Archive for the ‘Ehrlichiosis’ Category

Ticks Climb the Mountains: Ixodes Tick Infestation and Infection by Tick-Borne Pathogens

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32723635/

. 2020 Sep;11(5):101489.

doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101489.Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Ticks climb the mountains: Ixodid tick infestation and infection by tick-borne pathogens in the Western Alps

Abstract

In mountain areas of northwestern Italy, ticks were rarely collected in the past. In recent years, a marked increase in tick abundance has been observed in several Alpine valleys, together with more frequent reports of Lyme borreliosis. We then carried out a four-year study to assess the distribution and abundance of ticks and transmitted pathogens and determine their altitudinal limit in a natural park area in Piedmont region.

  • Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick) and Dermacentor marginatus (ornate sheep tick) were collected from both the vegetation and hunted wild ungulates.
  • Tick abundance was significantly associated with altitude, habitat type and signs of animal presence, roe deer’s in particular.
  • Ixodes ricinus prevailed in distribution and abundance and, although their numbers decreased with increasing altitude, we recorded the presence of all active life stages of up to around 1700 m a.s.l., with conifers as the second most infested habitat after deciduous woods.
  • Molecular analyses demonstrated the infection of questing I. ricinus nymphs with B. burgdorferi sensu lato (15.5 %), Rickettsia helvetica and R. monacensis (20.7%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1.9 %), Borrelia miyamotoi (0.5 %) and Neoehrlichia mikurensis (0.5 %).
  • One third of the questing D. marginatus were infected with R. slovaca.
  • We observed a spatial aggregation of study sites infested by B. burgdorferi s.l. infected ticks below 1400 m. Borrelia-infected nymphs prevailed in open areas, while SFG rickettsiae prevalence was higher in coniferous and deciduous woods.
  • Interestingly, prevalence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks doubled above 1400 m, and R. helvetica was the only pathogen detected above 1800 m a.s.l.
  • Tick infestation on hunted wild ungulates indicated the persistence of tick activity during winter months and, when compared to past studies, confirmed the recent spread of I. ricinus in the area.

Our study provides new insights into the population dynamics of ticks in the Alps and confirms a further expansion of ticks to higher altitudes in Europe. We underline the importance of adopting a multidisciplinary approach in order to develop effective strategies for the surveillance of tick-borne diseases, and inform the public about the hazard posed by ticks, especially in recently invaded areas.

______________________

**Comment**

Not that ticks can’t climb mountains – but migrating birds probably dropped them there:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/11/07/ticks-on-the-move-due-to-migrating-birds-and-photoperiod-not-climate-change/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/09/danish-study-shows-migrating-birds-are-spreading-ticks-their-pathogens-including-places-without-sustainable-tick-populations/

Regarding R. slovaca:

We also identified a case of R. slovaca infection in southern Rhineland-Palatinate. The patient reported a tick bite; the tick was identified as Dermacentor spp. Fever, lymphadenopathy of submandibular lymph nodes, and exanthema at the site of the tick bite developed 7 days later. Serologic examinations by using an immunofluorescent test (Focus Diagnostics, Cypress, CA, USA) showed antibody titers of 64 for immunoglobulin (Ig) M and 1,024 for IgG against rickettsiae of the spotted fever group. These results indicated an acute rickettsial infection. Because of strong cross-reactivity among all species in the spotted fever group, we cannot differentiate between antibodies against R. slovaca and other species in this group.  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/12/09-0843_article

 

 

 

Health Officials Warn Lone Star Ticks Multiplying In Connecticut

https://www.newtownbee.com/06282020/health-officials-warn-lone-star-ticks-multiplying-in-state/

Health Officials Warn Lone Star Ticks Multiplying In State

280px-Lone-star-tick-stages-cdc CDChttp://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2013/07/researchers-trace-novel-heartland-virus-missouri-ticks Public Domain

As if Newtown Health District Director Donna Culbert was not busy enough handling coronavirus issues, she is now grappling with the news that the aggressive lone star tick is proliferating in the region.

