Archive for the ‘Transmission’ Category

Man Develops Fever, Arthritis in Knee & Rash After Dog Licks Insect Bite

2020 Feb 19. pii: S0151-9638(20)30077-6. doi: 10.1016/j.annder.2020.01.016. [Epub ahead of print]

[Multiple erythema annulare centrifugum associated with knee monoarthritis revealing Capnocytophagacanimorsus infection].

[Article in French]



Capnocytophagacanimorsus (C. canimorsus), a commensal Gram-negative bacillus found in the oral cavity of dogs and cats, is pathogenic for humans, with the most common clinical manifestations being septicemia, meningitis and endocarditis. Herein we report a case of CC bacteremia manifesting as multiple plaques of erythema annulare centrifugum associated with monoarthritis of the knee.


A 66-year-old man consulted for a skin rash and monoarthritis of the right knee with fever following an insect bite on his right hallux. Cutaneous examination revealed numerous erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and limbs with centrifugal extension. Analysis of synovial fluid from the right knee showed an inflammatory liquid with a sterile bacteriological culture and PCR was negative for Borrelia. C. canimorsus bacteria were isolated from blood cultures. 16S RNA PCR performed on the synovial fluid was positive for the same organism.

The patient’s history revealed that his hallux wound had been licked by his dog.


C. canimorsus most frequently affects immunosuppressed subjects. Cutaneous signs are seen in half of all cases, most frequently presenting as cellulitis, pathological livedo or thrombotic purpura. We report herein a case of CC bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient manifesting as multiple plaques of erythema annulare centrifugum, an unusual sign, and monoarthritis of one knee.



I post this because many patients have pets.  Here we see the result of a man with an insect bite on his big toe being licked by his dog.  He was in good health but developed a skin rash, fever, and arthritis in the knee joint.  

This demonstrates that many organisms can cause pain & arthritis.

For more on erythematous annular plaques:  


What are the clinical features of erythema annulare centrifugum?

Erythema annulare centrifugum typically affects the thighs, buttocks, and upper arms. However, any location on the body can be affected.

Erythema annulare centrifugum usually starts as a small pink papule that gradually enlarges over several weeks to form annular plaqueswith central clearing. These plaques can vary in size from a few millimetres to a few centimetres in size. Annular lesions can be partial (arciform) and coalesce to form polycyclic (ringed), serpiginous (wavy), and gyrate (revolving) patterns.

Classically, the annular or arciform lesions have an advancing outer erythematous edge with a trailing (inner) scaly edge. The rash may be itchy.

How is erythema annulare centrifugum diagnosed?

Erythema annulare centrifugum can sometimes be diagnosed on clinical features alone if the characteristic trailing scale is present. The diagnosis can be confirmed by skin biopsy in which the typical features of superficial or deep erythema annulare centrifugum are noted: a dense perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate involving either the superficial or deep vascular plexus, which is known as a ‘coat-sleeve’ appearance. Secondary changes to the epidermis may include spongiosis (inflammation of intercellular oedema), parakeratosis (disturbance in the keratinisation process), and hyperkeratosis (thickening of the outer layer of the epidermis) [2].




Study Shows 100% of Robins Infected With Lyme & Songbirds are Spreading Lyme into New Areas

Healthcare 2020, 8(1), 59;


Monitoring of Nesting Songbirds Detects Established Population of Blacklegged Ticks and Associated Lyme Disease Endemic Area in Canada


This study provides a novel method of documenting established populations of bird-feeding ticks. Single populations of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, were revealed in southwestern Québec, Canada. Blacklegged tick nymphs and, similarly, larval and nymphal rabbit ticks were tested for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), using PCR and the flagellin (flaB) gene, and 14 (42%) of 33 of blacklegged tick nymphs tested were positive. In contrast, larval and nymphal H. leporsipalustris ticks were negative for Bbsl. The occurrence of Bbsl in I. scapularis nymphs brings to light the presence of a Lyme disease endemic area at this songbird nesting locality. Because our findings denote that this area is a Lyme disease endemic area, and I. scapularis is a human-biting tick, local residents and outdoor workers must take preventive measures to avoid tick bites. Furthermore, local healthcare practitioners must include Lyme disease in their differential diagnosis.
The article is quick to point out that while THIS study didn’t find Bbsl in H. leporsipalustris ticks (rabbit tick), past research has.  If you read the entire study you will see the following excerpts:

4.4. H. leporispalustris Vector Competency

In this study, we did not identify Bbsl in H. leporispalustris ticks. However, Banerjee et al. detected Lyme disease spirochetes in H. leporispalustris ticks collected from a snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus, in northern Alberta [47]. As well, Scott et al. discovered Borrelia lanei-like spirochetes and a Babesia divergens-like piroplasm concurrently in a H. leporispalustris (female) collected from an eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus, in southern Manitoba [48]. Scott & Durden provide the first record of a Bbsl-positive H. leporispalustris (nymph) collected from an avian host (Swainson’s Thrush) in Canada [14]. Previously, Scott et al. found Bbsl in a H. leporispalustris larva parasitizing a passerine (Canada Warbler) in Québec suggesting that this tick species is a reservoir-competent host [8]. During southbound, fall migration in Canada, larval and nymphal H. leporispalustris frequently parasitize passerines, and are widely dispersed in southern regions.

4.5. Ticks Co-infest Songbirds

One Veery was co-infested with H. leporispalustris (one nymph and one larva), and I. scapularis (two nymphs). Not only is there a breeding colony of I. scapularis present in this Laurentian River basin, an established population of H. leporispalustris is also there. Since these ixodid ticks were collected during the nesting and fledgling period, this bird parasitism denotes a cohabitation of two tick species in this sylvan locale, and signifies that these two tick species are sympatric. The Veery has trans-border and trans-equatorial migration during its northward spring flight, and has a breeding range in southern Canada, including southwestern Québec and northern United States; the wintering range is in central and southeastern Brazil (Figure 4). During the breeding, nesting, and fledgling period, Veeries have localized activity in juxtaposition to the stationary nest. When the young have fledged the nest, these passerines replenish their fat reserves, and prepare for the southbound trek to wintering ranges in southern latitudes during August and September. In late July, they typically moult in preparation for the southbound marathon flight.
Why this is important:  because we continue to be told that ONLY the black legged tick transmits Lyme to humans.  Here we are told transmission by the rabbit tick (H. leporispalustris) is rare:
The following pathogens have been found in the rabbit tick:

The two studies used as references in the wikipedia article state the following about the rabbit tick.  While Lyme (borrelia) isn’t mentioned (but should be), Rickettsia is:

Our results support a possible role of H. leporispalustris in the enzootic maintenance of R. rickettsii in Latin America, as previously suggested by earlier works.

We have been able to isolate 2 strains of rickettsiae from the rabbit tick , indistinguishable from isolated from humans in our country (Costa Rica).

Regarding borrelia (Lyme) in the rabbit tick please note that in 4.4 above, Scott et al. found Bbsl in a H. leporispalustris larva parasitizing a Warbler suggesting that this tick species is a reservoir-competent host. In essence, the rabbit tick clearly has borrelia strains within it.  And further, during southbound, fall migration in Canada, larval and nymphal H. leporispalustris frequently parasitize passerines, and are widely dispersed in southern regions.  In essence, ticks with borrelia are infecting birds that are then going South and spreading their pathogens there.

Let’s say hypothetically that the rabbit tick is incapable of transmitting Lyme to humans.  Who’s to say that an animal that is co-infested with both black-legged ticks & rabbit ticks (as happened in this study) can’t then harbor all of these pathogens simultaneously that could in the the future be be transmitted to humans through the feedings of successive ticks?
I’m just a simple woman, but it appears to me that nobody is considering this.  They would rather look at old studies that state emphatically that only certain ticks in certain locations can transmit to humans and then smugly send patient after patient home with an anti-depressant.  Either we are all nuts or lying, OR something is happening out there that isn’t being picked up.  I vote for the latter.
The study shows that established borrelia infested ticks feeding on songbirds are spreading borrelia (and other things I’m sure) into new areas – far away from where they started and rodents are maintaining the cycle all year round.  
There is no “safe” time of the year.
Lastly, of epidemiological merit 100% of tested American Robins were positive for Bbsl.

Vector Competence Studies With Hard Ticks & Borrelia Sensu Lato Spirochetes: A Review

2019 Dec 14:101359. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.101359. [Epub ahead of print]

Vector competence studies with hard ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes: A review.


