Archive for the ‘Bartonella’ Category

Infectious Keratitis Caused by Rare and Emerging Micro-Organisms

2019 Dec 23. doi: 10.1080/02713683.2019.1708407. [Epub ahead of print]

Infectious Keratitis Caused by Rare and Emerging Micro-Organisms.


Purpose:  To provide a comprehensive review on rare and emerging micro-organisms causing infectious keratitis.

Material and Methods:  A literature search was performed using PubMed Medline, Cochrane Library Database, EMBASE and Scopus (1960 onwards), using the terms: keratitis caused by rare pathogens; mycotic keratitis; fungal keratitis; bacterial keratitis; infectious keratitis; infective keratitis; atypical fungal keratitis; fungal keratitis caused by rare organisms; fungal keratitis caused by rare ocular pathogen; atypical bacterial keratitis; bacterial keratitis caused by rare organisms; bacterial keratitis caused by rare ocular pathogen. All relevant articles were included in this review.

Results:  A total of 1232 articles matched our search strategy of which 124 articles were included in this mini-review. The rare and emerging bacteria causing keratitis include atypical mycobacteria, Nocardia spp., Chrysebacterium spp., Delftia acidovorans, Kocuria spp., Enterococcus spp., Bartonella henslae, Achromobacter spp. and others. The rare and emerging fungi causing keratitis include Pythium spp., Alternaria spp., Acremonium spp., Cladosporium spp., Curvularia spp., Bipolaris spp., Microsporidia spp., Pseudallescheria spp., Colletotrichum spp., and others. The clinical presentation of these cases is variable. While a few organisms produce characteristic clinical features, rest present similar to bacterial or fungal keratitis with variable response to routine treatment. A strong degree of suspicion is therefore essential for its diagnosis. Special investigations like polymerase chain reaction, gene sequencing, mass spectroscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are required for accurate identification of these organisms. Culture-sensitivity is extremely useful as drug resistance to routinely used anti-microbial drugs is common. Prognosis is usually poor for keratitis with Pythium spp., Pseudallescheria spp., Arthrographis spp., Purpureocillium spp., Kociria spp. and Achromobacter spp.

Conclusion:  Keratitis caused by rare and emerging micro-organisms must be suspected in cases where the infection runs an unusual course or shows poor response to standard anti-microbial drugs. Early diagnosis and timely treatment hold the key for good outcome.



Keratitis is inflammation in the cornea.  The following symptoms were found here:


Signs and symptoms of keratitis include:

  • Eye redness
  • Eye pain
  • Excess tears or other discharge from your eye
  • Difficulty opening your eyelid because of pain or irritation
  • Blurred vision
  • Decreased vision
  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)
  • A feeling that something is in your eye

Great read on Lyme disease also causing keratitis:

And here we see Bartonella affecting cats with keratitis as well as conjunctivitis, uveitis, blepharitis, and chorioretinitis:

For more:



Bartonella Found in Dogs After Infection With Rickettsia

2019 Dec 31. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15675. [Epub ahead of print]

Detection of Bartonella spp. in dogs after infection with Rickettsia rickettsii.



Dynamics of infection by Bartonella and Rickettsia species, which are epidemiologically associated in dogs, have not been explored in a controlled setting.


Describe an outbreak investigation of occult Bartonella spp. infection among a group of dogs, discovered after experimentally induced Rickettsia rickettsii (Rr) infection.


Six apparently healthy purpose-bred Beagles obtained from a commercial vendor.


Retrospective and prospective study. Dogs were serially tested for Bartonella spp. and Rr using serology, culture, and PCR, over 3 study phases: 3 months before inoculation with Rr (retrospective), 6 weeks after inoculation with Rr (retrospective), and 8 months of follow-up (prospective).


Before Rr infection, 1 dog was Bartonella henselae (Bh) immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) seroreactive and 1 was Rickettsia spp. IFA seroreactive. After inoculation with Rr, all dogs developed mild Rocky Mountain spotted fever compatible with low-dose Rr infection, seroconverted to Rickettsia spp. within 4-11 days, and recovered within 1 week. When 1 dog developed ear tip vasculitis with intra-lesional Bh, an investigation of Bartonella spp. infection was undertaken. All dogs had seroconverted to 1-3 Bartonella spp. between 7 and 18 days after Rr inoculation. Between 4 and 8 months after Rr inoculation, Bh DNA was amplified from multiple tissues from 2 dogs, and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) DNA was amplified from 4 of 5 dogs’ oral swabs.


Vector-borne disease exposure was demonstrated in research dogs from a commercial vendor. Despite limitations, our results support the possibilities of recrudescence (reappearance) of chronic subclinical Bartonella spp. infection after Rr infection and horizontal direct-contact transmission between dogs.