Culbert, who has made tickborne disease education a hallmark of her administration, told The Newtown Bee this week that the latest news from colleague Goudarz Molaei, PhD, at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) is disturbing considering how many local residents are already suffering from related illnesses.

“The Newtown Health District is always concerned about tick bites and tick-borne disease, and news of the lone star tick becoming established in the region adds to the concern,” Culbert said. “Although our office has not yet received a lone star tick submitted to our office for identification yet this year, I am not naive enough to think that they aren’t out there.”

Review Connecticut’s latest information about the lone star tick by CLICKING HERE  (See link for article)

____________________

**Comment**

Key Quote:  

Previously limited to the southeastern US, lone star ticks have been detected in areas with no previous record of activity….

And that includes Wisconsin:

Excerpt:

….he diagnoses approximately 1 patient per month with Alpha-gal allergy and that the reactions can be severe, from passing out to life-threatening reactions.

The lone star tick is an aggressive biter that gives highly irritating bites.  It’s known to transmit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32560202/

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences

Affiliations expand

Free article

Abstract

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and act as vectors for a great variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Some tick-borne viruses, such as Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus, are transmissible within 15-60 min after tick attachment. However, a minimum of 3-24 h of tick attachment is necessary to effectively transmit bacterial agents such as Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Rickettsia spp. to a new host. Longer transmission periods were reported for Borrelia spp. and protozoans such as Babesia spp., which require a minimum duration of 24-48 h of tick attachment for maturation and migration of the pathogen.

Laboratory observations indicate that the probability of transmission of tick-borne pathogens increases with the duration an infected tick is allowed to remain attached to the host. However, the transmission time may be shortened when partially fed infected ticks detach from their initial host and reattach to a new host, on which they complete their engorgement.

For example, early transmission of tick-borne pathogens (e.g., Rickettsia rickettsii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Brucella canis) and a significantly shorter transmission time were demonstrated in laboratory experiments by interrupted blood feeding.

The relevance of such situations under field conditions remains poorly documented.

In this review, we explore parameters of, and causes leading to, spontaneous interrupted feeding in nature, as well as the effects of this behavior on the minimum time required for transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

____________________

**Comment**

Partial feeding is not rare and needs to be taken into account. Unfortunately, authorities have followed a tightly controlled narrative when it comes to transmission times – which has only served to hurt patients for decades.

There are cases where Lyme (borrelia) has been transmitted within hours:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/12/07/igenex-presentation/

Excerpt:

Bob Giguere of IGeneX states a case by Dr. Jones of a little girl who went outside to play about 8:30a.m. and came inside at 10:30 with an attached tick above her right eye.  By 2 o’clock, she had developed the facial palsy.  At the hospital she was told it couldn’t be Lyme as the tick hadn’t been attached long enough.  They offered a neuro-consult…..

By 4pm she couldn’t walk or talk.

Do not believe what the “experts” tell you about transmission times!

Authorities also talk about ticks having a “grace period” before they transmit which is hog-wash:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/03/10/grace-period-for-ticks-nope/

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/04/14/transmission-time-for-lymemsids-infection/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/04/26/three-strains-of-borrelia-other-pathogens-found-in-salivary-glands-of-ixodes-ticks-suggesting-quicker-transmission-time/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/14/study-shows-ticks-can-transmit-rickettsia-immediately/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/06/28/powassan-can-kill/

 

 

 

 

Ehrlichiosis Found in Australian Dogs – Can Also Infect Humans

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-06-03/ehrlichiosis-detected-in-kimberley-dogs/

Exotic tick-borne disease ehrlichiosis detected in WA’s Kimberley region is a first in Australian dogs

Dogs roaming a Kimberley street

An exotic tick-borne disease, never seen before in Australian canines, has been found in a small number of sick dogs tested in Western Australia’s far north Kimberley.

Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial illness transmitted by ticks, particularly common in tropical and sub-tropical regions but this is the first time it has been confirmed in dogs which haven’t been imported from another country.

