyme borreliosis in the mother. Therefore, in order for infants with congenital Lyme borreliosis to be recognized, it is essential for clinicians caring for newborns and infants to become familiar with the various manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in the adult, as well as in the congenitally infected infant.”

(serology) does not appear to be a sensitive method of diagnosis and reliance on sero-positivity leads to misdiagnosis of the majority of congenitally infected infants.”

“Large-scale, prospective studies of sufficient numbers of patients with Lyme borreliosis with follow-up to determine the pregnancy outcome of each enrolled patient; B burgdorferi-specific evaluation of any fetal or neonatal demise; and long-term follow-up of each infant born to determine the occurrence of possible early and late sequelae are needed.”

Dr. Tessa Gardner, Pediatric Infectious Disease MD, trained at Harvard University, 2001. Gardner, T. Lyme disease. In: Remington JK, J. editor. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn. 5th ed: Saunders; 2001

“Transmission of Borrelia infection occurs via both zoonotic vectors and other humans. Congenital transfer is an established fact. Maternal to fetal transfer of Borrelia, can furthermore be clinically silent or unrecognized, and if not successfully treated, infection can be life long and latency, late activation and reactivation can occur.”

O’Brien J, Hamidi O. Lyme Disease ( Infection with Borrelia: Implications for Pregnancy, Nov. 2017.

“Intra-human transfer of Borrelia can be initially silent or unrecognized’

‘The similarities of the clinical presentation of congenital syphilis to pregnancies with acute Lyme disease helps guide ante partum management. Due to the severity of previously documented cases, there should be a low threshold of suspicion to diagnose cases of Lyme disease in pregnancy.

O’Brien J, Hamidi O. ‘Borreliosis Infection during Pregnancy’. Ann Clin Cytol Pathol 3(8). Oct. 2017.

“Pregnant women who are acutely infected with Borrelia burgdorferi (the primary cause of Lyme disease) and do not receive treatment have experienced multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, infants born with rash and stillbirth.”

“In obstetric patients acutely infected during the first trimester, a fetal echocardiogram is reasonable, given the demonstrated high potential of fetal cardiac abnormalities.’

O’Brien J, Baum, J. Case Report. The Journal of Family Practice. Vol 66, No 8, Aug, 2017.

“It was stated and proved transplacental transfer of borrelia

“We need serious studies among pregnant women and newborn children in endemic regions…and in the future such patients should be monitored throughout pregnancy and after childbirth. Children born to these women should be examined for tick-borne infections at least during the first two years of life.”

Utenkova EO. Lyme disease and Pregnancy. Kirov State Medical Academy, Kirov Russia. Journal of Infectology, Volume 8, Number 2, 2016. *translated from Russian

“a new acronym is needed to include other, well-described cause of in utero infection: syphilis, enteroviruses, varicella zoster virus, HIV, Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and parvovirus.”

In utero infection and intrapartum infections may lead to late-onset disease. Such infections may not be apparent at birth but may manifest with signs and symptoms weeks, months or years later.”

Maldonado Y, Nizet V, Klein J et al. Current Concepts of Infections of the Fetus and Newborn Infant (Chapter 1). Found in Remington and Klein’s Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 8th ed., 2016.

“Histological observations have confirmed the presence of Bb in children with congenital Lyme disease. It is interesting that spirochetes may exist in the spleen, kidney, bone marrow and nervous system.”

“The ability of long term survival of Bb sl in tissues and spreading of spirochetes in the body despite antibiotic treatment can contribute to intergenerational infection with Lyme disease.”

Jasik K, Okla H, Slodki J et al. Congenital Tick-Borne Diseases, is this an alternative route of transmission of tick- borne pathogens in mammals? Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 15, Number 11, 2015.

“these documented cases strongly suggest that transplacental transfer occurred via identification of Borrelia Burgdorferi in fetal tissues by culture, immunohistochemistry or indirect immunofluorescence.”

“the outcome of a pregnancy affected by Lyme disease remains relatively unknown and unstudied. However, it is still important to equip obstetrical patients with information that will help protect them against Lyme disease and provide treatment options if a suspected case of Lyme disease occurs during pregnancy.”

