Archive for the ‘Transmission’ Category

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32560202/

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences

Affiliations expand

Free article

Abstract

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and act as vectors for a great variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Some tick-borne viruses, such as Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus, are transmissible within 15-60 min after tick attachment. However, a minimum of 3-24 h of tick attachment is necessary to effectively transmit bacterial agents such as Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Rickettsia spp. to a new host. Longer transmission periods were reported for Borrelia spp. and protozoans such as Babesia spp., which require a minimum duration of 24-48 h of tick attachment for maturation and migration of the pathogen.

Laboratory observations indicate that the probability of transmission of tick-borne pathogens increases with the duration an infected tick is allowed to remain attached to the host. However, the transmission time may be shortened when partially fed infected ticks detach from their initial host and reattach to a new host, on which they complete their engorgement.

For example, early transmission of tick-borne pathogens (e.g., Rickettsia rickettsii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Brucella canis) and a significantly shorter transmission time were demonstrated in laboratory experiments by interrupted blood feeding.

The relevance of such situations under field conditions remains poorly documented.

In this review, we explore parameters of, and causes leading to, spontaneous interrupted feeding in nature, as well as the effects of this behavior on the minimum time required for transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

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**Comment**

Partial feeding is not rare and needs to be taken into account. Unfortunately, authorities have followed a tightly controlled narrative when it comes to transmission times – which has only served to hurt patients for decades.

There are cases where Lyme (borrelia) has been transmitted within hours:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/12/07/igenex-presentation/

Excerpt:

Bob Giguere of IGeneX states a case by Dr. Jones of a little girl who went outside to play about 8:30a.m. and came inside at 10:30 with an attached tick above her right eye.  By 2 o’clock, she had developed the facial palsy.  At the hospital she was told it couldn’t be Lyme as the tick hadn’t been attached long enough.  They offered a neuro-consult…..

By 4pm she couldn’t walk or talk.

Do not believe what the “experts” tell you about transmission times!

Authorities also talk about ticks having a “grace period” before they transmit which is hog-wash:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/03/10/grace-period-for-ticks-nope/

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/04/14/transmission-time-for-lymemsids-infection/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/04/26/three-strains-of-borrelia-other-pathogens-found-in-salivary-glands-of-ixodes-ticks-suggesting-quicker-transmission-time/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/14/study-shows-ticks-can-transmit-rickettsia-immediately/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/06/28/powassan-can-kill/

 

 

 

 

RMSF Rare in NJ But Spreading Elsewhere

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200625124939.htm

Dangerous tick-borne bacterium extremely rare in New Jersey

The mystery behind the rise in spotted fever cases continues

Date:  June 25, 2020
Source:  Rutgers University
Summary:
There’s some good news in New Jersey about a potentially deadly tick-borne bacterium. Researchers examined more than 3,000 ticks in the Garden State and found only one carrying Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. But cases of tick-borne spotted fevers have increased east of the Mississippi River, and more research is needed to understand why.  (See link for article)

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**Comment**

Important quote:  

“CDC researchers recently found that the invasive Asian longhorned tick, like the American dog tick and lone star tick, is an efficient vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in the lab,” said senior author Dina M. Fonseca.

I’m surprised they didn’t mention that the brown dog tick has outbreaks in Mexico.

This is worrisome because the brown dog tick is more likely to bite people and it adapts easily to living in a house.. Researchers worry it may be spreading to California and the Southern U.S.  It also appears to transmit a more virulent form of RMSF: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/16/new-tick-causes-epidemic-of-rmsf/

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/05/05/asian-longhorned-tick-able-to-transmit-rmsf-in-lab-setting-also-transmitted-within-ticks-through-ova/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/07/25/kentucky-more-than-two-dozen-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-cases-reported-in-grayson-county/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/06/30/rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-can-be-deadly-how-to-prevent-diagnose-treat-it/

Bourbon Virus? New Tick-borne Disease May Be in North Carolina

https://www.journalnow.com/news/local/bourbon-virus-new-tick-borne-disease-may-be-in-north-carolina/article_

Bourbon virus? New tick-borne disease may be in North Carolina

HCQ Breakthrough: ICMR Finds It’s Effective in Preventing Coronavirus, Expands Its Use

https://theprint.in/health/hcq-breakthrough-icmr-finds-its-effective-in-preventing-coronavirus-expands-its-use

HCQ breakthrough: ICMR finds it’s effective in preventing coronavirus, expands its use

Three studies find that hydroxychloroquine reduces chances of contracting Covid, so ICMR allows more frontline workers to take it as a preventive drug.