The affected dogs, in Halls Creek and Kununurra, have been treated by a private veterinarian in the region.

The bacteria, Ehrlichia canis, which causes the disease in dogs, was later confirmed through laboratory testing by the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness. (See link for article)

_____________________

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/category/ehrlichiosis-treatment/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/15/ehrlichiosis-masquerading-as-thrombotic-thrombocytopenia-purpura/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/02/north-carolina-ehrlichia-often-overlooked-when-tick-borne-illness-suspected/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/24/oklahoma-ehrlichiosis-central/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/03/09/dogs-ehrlichiosis/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/28/human-tick-borne-diseases-in-australia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/21/our-battle-ongoing-lyme-disease-in-australia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/11/03/ld-not-in-australia-here-we-go-again/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/03/aussie-widow-of-lyme-disease-victim-to-sue-nsw-health/  A SYDNEY woman launches a class action against NSW Health after autopsy results showed her husband was riddled with Lyme in his liver, heart, kidney, and lungs. He was only 44 years old and was bitten by a tick while filming a TV show in Sydney.

 https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/18/study-finds-q-fever-rickettsia-typhus-in-australian-ticks-and-people/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/14/python-covered-with-more-than-500-ticks-rescued-in-australia/

 

 

 

 

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases & Blood Safety: Summary of a Public Workshop

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32208532/

. 2020 Mar 24.

doi: 10.1111/trf.15752. Online ahead of print.

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases and Blood Safety: Summary of a Public Workshop

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Tick-borne agents of disease continue to emerge and subsequently expand their geographic distribution. The threat to blood safety by tick-borne agents is ever increasing and requires constant surveillance concomitant with implementation of appropriate intervention methods. In April 2017, the Food and Drug Administration organized a public workshop on emerging tick-borne pathogens (excluding Babesia microti and Lyme disease) designed to provide updates on the current understanding of emerging tick-borne diseases, thereby allowing for extended discussions to determine if decisions regarding mitigation strategies need to be made proactively. Subject matter experts and other stakeholders participated in this workshop to discuss issues of biology, epidemiology, and clinical burden of tick-borne agents, risk of transfusion-transmission, surveillance, and considerations for decision making in implementing safety interventions. Herein, we summarize the scientific presentations, panel discussions, and considerations going forward.

____________________

**Comment**

I only had access to the abstract, but Dr. Cameron writes more fully on the workshop here:  https://danielcameronmd.com/babesia-infection-transmitted-blood-supply/

Interestingly, according to the abstract, they excluded Babesia and Lyme, which are arguably two of the largest problems. It was pointed out that 200 cases of Babesia were transmitted through blood transfusions at the time of the workshop and that Anaplasma is next with increasing clinical cases.

Evidently there have been no reported cases of Lyme transmitted through the blood supply.

 

Other tick-borne pathogens have been transmitted through donated blood, but these occurrences are rare. (Or rarely reported)

  • 11 cases: A. phagocytophilum, responsible for Anaplasmosis (transmitted by the Ixodes ticks)
  • 2 cases: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex (TBEV, Powassan virus, DTV), (transmitted by the Ixodes ticks)
  • 1 case: Colorado tick-fever virus (transmitted by Rocky Mountain wood ticks)
  • 1 case: Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (transmitted by the Lone Star tick)
  • 1 case: Ehrlichia ewingii (transmitted by the Lone Star tick)

In addition, “two emerging [tick-borne agents] − B. miyamotoi and Powassan virus were discussed − for B. miyamotoi,cases have steadily increased since 2014.”

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/07/28/tick-borne-infection-risk-in-blood-transfusion/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/11/transfusion-transmitted-babesiosis-one-states-experience/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/08/08/transfusion-transmitted-babesiosis-in-nonendemic-areas/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/26/fda-recommends-testing-for-tick-borne-illness-in-donated-blood-a-big-duh/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/06/02/study-showing-results-testing-babesia-microti/