Archive for the ‘Inflammation’ Category

“Herxing”: Why Does It Occur?

By Galaxy Lab

“Herxing”: Why does it occur?


Tick-borne Pathogens Bartonella spp., Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Coxiella Burnetii & Rickettsia Spp. May Trigger Endocarditis

2019 Jul;28(7):957-963. doi: 10.17219/acem/94159.

Tick-borne pathogens Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. may trigger endocarditis.



Infections caused by tick-borne pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. are capable of causing serious lesions of the mitral and aortic valves, leading to a need for valve replacement.


The aim of the study was to determine whether such cases are sporadic or frequent. An additional goal was to establish effective diagnostic methods to detect these infections.


The study involved 148 patients undergoing valve replacement. Blood samples were drawn for serological testing. Samples of the removed mitral and aortic valves were tested with PCR and immunohistochemical staining.


Specific antibodies to

  • Bartonella spp. were detected in 47 patients (31.7%) and in 1 of the healthy controls (1%) (p < 0.05)
  • B. burgdorferi spirochetes were found in 18 of the patients (12.2%) and in 6 blood donors from the control group (5.8%) (p < 0.1)
  • Rickettsia spp. were detected in 12 (8.1%) 
  • C. burnetii phase I and II antigens in the serum of 1 patient. All the participants in the control group were seronegative to C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. antigens.
  • PCR tests for detection of Bartonella spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. DNA in the valve samples were all negative.

Inflammation foci with mononuclear lymphoid cells in the aortic and mitral valves were seen in sections stained with hematoxiline and eozine. In sections dyed using the indirect immunofluorescence method with hyperimmune sera, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. were found.


The results obtained indicate that laboratory diagnostics for patients with heart disorders should be expanded to include tests detecting tick-borne zoonoses such as bartonelloses, Lyme borreliosis, rickettsioses and Q fever.



This article shows that tick borne pathogens are common with patients needing heart valve replacements. Unfortunately, testing still isn’t accurate. Finding antibodies, authorities would argue, doesn’t mean a person has symptoms; however, this issue desperately needs further research as finding antibodies does indicate the presence of pathogens.

A point to be made about the low percentage of those testing positive for Lyme might be due to the fact they only tested one strain: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.  There are 300 strains worldwide and 100 in the U.S. (and counting).

Bartonella is similar in the fact that a recent article pointed out that a 14-year-old boy with PANS caused by Bartonella henselae infection was NOT seropositive. Only one of the three blood samples tested positive before culturing and only two tested positive after culturing. A single blood draw might have missed confirming a diagnosis of bartonellosis.

How many doctors are going to hunt these infections to ground? How many have the time and doggedness it requires to find them? It’s far more likely they will take the results from a singular test, close the book, and move onto the next patient.

We desperately need accurate tests that pick up ALL the pathogens.




How 5 Remedies Help Reduce Inflammation – Greg Lee

How These Five Remedies and Treatments Help Reduce Inflammation Symptoms from Lyme Disease, Parasites, and Mold

For people who suspect they have multiple infections including Lyme disease, co-infections, parasites, and mold

by Greg Lee

Fireworks have gotten more spectacular since I was a kid. At a recent Independence Day celebration, my kids and I were dazzled by an amazing display that burst forth from a single white firework shooting up into the night. Then, several yellow streamers of light slowly fell like an umbrella which whistled. Suddenly, blue, red, green, and white sparkles blossomed forth. We kept saying, “Ooooh and aaaah!” with each new spray of color.

How is a complex fireworks show similar to recurring inflammatory symptoms from unknown infections?

Just like a fireworks display shooting across the night, multiple infections can trigger bursts of unexpected symptoms

Some patients with stealthy infections like Lyme disease, mold, or parasites can have relapsing symptoms that can randomly appear and disappear. Unfortunately, these infections may not show up on blood1, saliva, or stool2 tests. Carlotta felt run down ever since she got sick with mononucleosis as a teenager. She would have occasional bouts of migrating pain, memory recall issues, and vision problems. Lab tests couldn’t identify the underlying reason for her symptoms. Multiple medical providers suggested that she go see a counselor or psychiatrist. Her symptoms would flare up during phases of her menstrual cycle, during a full moon, and in response to eating carbohydrates. Not only food but also medications made her symptoms worse.