Use of emerging technology allowing for identification of genetic material from pathogens and endosymbionts in ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, wildlife, or the environment has resulted in an avalanche of new data on tick-microorganism associations. This rapidly growing stream of new information is a tremendous resource but also presents challenges, including how detection of pathogen genetic material in ticks should best be interpreted. There is a tendency in the more recent published literature to incorrectly use the term “vector” based on detection of pathogen genetic material from tick species not experimentally confirmed to serve as vectors of the pathogen in question.

To serve as a vector of a horizontally maintained pathogen, such as a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) Lyme borreliosis spirochete, the tick species in question must be capable of acquiring the pathogen while feeding in the larval or nymphal stage on an infectious host, maintaining it transstadially through the molt, and then transmitting the pathogen to a naïve host while feeding in the subsequent nymphal or adult stage.

This review examines the experimental evidence for and against species of hard (ixodid) ticks from different genera to serve as vectors of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes.

  • Of the 18 Ixodes species ticks evaluated to date, 13 were experimentally confirmed as vectors of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes.
  • These studies focused primarily on the three major Lyme borreliosis agents: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii.
  • In striking contrast, none of 8 tick species from other genera (1 Amblyomma species, 5 Dermacentor species, and 2 Haemaphysalis species) evaluated to date were unequivocally experimentally confirmed as vectors of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes.

The strength of the evidence for or against each tick species to serve as a vector of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes is discussed together with key knowledge gaps and research challenges.



This author, a CDC employee, is basing his findings on previous research.  There’s nothing new here.  

Also of import is the fact borrelia has been found in other ticks – just not enough for to be “statistically” important, OR in the instance of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum) there has been hot debate as to whether STARI is Lyme or not.  Patients and advocates alike claim the symptoms are one in the same.  The debate continues.

The trouble is, what if you are the poor sucker that gets bitten by that “statistically” insignificant tick?  Well, you lose because mainstream doctors are going to skim this review and conclude that ONLY certain ticks transmit Lyme/borrelia. They are going to write you off as psychosomatic:

Important excerpt:

Yes, vector competence was confirmed experimentally; No, vector competence was evaluated experimentally but could not be confirmed; Blank space, tick species not yet evaluated for this B. burgdorferi s.l. species.

There were numerous places where competence couldn’t be confirmed (which is a far cry different from it can’t happen) as well as the fact there were tons of blank spaces – which means the tick species hasn’t even been evaluated yet.

Here’s the dealeo, all ticks transfer fluid.  ALL TICKS should be suspect.  Period.  Remember all the research I’ve posted stating Lyme “didn’t exist” in various geographical places until someone pushed hard enough to get it recognized:


According to Dr. Naveen Patil, Director of the Infectious Disease Program, ADH,

“We don’t have Lyme Disease in Arkansas, we have the ticks that transmit Lyme Disease but we don’t have any recorded cases of Lyme Disease.” 

We can thank a mother from Arkansas for getting Arkansas on the map for Lyme disease.

And so it goes:

Tick research is similar in that until something gets documented (published), researchers and doctors alike treat it as if it’s never, ever happened, and therefore (circular reasoning) it won’t happen in the future.

Grace Period For Ticks – Nope

LYME SCI: There’s no grace period for tick bites. Let’s quit implying that there is.

A Closer Look at the Different Types of Ticks

A Closer Look at the Different Types of Ticks

Ticks come in many different varieties that not only look different, but also live in different regions and environments, and can transmit different types of diseases to both people and animals.

The purpose of this article is to provide some basic information about ticks, as well as key details about the various species that you are most likely to encounter in different regions of the United States. If you suspect that you or a loved one has been bitten by a tick of any kind, try to keep it as intact as possible so you can have it tested. Place it in a secure container so it can be evaluated by your healthcare provider, veterinarian, or local vector control for identification.

What Are Ticks?

Ticks belong to a group of animals called arthropods. Like spiders, they fall under the classification of arachnids—a specific type of arthropod with eight legs. Unlike spiders, however, ticks feed on blood from mammals—including people, pets and livestock—as well as birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have been reported in rural and urban environments around the world, but are most often found in grassy or wooded areas and are typically most active from spring through fall.

In general, ticks can be divided into two main families: hard ticks (Ixodidae) and soft ticks (Argasidae).

HARD TICKS (IXODIDAE) Hard ticks all share the distinguishing trait of a hard outer shield or black plate, known as a scutum.

SOFT TICKS (ARGASIDAE) Soft ticks do not have a scutum but instead have more rounded bodies.