Bartonella isn’t even on most GP’s radar, yet patients with tick-borne illness often have it.  This dog study shows how Bartonella can be chronic, subclinical, and reactivated by other pathogens.  Subclinical can mean a few things – either the patient appears asymptomatic (without symptoms) or it isn’t picked up on testing or both.

This issue highlights an important field of study that’s begging to be done.

Does a tick bite lower the immune system so that what was a subclinical issue now triggers an active infection?  It makes sense that a tick bite would do this, as vaccines have been shown to do this. Vaccines are designed to lower the immune system so the body mounts an immune response and creates antibodies to whatever is in the vaccine.

Dr. Burrascano, a highly experienced Lyme literate doctor, found that multiple tick bites caused greater disease severity:

Others have found that vaccines have reactivated dormant infections:


There is further damning evidence that Gardasil can produce life-threatening reactions in those who have been close to a cat, fleas, or ticks, since many of these animals are infected with Bartonella, Babesia, or Lyme (borrelia). Also, since many MSIDS patients (multi systemic infectious disease syndrome) also struggle with viruses such as Mono or active EBV, a cytokine storm can resultwith mucus being over manufactured in lungs and airways and well as wide-spread inflammation.

Asymptomatic girls after receiving Gardasil activated dormant Bartonella which was confirmed by testing.


He has started treating Lyme Borreliosis patients 20 years ago in the USA and during the last 5 years in Ireland. He has also successfully treated a number of young women who fell ill after their HPV vaccination, which seems to have stimulated a latent Lyme infection to reactivate.

Here, we clearly see that vaccines caused active infection in previously asymptomatic patients.  It makes complete logical sense that a tick bite would do the same, yet mainstream medicine hasn’t a clue and continues to treat this as a simple disease requiring 21 days of doxycycline.

There are pressing answers needed by doctors and patients yet current research seems hell-bent on focusing on climate change.

More climate data will not help patients or doctors one iota.

Total Knee Bartonella Henselae Infection: An Unusual Manifestation of Cat Scratch Disease

2019 Dec;9(4):e0081. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00081.

Total Knee Bartonella henselae Infection: An Unusual Manifestation of Cat Scratch Disease: A Case Report.



This is the first clinical report of periprosthetic total joint infection caused by Bartonella henselae. A 65-year-old woman developed an acutely painful total knee 3 weeks after a cat scratch. Serial joint aspirations and tissue cultures failed to identify any organism. Diagnosis was performed with polymerase chain reaction analysis. She underwent a 2-stage revision with successful symptom resolution.


Bartonella is an unusual cause of total knee infection requiring alternative techniques for diagnosis because cultures are unlikely to be definitive.


For more:  Cases of Bartonella with NO cat exposure listed in comment section.


Bartonella Endocarditis Masquerading As Systemic Vasculitis With Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis

2019 Dec 3;12(12). pii: e231413. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-231413.

Bartonella endocarditis masquerading as systemic vasculitis with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (aka ‘Löhlein nephritis’).


Bartonella species are fastidious, Gram-negative aerobic rods and a well-recognised pathogen responsible for culture-negative endocarditis. The histopathological appearance of glomerulonephritis (GN) caused by Bartonella endocarditis may include a pauci-immune GN similar to that usually seen in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis.

Herein, we present an unusual case report of Bartonella endocarditis masquerading as ANCA-positive vasculitis, with crescentic GN. A 66-year-old woman, who had undergone aortic valve replacement 2 years prior to admission, presented with confusion and loss of vision in her right nasal field. Following an extensive diagnostic evaluation, the main findings were right central retinal artery occlusion, ground-glass appearance on chest CT and ANCA-positive, anti PR-3 negative, rapidly progressive GN. The patient was scheduled to start treatment with rituximab for presumed ANCA-positive GN, when a positive serological test for Bartonella henselae was received.

In view of this result, a diagnosis of endocarditis was made, based on fulfilment of five Duke minor criteria, namely fever, predisposition, arterial emboli, immunological phenomena and serological evidence of active infection with an organism consistent with infective endocarditis. Immunosuppressive treatment was withheld and antibiotic treatment initiated.

This case report emphasises the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion regarding the diagnosis of Bartonella infection, which might mimic ANCA-associated GN.


For more:



Cats Carry All Types of Ticks & Tick-Borne Diseases


Did you know the cat you may be cuddling with on your couch every evening could be infected with a host of tick-borne diseases? Unlike our canine friends, cats are typically not symptomatic when it comes to such diseases. But as researchers have found, that doesn’t mean they are free from disease.

Updated: April 22, 2019

In a study by Shannon and colleagues, 160 ticks and blood samples were collected from 70 healthy cats brought to the Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital in Queenstown, Maryland. [1]

The authors found that the cats were carrying 3 species of ticks including 83 Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum), 7 American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) and 70 black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis.)