Her flu-like symptoms would flare up when she took antibiotics

Carlotta’s symptoms increased when she took antibiotics for sinus problems. The toxic die off from drug treatment dramatically increased her flu-like symptoms of fatigue, brain fog, and misspeaking words. She felt that her immune system was producing too much inflammation in response to some unknown infection. Unfortunately, over the counter medications did little to relieve her symptoms.

Anti-inflammatory medications didn’t help much

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin, Advil, and Aleve took the edge off some of her flu-like symptoms. Dietary changes helped reduce symptoms however they would flare up for unknown reasons and when she ate food with wheat or sugar.

What else can help to reduce fatigue, brain fog, and flu-like symptoms from hidden infections?

Here are five multi-microbial treatments that can help with reducing symptoms from multiple types of infections

Carlotta received an electrodermal scan which detected the electrical frequencies of Lyme disease and parasitic worms in her intestines and liver. The scan also detected frequencies of mold in her sinuses. She received a combination of microparticle, aka liposomal essential oils, liposomal herbs, and treatments to help with reduce recurring symptoms from her multiple infections. These remedies have also reduced toxins and inflammatory compounds in multiple lab studies.

Multi-microbial Treatment #1: Clove bud

This herb has acrid and warm properties. In lab and animal studies, clove bud has an inhibitory effect against Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella typhi, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Bacillus dysenteriae, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphlococcus aureus3, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)4, Enterococcus faecalis5, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa6. Biflorin, a compound in clove buds, protected against bacterial endotoxins, and inflammatory compounds tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) in a mouse study7. This herb has also been recommended for the treatment of worms and parasites in humans8.

In Chinese medicine, it is used to warm the abdomen and relieve pain. Clove is also used to treat hiccups, nausea, morning sickness, vomiting, and diarrhea. This herb is also used to treat impotence, and coldness in the body and extremities. It also promotes digestion by increasing bile and gastric acid secretions. Clove is also used topically to treat toothache. The essential oil has anti-asthmatic properties.

Essential oil of clove contains these compounds: eugenol, caryophyllene, acetyleugenol, α- caryophyllene, and chavicol. In lab research, clove essential oil completely dissolves the borrelia biofilm and kills the drug persistent spirochete form of the Lyme9. In another study, clove essential oil inhibits Candida, Aspergillus, and some dematophytes including fluconazole resistant strains10. In another study, the compound eugenol was effective at inhibiting different fungi including Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus species, Mucor species, Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum11. In a third study, clove essential oil increased the effectiveness of fluconazole and voriconazole against multiple Candida species12. In another study, this essential oil was effective at inhibiting drug resistant Candida biofilms13. Low internal doses of clove essential oil have been used safely and effectively for years with patients diagnosed with Lyme disease, parasites, and mold toxicity. This herb is contraindicated in cases of fever and excess internal heat accompanied with symptoms of dryness. Side effects of this herb include dizziness, palpitations, chest oppression, headache, perspiration, decreased blood pressure, and skin rash. In addition to clove, cinnamon can be effective against many different microbes and parasites.

Multi-microbial Treatment#2: Cinnamon bark

The properties of this herb are acrid, sweet, and hot. Cinnamon has an inhibitory effect on dermatophytes, pathogenic fungi, and many gram positive bacteria14. In a lab study, cinnamon compounds inhibited the malaria parasite15. These compounds are succinic acid, glutathione, L-aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and 2-methylbutyryl glycine. Given the similarity between malaria and Babesia, this herb may be effective against this co-infection. Another compound, cinnamaldehyde, has inhibits parasitic worms in a lab study16. Cinnamon was also effective at reducing parasitic cysts of Giardia in a rat study.17

This herb also contains the following active compounds: cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, phenylpropyl acetate, cinncassiol-A, -B, -C1, -C2, -C3, cinnzelanine, and cinnzeylanol.

This herb is used in Chinese medicine to treat a wide variety of disorders including intolerance to cold, cold extremities, weakness, soreness and coldness of the low back and knees, impotence, lack of libido, excess urine production, and loose stools. It is also used to treat wheezing, asthma, labored breathing, swelling, and profuse phlegm. Cinnamon is also used for dizziness, flushed face, sore throat, and coldness in the lower extremities. This herb also treats epigastric and abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, gas, bloating, slow digestion, hernia pain, and spasmodic pain in the stomach and intestines. It is also used to treat hypercoagulation, irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, postpartum pain, external injuries, trauma, deep rooted sores, psoriasis, and feelings of oppression in the abdomen.