Both of these families of ticks have species that can transmit diseases to humans; however, the typical length of time required to do so differs just like their feeding habits. Certain hard ticks that carry Lyme disease, for example, typically must be attached for 36 to 48 hours to infect a host, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Certain soft ticks that transmit Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF), however, feed very quickly and can cause disease in humans.

What is the Typical Lifecycle of a Tick?

Ticks generally have four stages of life: egg, larvae, nymph and adult.

Eggs, which can number into the thousands, are laid by the female tick. These eggs hatch into larvae, which are also known as “seed ticks.” The larvae typically attach to smaller animals, such as mice and birds.

After several days of feeding, the larvae develop into nymphs, which can then attach to larger hosts and then ultimately turn into adult ticks. Most tick-borne diseases are transmitted by nymphs, which are so small that hosts often don’t see them.

Ticks advance through each of these stages by molting, a process during which they shed their outer skin.

What to Do After a Tick Bite
If you find a tick on you during a tick check, the most important thing to do is remove it immediately. The longer the tick remains attached to the skin, the higher the chances are that it will transmit a disease.
The CDC recommends using fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick by the head and pull up with steady, even pressure. They also recommend avoiding folk remedies like burning matches or petroleum jelly, which can cause the tick to regurgitate more pathogens into the bloodstream. As mentioned, you should try to save the tick for testing if possible.
For more information on what to do after a tick bite, read the Tick Talk blog What to Do After You’ve Been Bitten by a Tick.

How to Treat a Tick Bite
Tick bites are an unfortunate occurrence since, once you’ve been bitten, any potential pathogens have already been transmitted.

However, in addition to removing all ticks, saving them for testing, and watching carefully for symptoms of tick-borne diseases, you can perform basic first aid on the bite. Wash the bite site with warm water and soap, rubbing alcohol, or an iodine scrub. You can also watch the site carefully for any rashes, but remember that rash is only a symptom of some tick-borne diseases, and it doesn’t always occur. Even with Lyme disease, the bull’s eye rash only shows up in some patients.
Tick Lifecycle & Size of Adult Ticks Against Nail
Image Source: Dr. Christopher Paddock

What Types of Ticks Transmit Diseases to Humans?

Of the nearly 900 species of ticks that exist in the world, only a select number bite and transmit disease to humans within the United States. The following descriptions provide key facts about each of these different types of ticks, including what each tick looks like at various stages of the lifecycle, some distinguishing characteristics, regions where they’re typically found, and what kinds of ticks carry Lyme disease and other illnesses that can infect both people and pets.

American Dog Tick, Also Known as Wood Tick
Distinguishing Characteristics of the American Dog Tick:
Sometimes called wood ticks, American dog ticks are a type of hard tick that is most often found in tall grass, as well as low-lying brush and twigs. At both adult and nymph stages, these ticks can feed on a variety of mammals, but adult females are most likely to bite humans. The adult females are most easily identified by the large, off-white scutum that starkly contrasts with the rest of their dark-brown bodies.
Diseases Transmitted by the American Dog Tick:
Both nymphs and adults can transmit Rickettsia rickettsia, which causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and the bacteria that causes Tularemia.
Where the American Dog Tick is Found in the U.S.:
American dog ticks are primarily found east of the Rocky Mountains, although they can also be found in certain areas along the Pacific Coast.Map of American Dog Ticks in United StatesSummary
These days, ticks are more than just an annoyance. One bite can make you sick, even change your life. Taking protective measures is important in order to prevent a tick bite. Reducing tick abundance in your yard, wearing protective clothing, and scanning your body for ticks are all great actions for preventing tick bites. Fortunately, the best way to prevent bites remains the same: Know your ticks and how to avoid them. Here are the most common ticks in the United States.

Additional Resources





Good, general guide to ticks.  A few corrections:

Black legged ticks also transmit:

  • Tick paralysis (fully engorged female)
  • Mycoplasma spp.  (e.g., M. fermentans)

Lone Star ticks also transmit:

  • Anaplasmosis
  • Rickettsia amblyommatis (endosymbiotic spotted fever group)
  • Tick paralysis (fully engorged female)

Gulf Coast ticks also transmit:

  • Rickettsia
  • Tick paralysis (in dogs)

American Dog ticks also transmit

  • Anaplasma
  • Tick paralysis (fully engorged female)

Ground hog Ticks transmit (not mentioned, but found in the Eastern and Central U.S. – Ixodes cookei)

  • Powassan
  • Lyme disease

Ticks, associated tick-borne pathogens copy 2.pages

I think the most important thing to remember is that ticks move around on other animals and birds.  They are finding tropical ticks in Ontario and vice versa.  A patient should NEVER be told they aren’t infected with something solely because a doctor looked at a geographical map.  These maps are guides that are constantly changing.

