Archive for the ‘Ehrlichiosis’ Category

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32560202/

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences

Affiliations expand

Free article

Abstract

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and act as vectors for a great variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Some tick-borne viruses, such as Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus, are transmissible within 15-60 min after tick attachment. However, a minimum of 3-24 h of tick attachment is necessary to effectively transmit bacterial agents such as Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Rickettsia spp. to a new host. Longer transmission periods were reported for Borrelia spp. and protozoans such as Babesia spp., which require a minimum duration of 24-48 h of tick attachment for maturation and migration of the pathogen.

Laboratory observations indicate that the probability of transmission of tick-borne pathogens increases with the duration an infected tick is allowed to remain attached to the host. However, the transmission time may be shortened when partially fed infected ticks detach from their initial host and reattach to a new host, on which they complete their engorgement.

For example, early transmission of tick-borne pathogens (e.g., Rickettsia rickettsii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Brucella canis) and a significantly shorter transmission time were demonstrated in laboratory experiments by interrupted blood feeding.

The relevance of such situations under field conditions remains poorly documented.

In this review, we explore parameters of, and causes leading to, spontaneous interrupted feeding in nature, as well as the effects of this behavior on the minimum time required for transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

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**Comment**

Partial feeding is not rare and needs to be taken into account. Unfortunately, authorities have followed a tightly controlled narrative when it comes to transmission times – which has only served to hurt patients for decades.

There are cases where Lyme (borrelia) has been transmitted within hours:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/12/07/igenex-presentation/

Excerpt:

Bob Giguere of IGeneX states a case by Dr. Jones of a little girl who went outside to play about 8:30a.m. and came inside at 10:30 with an attached tick above her right eye.  By 2 o’clock, she had developed the facial palsy.  At the hospital she was told it couldn’t be Lyme as the tick hadn’t been attached long enough.  They offered a neuro-consult…..

By 4pm she couldn’t walk or talk.

Do not believe what the “experts” tell you about transmission times!

Authorities also talk about ticks having a “grace period” before they transmit which is hog-wash:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/03/10/grace-period-for-ticks-nope/

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/04/14/transmission-time-for-lymemsids-infection/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/04/26/three-strains-of-borrelia-other-pathogens-found-in-salivary-glands-of-ixodes-ticks-suggesting-quicker-transmission-time/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/14/study-shows-ticks-can-transmit-rickettsia-immediately/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/06/28/powassan-can-kill/

 

 

 

 

Ehrlichiosis Found in Australian Dogs – Can Also Infect Humans

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-06-03/ehrlichiosis-detected-in-kimberley-dogs/

Exotic tick-borne disease ehrlichiosis detected in WA’s Kimberley region is a first in Australian dogs

Dogs roaming a Kimberley street

An exotic tick-borne disease, never seen before in Australian canines, has been found in a small number of sick dogs tested in Western Australia’s far north Kimberley.

Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial illness transmitted by ticks, particularly common in tropical and sub-tropical regions but this is the first time it has been confirmed in dogs which haven’t been imported from another country.

The affected dogs, in Halls Creek and Kununurra, have been treated by a private veterinarian in the region.

The bacteria, Ehrlichia canis, which causes the disease in dogs, was later confirmed through laboratory testing by the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness. (See link for article)

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For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/category/ehrlichiosis-treatment/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/15/ehrlichiosis-masquerading-as-thrombotic-thrombocytopenia-purpura/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/02/north-carolina-ehrlichia-often-overlooked-when-tick-borne-illness-suspected/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/24/oklahoma-ehrlichiosis-central/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/03/09/dogs-ehrlichiosis/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/28/human-tick-borne-diseases-in-australia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/21/our-battle-ongoing-lyme-disease-in-australia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/11/03/ld-not-in-australia-here-we-go-again/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/03/aussie-widow-of-lyme-disease-victim-to-sue-nsw-health/  A SYDNEY woman launches a class action against NSW Health after autopsy results showed her husband was riddled with Lyme in his liver, heart, kidney, and lungs. He was only 44 years old and was bitten by a tick while filming a TV show in Sydney.

 https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/18/study-finds-q-fever-rickettsia-typhus-in-australian-ticks-and-people/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/14/python-covered-with-more-than-500-ticks-rescued-in-australia/

 

 

 

 

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases & Blood Safety: Summary of a Public Workshop

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32208532/

. 2020 Mar 24.

doi: 10.1111/trf.15752. Online ahead of print.

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases and Blood Safety: Summary of a Public Workshop

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Tick-borne agents of disease continue to emerge and subsequently expand their geographic distribution. The threat to blood safety by tick-borne agents is ever increasing and requires constant surveillance concomitant with implementation of appropriate intervention methods. In April 2017, the Food and Drug Administration organized a public workshop on emerging tick-borne pathogens (excluding Babesia microti and Lyme disease) designed to provide updates on the current understanding of emerging tick-borne diseases, thereby allowing for extended discussions to determine if decisions regarding mitigation strategies need to be made proactively. Subject matter experts and other stakeholders participated in this workshop to discuss issues of biology, epidemiology, and clinical burden of tick-borne agents, risk of transfusion-transmission, surveillance, and considerations for decision making in implementing safety interventions. Herein, we summarize the scientific presentations, panel discussions, and considerations going forward.