Cinnamon is contraindicated during pregnancy and in patients with signs of excess heat, excess dryness, and excess bleeding. Excess amount of cinnamon can result in symptoms of flushed face, red eyes, dry mouth and tongue, bleeding, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, excess urination, anuria, burning sensations upon urination, excess serum proteins in the urine, dizziness, blurred vision, and numbness of the tongue.

Intravenous cinnamon reduced blood pressure, decreased heart rate, peripheral vasodilation, and decreased vessel resistance within 3-5 minutes. Subcutaneous injection of cinnamon in dogs increased the white blood cell count by 150 – 200%. In a rat study, essential oil of cinnamon has an analgesic and sedative effect.

In lab research, cinnamon bark essential oil completely eradicates the Lyme disease biofilm and the drug persistent spirochete form18. Cinnamon bark essential oil was effective at inhibiting Aspergillus and Penicillium mold species19. This essential oil inhibits Aspergillus species and aflatoxin, aflatoxin-B1, and aflatoxin-G1 production. These toxins are inhibited because the essential oil binds to the DNA of aflatoxins. Also, this essential oil reacts with reactive oxygen species produced by aflatoxins, which has a protective effect on cells20. In another study, cinnamon bark essential oil was the most effective against oral isolates of Candida albicans21. Another study demonstrated that cinnamon bark essential oil was effective against fluconazole susceptible Candida species22. Liposomal cinnamon oil was effective at inhibiting MRSA and it’s biofilms in a lab study23. Low dilutions of liposomal cinnamon essential oil have been taken internally by people diagnosed with multiple infections safely without reported side-effects. In addition to cinnamon, artemisia has antimicrobial effects against many pathogens.

Multi-microbial Treatment#3: Artemisia

Artemisia and its derivative compounds, artemisinin, liposomal artemisinin, and artesenuate, are being used by physicians to fight Babesia24 infections. Artemisinin has been used effectively with other anti-protozoa medications to cure relapsing Babesia. Artemisinin has also been effective in multiple studies against cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii (protozoa), Schistosoma species and Fasciola hepatica (worms) and Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi)25.

Artemisia is recommended for treating leptospirosis and Lyme disease in Chinese medicine26. Artemisia annua is also effective in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus (staph), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus dysenteriae (dysentery), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis)27. Using the whole herb instead of a derivative compound increases the benefits by including other active compounds. Multiple sesquiterpene and flavonoid compounds from Artemisia annua neutralized the effects of bacterial toxins in a lab study28. Artemisia annua contains rosmarinic acid which demonstrated a synergistic interaction with artemisinin against the malaria protozoa in a lab study29. This herb and it’s compound artemisinin inhibited the production of bacterial endotoxins and the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in a rat study30.

Artemisia annua has the properties of clears heat, treats malaria, cools the blood, clears liver heat, and brightens the eyes. It is also used to treat “steaming bone disorder” or the feeling that one’s bones are being cooked, tidal fever, unremitting low-grade fever, thirst, soreness and weakness of the low back and knees, irritability, and heat in the palms, soles, and the middle of the chest. Other symptoms this herb is used to treat are warmth at night and chills in the morning, absence of perspiration, heavy limbs, stifling sensation in the chest, and a flushed face. This herb also treats red eyes, dizziness, photophobia, arrhythmia, and jaundice.

This herb is cautioned in patients with diarrhea and coldness in the stomach. Azole antifungals and calcium channel blockers may present significant herb-drug interactions with this herb. In long term studies, this herb had no adverse effects on vital organs31. In addition to artemisia, silver nanoparticles have multiple anti-microbial properties.

Multi-microbial Treatment#4: Silver Nanoparticles

Silver nanoparticles have been used safely and effectively to inhibit many drug resistant and biofilm forming bacteria and fungi including Streptococcus mutans32, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa33, Escherichia coli34, and Enterococcus faecalis35 in lab studies. Silver particles are also effective at inhibiting multiple species of pathogenic fungi and their toxins in lab studies36. This form of silver has also been effective against multiple protozoa including Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria)37. In water studies, silver has also been effective at reducing the amount of helminth (worm) eggs in waste water38.