22 May, 2020 

New Delhi: The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the country’s apex body in the field, has found that consuming the drug hydroxychloroquine reduces the chances of getting infected with Covid-19.

As a result, ICMR released an advisory Friday to expand the usage of HCQ — an anti-malarial drug — as a preventive treatment against the novel coronavirus.

The conclusion has been drawn on the basis of three studies conducted by the ICMR.

The advisory suggests surveillance workers, paramilitary and police personnel, as well as medical staff working in non-Covid hospitals and blocks to start consuming the pill as “preventive therapy”.  (See link for article)

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For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/06/06/fraudulent-hcq-covid-19-study-in-lancet-exposed/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/06/01/rebuttal-on-huge-hcq-study-in-lancet/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/05/22/new-study-hcq-zinc-greatly-reduces-covid-19-health-risk/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/04/24/dr-oz-interviews-dr-didier-raoult-on-hydroxychloroquine-study-for-covid-19/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/05/11/podcast-evidence-supporting-hcq-azithromycin-for-covid-19/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/03/27/the-truth-about-hydroxychloroquine-plaquenil-in-the-treatment-of-covid-19/

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases & Blood Safety: Summary of a Public Workshop

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32208532/

. 2020 Mar 24.

doi: 10.1111/trf.15752. Online ahead of print.

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases and Blood Safety: Summary of a Public Workshop

Affiliations expand

Abstract

Tick-borne agents of disease continue to emerge and subsequently expand their geographic distribution. The threat to blood safety by tick-borne agents is ever increasing and requires constant surveillance concomitant with implementation of appropriate intervention methods. In April 2017, the Food and Drug Administration organized a public workshop on emerging tick-borne pathogens (excluding Babesia microti and Lyme disease) designed to provide updates on the current understanding of emerging tick-borne diseases, thereby allowing for extended discussions to determine if decisions regarding mitigation strategies need to be made proactively. Subject matter experts and other stakeholders participated in this workshop to discuss issues of biology, epidemiology, and clinical burden of tick-borne agents, risk of transfusion-transmission, surveillance, and considerations for decision making in implementing safety interventions. Herein, we summarize the scientific presentations, panel discussions, and considerations going forward.

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**Comment**

I only had access to the abstract, but Dr. Cameron writes more fully on the workshop here:  https://danielcameronmd.com/babesia-infection-transmitted-blood-supply/

Interestingly, according to the abstract, they excluded Babesia and Lyme, which are arguably two of the largest problems. It was pointed out that 200 cases of Babesia were transmitted through blood transfusions at the time of the workshop and that Anaplasma is next with increasing clinical cases.

Evidently there have been no reported cases of Lyme transmitted through the blood supply.

 

Other tick-borne pathogens have been transmitted through donated blood, but these occurrences are rare. (Or rarely reported)

  • 11 cases: A. phagocytophilum, responsible for Anaplasmosis (transmitted by the Ixodes ticks)
  • 2 cases: Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex (TBEV, Powassan virus, DTV), (transmitted by the Ixodes ticks)
  • 1 case: Colorado tick-fever virus (transmitted by Rocky Mountain wood ticks)
  • 1 case: Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (transmitted by the Lone Star tick)
  • 1 case: Ehrlichia ewingii (transmitted by the Lone Star tick)

In addition, “two emerging [tick-borne agents] − B. miyamotoi and Powassan virus were discussed − for B. miyamotoi,cases have steadily increased since 2014.”

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/07/28/tick-borne-infection-risk-in-blood-transfusion/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/11/transfusion-transmitted-babesiosis-one-states-experience/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/08/08/transfusion-transmitted-babesiosis-in-nonendemic-areas/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/26/fda-recommends-testing-for-tick-borne-illness-in-donated-blood-a-big-duh/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/06/02/study-showing-results-testing-babesia-microti/