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**Comment**

I only had access to the abstract, but Dr. Cameron writes more fully on the workshop here:  https://danielcameronmd.com/babesia-infection-transmitted-blood-supply/

Interestingly, according to the abstract, they excluded Babesia and Lyme, which are arguably two of the largest problems. It was pointed out that 200 cases of Babesia were transmitted through blood transfusions at the time of the workshop and that Anaplasma is next with increasing clinical cases.

Evidently there have been no reported cases of Lyme transmitted through the blood supply.

 

Other tick-borne pathogens have been transmitted through donated blood, but these occurrences are rare. (Or rarely reported)

  • 11 cases: A. phagocytophilum, responsible for Anaplasmosis (transmitted by the Ixodes ticks)
  • 2 cases: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex (TBEV, Powassan virus, DTV), (transmitted by the Ixodes ticks)
  • 1 case: Colorado tick-fever virus (transmitted by Rocky Mountain wood ticks)
  • 1 case: Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (transmitted by the Lone Star tick)
  • 1 case: Ehrlichia ewingii (transmitted by the Lone Star tick)

In addition, “two emerging [tick-borne agents] − B. miyamotoi and Powassan virus were discussed − for B. miyamotoi,cases have steadily increased since 2014.”

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/07/28/tick-borne-infection-risk-in-blood-transfusion/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/11/transfusion-transmitted-babesiosis-one-states-experience/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/08/08/transfusion-transmitted-babesiosis-in-nonendemic-areas/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/26/fda-recommends-testing-for-tick-borne-illness-in-donated-blood-a-big-duh/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/06/02/study-showing-results-testing-babesia-microti/

 

Rickettsiosis in Children – A Review

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32112308/

2020 Feb 28. doi: 10.1007/s12098-020-03216-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Rickettsioses in Children – A Review.

Abstract

Rickettsial diseases, caused by a variety of obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria from the genera Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Neoehrlichia, and Anaplasma are considered some of the most covert emerging and re-emerging diseases. Scrub typhus, murine flea-borne typhus and Indian tick typhus are commonly being reported and during the last decade. Scrub typhus (ST) has emerged as a serious public health problem in India. Rickettsial infections are generally incapacitating and difficult to diagnose; untreated cases have case fatality rates as high as 30-45% with multiple organ dysfunction, if the specific treatment is delayed. Early clinical suspicion, timely diagnosis followed by institution of specific antimicrobial therapy shortens the course of the disease, lowers the risk of complications and reduces morbidity and mortality due to rickettsial diseases. Still there is large gap in our knowledge of Rickettsioses and the vast variability and non-specific presentation of these have often made it difficult to diagnose clinically. The present review describes the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic modalities and treatment of Scrub typhus which is a vastly underdiagnosed entity and clinicians should suspect and test for the disease more often.

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For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/14/study-shows-ticks-can-transmit-rickettsia-immediately/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/11/is-rickettsia-the-same-as-lyme-disease/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/03/tick-bite-in-ear-gave-uk-teacher-rickettsial-typhus-infection/

 

Dogs With Proteinuria Found to Have Exposure to Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Lyme Disease

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31916316/

2020 Jan 8. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15610. [Epub ahead of print]

A retrospective study of vector-borne disease prevalence in dogs with proteinuria: Southeastern United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Proteinuria is a risk factor for progressive kidney injury in dogs. Enhanced understanding of potential associations between canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) and proteinuria is needed.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the proportion of evaluated proteinuric dogs exposed to ≥1 CVBD, including Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., spotted-fever group Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., Anaplasma spp., hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and Dirofilaria immitis, and to determine if demographic or clinicopathologic differences exist between proteinuric dogs exposed to CVBD versus proteinuric dogs with no evidence of CVBD exposure.

ANIMALS:

Two-hundred nine proteinuric dogs, concurrently tested for CVBD, which were examined at a single academic veterinary hospital between January 2008 and December 2015.

METHODS:

Retrospective cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and CVBD test results were extracted from medical records. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess associations between CVBD and selected variables.

RESULTS:

Based on serology and polymerase chain reaction testing,

  • 34% of proteinuric dogs (72/209) were exposed to ≥1 CVBD
  • Exposure to Rickettsia spp. (19%)
  • Ehrlichia spp. (12%)
  • B. burgdorferi (9%)

The CVBD exposure was lower in dogs tested in autumn or spring, higher in intact dogs, and higher in dogs with lower serum albumin and higher serum creatinine concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

Exposure to CVBD, particularly exposure to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi was found in proteinuric dogs from the southeast United States. Additional controlled prospective studies examining a potential causal relationship between CVBD and proteinuria are warranted.

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**Comment**

The question of course is – does this also happen in humans and to what degree?