When in combination with cinnamon bark, silver inhibits H7N3 influenza A virus a lab experiment39. When combined with tea tree essential oil in a microparticle liposome, silver greatly enhances the antimicrobial and anti-toxin properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans40. In addition to silver, Microcurrent offers a highly flexible and targeted treatment for inhibiting pathogens, toxins, and resulting inflammation.

Multi-microbial Treatment#5: Frequency Specific Microcurrent

Frequency Specific Microcurrent (FSM) is amazingly targeted and customizable form of electrical frequency treatment for chronic infections. Carlotta received anti-microbial, anti-toxin, anti-inflammatory frequencies directed into her sinuses, liver, intestines, and memory regions of the brain. Frequencies were also applied to neutralize mold toxins, inhibit spirochetes, fungi, protozoa, bacteria, parasites, and reduce brain and intestinal inflammation. She also received frequencies for increasing adrenal energy, disrupting biofilms in her sinuses, and zapping intracellular infections. With each microcurrent treatment, she felt less toxic and less inflamed, more energetic, and was able to find and speak words with greater clarity. Multiple remedies and treatment may be effective at reducing symptoms from Lyme, parasites and mold, toxins, and resulting inflammation.

Using multiple treatments, patients report faster improvements in their chronic inflammation symptoms

Similar to a dazzling multi-stage fireworks display, the proper combination of treatments and liposomal remedies may give your immune system a burst of support to fight multiple types of infections including Lyme disease, parasites and mold. These treatments may also help to neutralize toxins and lower inflammation. For the first time in years, Carlotta looked forward to going to her kid’s sporting events with an abundance of energy. She remembered her family’s activity schedule without having to look at a calendar. She restarted movement classes since her migrating pains had ceased. Since liposomal remedies require specific training on their formulation and come with cautions on their use, work with a Lyme literate natural practitioner to develop a safe and effective strategy for addressing symptoms from multiple infections.

– Greg

P.S. Do you have experiences where treatment or remedies helped you reduce symptoms from multiple infections? Tell us about it in a comment below.


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The Aches & Pains of Tick-borne Illnesses

The Aches and Pains of Tick-borne Illnesses

by Jennifer Crystal

The first time I saw the award-winning Lyme documentary Under Our Skin, I was seated in the theater. In the film, a doctor who doesn’t believe in chronic Lyme was asked what might otherwise be causing the symptoms of the more than 427,000 people afflicted by tick-borne illness every year. He suggested it could just be the normal aches and pains of getting older.

With that bit of ignorance so baldly stated, everyone in the theater let out a collective groan.

There is a big difference between the aches and pains that come with tick-borne illnesses and those associated with every day life.

To be fair, those who haven’t wrestled with tick-borne illnesses might be confused by the generic descriptor “aches and pains.” That’s because it’s like so many other nebulous descriptions,—like “fatigue”—that could be the result of any number of illnesses. Let me explain.

In my former athletic life, I was a hard-core skier. In college I skied almost every winter day, and after I graduated and moved to Colorado, I skied every Saturday and Sunday from November to April. Often my muscles were sore after these workouts. Sometimes I’d even wake up with an aching back, but only because I’d worked my arms too hard the day before. These aches and pains were akin to those anyone might feel after working out at the gym, going for a run, or weeding the garden. The muscles get overworked, and you feel residual soreness.

Unless this type of soreness is indicative of a larger injury, it usually can be alleviated with gentle stretching, rest, ice and ibuprofen. Generally, the soreness dissipates within a few days, and you can continue with daily life—sometimes even exercising moderately—while these aches and pains heal. They are a nuisance but they’re not debilitating.

The same is true for what I know of the aches and pains of getting older. Granted, I am only 41, so I can’t speak yet to the pain my older readers feel when their bones start to complain or they develop arthritis. For me, the aches and pains of getting older mean that my knees creak when I crouch down to talk to a child. My back twinges more than it used to when I pick up a heavy bag or box and I’m more susceptible to a pulled muscle. When I fall down skiing, the bruises hurt a little more, I’m having more soreness the next day than when I was younger, and I tend to need more ibuprofen.

These aches and pains are tolerable. I might complain about them to a friend, but then I go on with my day. These pains don’t have me bedridden for months or years.They aren’t all over my entire body, just at the stressed joints. They don’t make me feel like I have a perpetual flu.