Out of the 160 ticks, 22 (13.8%) tested positive by PCR for Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, or Borrelia miyamotoi. However, only 25 of the 70 cats were able to be fully tested.

Nine of those cats (36%) were positive for exposure to at least one of the following tick-borne pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia ewingii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia miyamotoi, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae.

“We also found at least one cat blood sample to test positive for antibodies to each of the four tick-borne agents we screened for,” the authors state.

According to the authors’ review of the literature, the risk to pet owners is unclear. “Pet ownership has been implicated in vector-borne pathogen transmission and has been identified as a potential risk factor for such diseases in some studies, but not others.”

Nevertheless, screening for ticks may prove helpful, providing advanced warning of disease risk to humans “upon recognition of an uncommon or unexpected pathogen in a pet or pet-derived parasite,” Shannon concludes.

Author’s note: Keeping your cat indoors can prevent it from picking up ticks that could be passed onto you or other family members. 

  1. Shannon AB, Rucinsky R, Gaff HD, Brinkerhoff RJ. Borrelia miyamotoi, Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in Eastern Maryland. EcoHealth. 2017.



For some reason many people believe cats are immune to tick bites.  This article clearly shows this to be a fallacy.  Besides being bitten by ticks and infected with the pathogens within them, cats are known for carrying and transmitting Bartonella:

As you can see from these links, Bartonella is far more than swollen lymph nodes, and many do not even present with that symptom at all.  If you suspect Bartonella, please print and fill out this questionnaire:  If you have a preponderance of symptoms, take this to your doctor and discuss it.  For Bartonella treatments see:

In my experience, not only do many Lyme patients also have Bartonella, it is often harder to resolve than Lyme.  Testing for these coinfections is just as abysmal as Lyme testing is so knowing symptoms is a must for a clinical diagnosis as many will never test positive.  This website is full of patients who had Bartonella who were negative on testing.

Psychiatric Disorders: Are Infectious Agents to Blame?

Psychiatric Disorders: Are Infectious Agents to Blame?

November 29, 2019





The association between infection and psychiatric disorders was one of the milestones of early 20th century medicine. The identification of Treponema pallidum in the brains of individuals with “general paresis of the insane” by Noguchi and Moore in 1913 established the role of tertiary syphilis and showed that bacterial infections can cause long-term changes in both neurological and psychiatric functioning. The eventual development of treatments for syphilis and the subsequent curing of individuals with general paresis also showed that the discovery of an infectious cause of a neuropsychiatric disorder could be followed by effective treatment. The association between infection and some cases of psychiatric disorders was further solidified by the identification of an increased rate of encephalitis lethargica following the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. Influenza control measures might be partially credited for the rarity of encephalitis lethargica in the modern era…..

Microorganisms capable of his latency include a diverse range of taxa including viruses such as the herpesviruses herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein Barr virus as well as retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, measles virus, bacteria such as Chlamydiae and Borreliae, and protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii…(See link for article)


For more:

BTW: t. gondii has been found in ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and these ticks also transmit Lyme and tick-borne encephalitis virus:, and

Toxoplasmosis causes many mental issues and psychiatrist E. Fuller Torry believes that 75% of schizophrenia is associated with infections, with Toxo a significant portion.

Clarifying a Tragic Situation & Understanding Lyme Disease

Clarifying a tragic situation and understanding Lyme Disease

HamletHub and several other media outlets recently reported about a 21 year old Ridgefield male who was charged with assault on Friday, November 15.

We have since learned of this man’s plight and offer our apologies for any insensitivity on our part. This 2016 RHS grad has been dealing with the very serious, complicated, and often misunderstood symptoms of Lyme Disease and has been diagnosed with Bartonella and Babesia, both co-infections of the disease. We have also learned that his actions were the direct result of manifestations of this horrific illness. 

We would like to clear the air and explain more about Lyme Disease in order to let the community know that this man and his family, upstanding and longtime residents, have been battling a disease which, unfortunately, can have tragic consequences. We offer thoughts and prayers for healing for all.

According to a report published by the US Library of Medicine, Lyme Disease,  transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks, can be associated with various psychiatric presentations due to inflammation causing neurodegenerative changes (read more here) as was the case with this 21 year old, a warm, loving and hardworking member of our community who has absolutely no history of aggressive behavior. 

Please read more about Lyme Disease here. This is a disease we must not battle alone.


For more:

Mainstream medicine has yet to acknowledge and embrace the seriousness of this complex disease which often involves far more than just Lyme disease.  The wide spread systemic inflammation this causes is unbelievable.  They also have yet to acknowledge the effects upon the brain and behavior.

In this claims report, the #1 treatment sought by Lyme patients was psychological care:

Until mainstream medicine wakes up from its coma, Lyme/MSIDS patients will continue to be told they are just imagining things.