O’Brien JM, Martens MG. Lyme disease in Pregnancy, a New Jersey Medical Advisory. MD Advisor, 2014;7:24- 27.

Borrelia Burgdorferi does appear to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. There are data to suggest an increased incidence of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformations associated with Lyme disease.”

“Adverse pregnancy outcomes are also more likely in women with untreated Lyme disease.”

Dotters-Katz S, Kuller J, Heine P. Arthropod-Borne Bacterial Diseases in Pregnancy. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, Vol 68(9). 2013.

“The parents of the five children in the study could not pinpoint an exact date of infection, but their treating physician suggested that the Bb bacteria could have been transmitted congenitally since all five of their mothers were diagnosed with Lyme disease and Bb has been shown to be transmitted congenitally in infected mothers. If the Bb bacteria were transmitted congenitally and this latency period presented itself in the infected children it could lead to an explanation of their late onset autistic symptomology.”

Kuhn M, Grave S, Bransfield R, Harris S. Long term antibiotics therapy may be an effective treatment for children co-morbid with Lyme Disease and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medical Hypothesis (2012)

“The clinical picture of a fetus infected by B Burgdorferi is similar to that seen in the course of a syphilis infection. Most frequently they are: premature birth, intrauterine foetus death and malformation

“In the second stage of the illness, B. Burgdorferi traverses the placental barrier. Apart from foetal death, the following occur most frequently: syndactyly, sight loss, premature birth, neonatal rash, heart, liver, kidney damage or damage to the central nervous system.”

Relic, M, Relic, G. Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy. Vojnosanit Pregl 2012; 69(1):994-998. *translated from Polish

For more:




ECU Researcher Gets Money From NIH to Develop Medication for Lyme

ECU researcher, MD A. Motableb has obtained  $1.7 million from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study borrelia, the causative agent of Lyme Disase in the human body.

The hope is to develop a medication.

The article goes on to state deeply entrenched myths about initial symptoms such as the bullseye rash that do not represent many patients.

For more on Lyme:

Psychological symptoms of Lyme:

I’m not holding my breath for this hoped for medication.  The first thing that has to be acknowledged by main stream medicine and researchers is this is NOT a one pathogen one drug illness.  Patients are often infected with a plethora of pathogens – some viral, some bacterial, some fungal, even nematodes (worms).  They all take different medications.  The actual number is 18 and counting.

Besides this crucial fact, these pathogens cause all sorts of havoc within the body including inflammation and an autoimmune response.  Many have mast cell issues, newly developed sensitivities, hormonal imbalances, adrenal issues, and on and on to infinity.

This is the perfect storm and it’s complicated to say the least.



Fleas Harbor Bartonella 13 Days Post Infection & Continuously Excrete Bartonella DNA

Acquisition of Bartonella elizabethae by Experimentally Exposed Oriental Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis; Siphonaptera, Pulicidae) and Excretion of Bartonella DNA in Flea Feces.

McKee CD, et al. J Med Entomol. 2018.


Few studies have been able to provide experimental evidence of the ability of fleas to maintain rodent-associated Bartonella infections and excrete these bacteria. These data are important for understanding the transmission cycles and prevalence of these bacteria in hosts and vectors. We used an artificial feeding approach to expose groups of the oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild; Siphonaptera, Pulicidae) to rat blood inoculated with varying concentrations of Bartonella elizabethae Daly (Bartonellaceae: Rhizobiales). Flea populations were maintained by membrane feeding on pathogen-free bloodmeals for up to 13 d post infection. Individual fleas and pools of flea feces were tested for the presence of Bartonella DNA using molecular methods (quantitative and conventional polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). The threshold number of Bartonellae required in the infectious bloodmeal for fleas to be detected as positive was 106 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml). Individual fleas were capable of harboring infections for at least 13 d post infection and continuously excreted Bartonella DNA in their feces over the same period. This experiment demonstrated that X. cheopis are capable of acquiring and excreting B. elizabethae over several days. These results will guide future work to model and understand the role of X. cheopis in the natural transmission cycle of rodent-borne Bartonella species. Future experiments using this artificial feeding approach will be useful for examining the horizontal transmission of B. elizabethae or other rodent-associated Bartonella species to naïve hosts and for determining the viability of excreted bacteria.




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