The aches and pains of Lyme disease do cover the entire body. When you have Lyme, you feel like your whole body is weighed down with a thick coating of molasses. It takes a slow, exhausting effort to lift your limbs. Your joints ache not in a post-work-out way, but in a way that feels like that molasses is pooling in your elbows, knees and toes. I’ve often felt a pulling sensation in these areas, like someone was gripping and yanking at my joints.

And the pain was not only in my joints. Because Lyme is a systemic inflammatory infection, I felt aches and pains all over my body. Think about how your ankle swells when you twist it badly. That’s because of inflammation. Now imagine that type of inflammation all over your entire body. That’s Lyme disease.

Different Lyme patients feel pain in different areas, depending where the Lyme bacteria (spirochetes) are gathered, and depending on which areas the infection has spread to. Some have migraine headaches. Some Lyme sufferers have back and neck pain that makes it hard to move. My worst aches were in my forearms and shins. I felt a deep pain in those bones, which would bruise to the touch. Returning to the molasses analogy, sometimes my forearms felt so weighted down that I could not type. I could hand write one sentence and then had to lie down.

These aches and pains went on for months, until antibiotics and prescription anti-inflammatory medication killed enough Lyme bacteria that the molasses feeling blissfully dissipated. The pain could not have been alleviated with ibuprofen or ice, because it was the result of a bacterial infection that was deep in my body. It wasn’t just a nuisance; it made daily life impossible.

Now, when I get “normal” aches and pains—when I’m sore from skiing, or my calves hurt from walking around the city in bad shoes, I know it’s not Lyme-related, because it’s not as deep or painful. It goes away on its own in a few days. When I less frequently feel a pulling sensation in my joints, shins or forearms, or when I can actually feel the spirochetes buzzing under the skin in those areas,–when I put my hands on my skin, I can feel a buzzing underneath, like electricity–then I know it’s a Lyme-related problem.

If only Lyme patients could show others what’s inside—if only we could demonstrate our infection the way we see illustrations of a smoker’s lungs. Perhaps then people who don’t have Lyme would better understand. To reiterate, Lyme pain is not the same as the typical aches and pains of aging, and it needs to be treated seriously, by a Lyme Literate Medical Doctor (LLMD). You can find one here.

Opinions expressed by contributors are their own.

Jennifer Crystal is a writer and educator in Boston. She has written a memoir, One Tick Stopped the Clock, for which she is seeking representation. Contact her at:



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“My diagnoses they came up with here was (that it was) just a pain syndrome,” she said. “I was put on Oxycodone and told to seek a psychologist. At this point I was using a cane. I was in so much pain even the Oxycodone wasn’t working.”

“I kept saying ‘Somethings wrong, I’m in pain,’ ” Fraser said. “Everyone’s telling you ‘You’re not in pain, it’s all in your head.’ ”

I recently read an extremely disheartening account of how stage three (terminal) cancer patients are now being told to take a Tylenol for their pain:

I’m not sure there’s as much of an opioid crisis as much as there is a fear of opioids crisis.


Cerebrospinal Fluid CXLC13 Indicates Disease Course in Neuroinfection: An Observational Study

2019 Jan 19;16(1):13. doi: 10.1186/s12974-019-1405-8.

Cerebrospinal fluid CXLC13 indicates disease course in neuroinfection: an observational study



The chemokine CXCL13 is an intensively investigated biomarker in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Its role in other neuroinfections is increasingly recognized but less clear.


To determine the significance of CXCL13 in established central nervous system (CNS) infections other than LNB by matching cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CXCL13 elevations with severity of the disease course.


We investigated 26 patients with bacterial (n = 10) and viral (n = 16; tick-borne encephalitis, n = 6; varicella zoster infection, n = 10) neuroinfections of whom CSF CXCL13 levels were available twice, from lumbar punctures (LP) performed at admission and follow-up. As outcome classification, we dichotomized disease courses into “uncomplicated” (meningitis, monoradiculitis) and “complicated” (signs of CNS parenchymal involvement such as encephalitis, myelitis, abscesses, or vasculitis). CXCL13 elevations above 250 pg/ml were classified as highly elevated.


Eight of 26 patients (31%) with both bacterial (n = 4) and viral (n = 4) neuroinfections had a complicated disease course. All of them but only 3/18 patients (17%) with an uncomplicated disease course had CSF CXCL13 elevations > 250 pg/ml at the follow-up LP (p < 0.001). At admission, 4/8 patients (50%) with a complicated disease course and 3/18 patients (17%) with an uncomplicated disease course showed CXCL13 elevations > 250 pg/ml. All four patients with a complicated disease course but only one with an uncomplicated disease course had sustained CXCL13 elevations at follow-up. Patient groups did not differ with regard to age, time since symptom onset, LP intervals, type of infections, and anti-pathogen treatments.


Our study revealed pronounced CXCL13 elevations in CSF of patients with severe disease courses of bacterial and viral neuroinfections. This observation indicates a role of CXCL13 in the CNS immune defense and points at an additional diagnostic value as biomarker for unresolved immune processes leading to or associated with complications.

Metabolites of Prostaglandin Synthases As Potential Biomarkers of Lyme Disease Severity & Symptom Resolution

2019 Jan;68(1):7-17. doi: 10.1007/s00011-018-1180-5. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Metabolites of prostaglandin synthases as potential biomarkers of Lyme disease severity and symptom resolution.



Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the commonest vector-borne disease in the North America. It is an inflammatory disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The role of the inflammatory processes mediated by prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes and leukotrienes (LTs) in LB severity and symptoms resolution is yet to be elucidated.


We aim to systematically review and evaluate the role of PGs and related lipid mediators in the induction and resolution of inflammation in LB.


We conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Embase and Embase Classic to identify cell-culture, animal and human studies reporting the changes in PGs and related lipid mediators of inflammation during the course of LB.


We identified 18 studies to be included into this systematic review. The selected reports consisted of seven cell-culture studies, seven animal studies, and four human studies (from three patient populations). Results from cell-culture and animal studies suggest that PGs and other lipid mediators of inflammation are elevated in LB and may contribute to disease development. The limited number of human studies showed that subjects with Lyme meningitis, Lyme arthritis (LA) and antibiotic-refractory LA had increased levels of an array of PGs and lipid mediators (e.g., LTB4, 8-isoPGF, and phospholipases A2 activity). Levels of these markers were significantly reduced following the treatment with antibiotics or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.


Dysregulation of prostaglandins and related lipid mediators may play a role in the etiology of LB and persistence of inflammation that may lead to long-term complications. Further investigation into the precise levels of a wide range of PGs and related factors is critical as it may propose novel markers that can be used for early diagnosis.



Systematic reviews are only as good as the studies they utilize. The area of Lyme research is notoriously controlled by “The Cabal,” a highly vested group of individuals rife with conflicts of interests.

The “limited” number of human studies is two-fold: 1) the entrance parameters into studies requires a positive on the CDC-two tiered testing (which misses half of all cases & leaves out a huge subset of patients) as well as having the EM rash which is highly variable with patients (studies show 25-80% get it, and some not at all), and 2) anyone who doesn’t agree with the long-held CDC/IDSA narrative that Lyme is hard to catch and easy to treat and doesn’t persist, struggles to be heard and published:  Numerous researchers have told the same sordid tale:

Christian Perronne, physician on the infectious diseases faculty at the University of Versailles-St Quentin, France, states,

“If you try to publish a little bit different from the guidelines, it’s anti-science.”

What researcher in their right mind wants to swim up this stream? Only a few and we are so thankful to have them!

I find it interesting that although patients improve with antibiotics (as clearly stated right here in this article) authorities state antibiotics don’t help. Their studies are rigged for a preconceived outcome. I would not be writing today without numerous long-term antibiotics used judiciously. I can say the same for many other patients. Antimicrobials, of course, are only one prong of treatment and it’s a holistic venture requiring many modalities, experience, and a lot of savvy.

The polarization continues.

Chronic Inflammation Removes Motivation By Reducing Dopamine in the Brain

Chronic inflammation removes motivation by reducing dopamine in the brain

June 5, 2109

Written by Dr. Liji Thomas

Why do we feel listless when we are recovering from an illness? The answer is, apparently, that low-grade chronic inflammation interferes with the dopaminergic signaling system in the brain that motivates us to do things.

This was reported in a new paper published in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences.

The research carried out at Emory University explains the links between the reduced release of dopamine in the brain, the motivation to do things, and the presence of an inflammatory reaction in the body. It also presents the possibility that this is part of the body’s effort to optimize its energy expenditure during such inflammatory episodes, citing evidence gathered during their study.

The authors also published an experimental framework based on computational tools, devised to test the theory.

The underlying hypothesis is that the body needs more energy to heal a wound or overcome an infection, for instance, both of which are associated with low-grade inflammation. To ensure that energy is available, the brain uses an adaptive technique to reduce the natural drive to perform other tasks which could potentially drain away the energy needed for healing. This is essentially a recalibration of the specialized reward neurons in the motivation center of the brain, so that ordinary tasks no longer feel like they’re worth doing.

According to the new study, the mechanism of this recalibration is immune-mediated disruption of the dopamine pathway, reducing dopamine release.

The computational technique published by the scientists is designed to allow experimental measurements of the extent to which low-grade inflammation affects the amount of energy available, and the decision to do something based on the effort needed. This could allow us to better understand why and how chronic inflammatory states cause a lack of motivation in other disease conditions as well, including schizophrenia and depression.

Andrew Miller, co-author of the study, says,

“If our theory is correct, then it could have a tremendous impact on treating cases of depression and other behavioral disorders that may be driven by inflammation. It would open up opportunities for the development of therapies that target energy utilization by immune cells, which would be something completely new in our field.”

It is already known that immune cells release cellular signaling molecules called cytokines, which affect the functioning of the dopamine-releasing neurons in the area of the brain called the mesolimbic system. This area enhances our willingness to work hard for the sake of a reward.


Image Copyright: Meletios, Image ID: 71648629 via
Recently, it was discovered that immune cells also enjoy a unique capability to shift between various metabolic states, unlike other cells. This could affect cytokine release patterns in such a way as to signal the brain to conserve available energy for the use of the immune system.
These facts were the foundation of the new hypothesis, which explains it in terms of evolutionary adaptation. In the hypothetical early environment, the immune system, faced with abundant microbial and predatory challenges, needed tremendous amounts of energy. It therefore had its own mechanism to signal other body systems, via the mesolimbic dopamine system, to control the use of energy resources during periods when the organism was undergoing severe or sudden stress.
Modern life is relatively soft and less challenging. With less physical activity, low-grade inflammation is chiefly due to factors such as obesity, chronic stress, metabolic syndrome, aging and other lifestyle illnesses. This could mistakenly cause the mesolimbic dopamine neurons to produce less dopamine. Lower dopamine levels in turn decrease the motivation for work, by reducing the perception of reward while increasing the perception of effort involved. This ultimately conserves energy for use by the immune system.
Previous studies by Miller as well as other scientists have shown that a high level of immune functioning in association with low levels of dopamine and reduced motivation characterizes some cases of schizophrenia, depression and certain other mental health conditions.
The scientists do not think these disorders are caused by the low-grade inflammation, but that some people who have these illnesses are hypersensitive to immune cytokines. This could in turn cause them to lose motivation for daily living.
The scientists are currently performing a clinical trial on people with depression, to test the theory using the computational framework.


Source: Treadway M. T. et al., (2019). Can’t or Won’t? Immunometabolic Constraints on Dopaminergic Drive. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.


2017 May;3(3). doi: 10.15761/JSIN.1000163. Epub 2017 May 11.

Lyme and Dopaminergic Function: Hypothesizing Reduced Reward Deficiency Symptomatology by Regulating Dopamine Transmission.


The principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States is Ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. There is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. Researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. It is hypothesized that protracted Lyme disease sequelae may be due to impairment of dopaminergic function of the brain reward circuitry. The subsequent recombinant proteins exhibited sulfotransferase function against two neurotransmitters: dopamine and octopamine. This, in itself, can reduce dopamine function leading to many Reward Deficiency Syndrome behaviors, including depression and possibly, anxiety. In fact, it was shown that activity of Ixosc Sult 1 and Sult 2 in the Ixodid tick salivary glands might contain inactivation of the salivation signal through sulfonation of either dopamine or octopamine. This infraction results in a number of clinically observed mood changes, such as anxiety and depression. In fact, there are common symptoms observed for both Parkinson and Lyme diseases. The importance of understanding the mechanistic and neurobiological effects of Lyme on the central nervous system (CNS) provides the basis for pro-dopamine regulation as a treatment. WC 195.

Great article on dopamine: Excerpt:

Dopamine deficiency will cause you to wake up sluggish in the morning, usually with brain fog, but you might feel happier and suddenly more enthusiastic with a “hit” of some sort, perhaps a cup of coffee.  Low dopamine (as opposed to low serotonin) causes a different kind of depression, one that is hallmarked by a lack of pleasure.