I would also like to point out one other fact – Mycoplasma (even the bioweaponized one) is found and transmitted by the deer tick.  Mycoplasma isn’t even acknowledged by mainstream medicine, yet, is a formidable foe:  Similarly to Lyme, Mycoplasma has persister or dormant microorganisms due to biofilm, resistence and other mechanisms.  It is also devoid of a cell wall.  Dr. Nicolson states that 80% of Lyme patients are coinfected with Mycoplasma.  It’s hallmark symptom is fatigue.

Also important to note:

Genes part of the HIV-1 envelope were found in these Mycoplasmas, which means that a person may not get HIV but they may get some of the symptoms.

Bacterial Community Profiling Highlights Complex Diversity & Novel Organisms in Wildlife Ticks

2020 Feb 5:101407. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101407. [Epub ahead of print]

Bacterial community profiling highlights complex diversity and novel organisms in wildlife ticks.


Ticks Acari:Ixodida transmit a greater variety of pathogens than any other blood-feeding group of arthropods. While numerous microbes have been identified inhabiting Australian Ixodidae, some of which are related to globally important tick-borne pathogens, little is known about the bacterial communities within ticks collected from Australian wildlife.

In this study, 1,019 ticks were identified on 221 hosts spanning 27 wildlife species. Next-generation sequencing was used to amplify the V1-2 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from 238 ticks; Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 6), Bothriocroton auruginans (n = 11), Bothriocroton concolor (n = 20), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 10), Haemaphysalis bremneri (n = 4), Haemaphysalis humerosa (n = 13), Haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 4), Ixodes antechini (n = 29), Ixodes australiensis (n = 26), Ixodes fecialis (n = 13), Ixodes holocyclus (n = 37), Ixodes myrmecobii (n = 1), Ixodes ornithorhynchi (n = 10), Ixodes tasmani (n = 51) and Ixodes trichosuri (n = 3).

After bioinformatic analyses, over 14 million assigned bacterial sequences revealed the presence of recently described bacteria ‘Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi’, ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia australis’, ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia arcana’ and ‘Candidatus Ehrlichia ornithorhynchi’. Furthermore, three novel Anaplasmataceae species were identified in the present study including; a Neoehrlichia sp. in I. australiensis and I. fecialis collected from quenda (Isoodon fusciventer) (Western Australia), an Anaplasma sp. from one B. concolor from echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) (New South Wales), and an Ehrlichia sp. from a single I. fecialis parasitising a quenda (WA).

This study highlights the diversity of bacterial genera harboured within wildlife ticks, which may prove to be of medical and/or veterinary importance in the future.



This article clearly shows that so much more needs to be done in the area of pathogen transmission.  Thousands of Australian patients are suffering with a Lyme-like illness but are told Lyme doesn’t exist there.  Well, they have something!  Figure it out!  A SYDNEY woman launches a class action against NSW Health after autopsy results showed her husband was riddled with Lyme in his liver, heart, kidney, and lungs. He was only 44 years old and was bitten by a tick while filming a TV show in Sydney.

The following infections are on record in Australia:

  • Q fever
  • Queensland tick typhus (QTT)
  • Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF)
  • Australian spotted fever (ASF)
  • Babesiosis
  • Anaplasma spp.
  • Bartonella spp.
  • Burkholderia spp.
  • Francisella spp. (Tularemia)
  • Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV)
  • tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)
  • Lake Clarendon virus (LCV)
  • Saumarez Reef virus (SREV)
  • Upolu virus (UPOV)
  • Vinegar Hill virus (VINHV)




WKOW Updates Lyme Story: Lyme Disease Spread Sexually? Interview here

I was pleased to see WKOW updated their story on Lyme disease. The initial interview focused upon the new Lyme vaccine, but they recently updated the website to include new details including the possibility of sexual transmission, the high costs of treatment, and other cognitive and psychological aspects of the disease mainstream medicine does not currently acknowledge.

Kudos to WKOW for spreading the word.

For more on sexual and congenital transmission: