Archive for the ‘Transmission’ Category

Rutgers Racing to Contain Asian Longhorned Tick

It spreads SFTS (sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome), “an emerging hemorrhagic fever,” causing fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, muscle pain, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, disease of the lymph nodes, and conjunctival congestion, but the potential impact of this tick on tickborne illness is not yet known. In other parts of the world, this Longhorned tick, also called the East Asian or bush tick, has been associated with several tickborne diseases, such as spotted fever rickettsioses, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Borrelia, the causative agent of Lyme Disease.

For a 2016 literature review on SFTS:
Although the clinical symptoms of SFTS and HGA are similar to each other, but the treatment methods of the two diseases are totally different. Doctors notice that the biggest difference between the clinical symptom of SFTS and HGA is that SFTS patients generally without skin rash, the dermorrhagia is also not seriously, and few massive hemorrhage cases were reported [23]. It is also reported that SFTS patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which are rarely observed in HGA patients [2]. So these differences can be used as the auxiliary basis of differential diagnosis.
At present, there is still no specific vaccine or antiviral therapy for SFTSV infection. Supportive treatment, including plasma, platelet, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), recombinant human interleukin 11, and gamma globulin is the most essential part of case treatment [44]. Meanwhile, some measures were taken to maintain water, electrolyte balance and treat complications are also very important.
Ribavirin is reported to be effective for treating Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) infections and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, but it is still inadequate to judge the effect of ribavirin on SFTS patients because of the study limitation without adequate parameters were investigated [45]. Host immune responses play an important role in determining the severity and clinical outcome in patients with infection by SFTSV.
For Viral treatment options:

And lastly, please know ticks parasitize one another, potentially spreading all manner of diseases to humans.  This fact also shoots holes in the regurgitated mantra that only certain ticks carry certain pathogens.  If they are feasting on one another, they can potentially infect each other and then us:



Asian Tick Now in North Carolina

This article in the Charlotte Observer is noted to be an “aggressive biter.”  A warning has been given to veterinarians to be on the look out as this tick clones itself and spreads rapidly.  It has even drained cattle of their blood.

They can spread disease to humans.

Read more here:

Ticks That Carry Lyme Disease Are Spreading Fast

By Dennis Thompson HealthDay July 13, 2018, 5:25 PM

Ticks that carry Lyme disease are spreading fast“>  (News story here)

Think you live in a place that’s free from disease-carrying ticks? Don’t be so sure.

Citizen scientists found ticks capable of transmitting Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses in dozens of places across the United States where the pests had never previously been recorded, a new study reports.

All told, disease-carrying ticks were detected in 83 counties where they’d never been found before across 24 states.

The numbers reflect a rise in tick populations across the country, said study author Nate Nieto. He’s an associate professor with Northern Arizona University’s department of biological sciences.

“People should be aware of ticks and tick-borne disease, even when they may think there’s not a recorded incidence of a tick in a county,” Nieto said. “These things, they’re not obeying borders. They’re going by biology. If they get moved there by a deer or bird or people or pets, they’re going to establish themselves and start growing.”

The massive nationwide study also provides evidence that ticks are born carrying infectious diseases, rather than picking germs up from the animals upon which they feed, said Wendy Adams, research grant director for the Bay Area Lyme Foundation, in California.

All life stages of the most commonly encountered ticks — the deer tick, the western black-legged tick and the lone star tick — carried the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, Adams said.

“That’s important, because that would say that a tick doesn’t need to acquire an infection from a blood meal. It’s born with the infection,” Adams explained.

These findings are the result of an unexpectedly successful effort by the Bay Area Lyme Foundation to collect tick samples from across the country.

Between January 2016 and August 2017, the foundation and Northern Arizona University offered free tick identification and testing to the general public. People were encouraged to send in ticks they found on themselves, their pets or around their communities.

The scientists’ original goal was to collect about 2,000 ticks. They wound up with more than 16,000, sent in by people from every state except Alaska.

“We got such a phenomenal participation,” Nieto said. “Two weeks in May, we got almost 2,000 packages per week. That is just powerful data.”

People found ticks in areas not represented in tracking maps maintained by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the researchers discovered.

Most of these new areas were right next to counties with known tick populations, Adams said.

“Ticks are spreading. Tick populations have exploded,” Adams said. “This is good data to show the extent of that. It’s a message to people that even if you think ticks aren’t a problem, they could be.”

The 24 states that contain counties with newly documented populations of deer ticks or Western black-legged ticks are Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.

Further, ticks were found in states where they simply weren’t supposed to be, Adams said. Lone star ticks were found in California and black-legged ticks were found in Nevada, both for the first time ever.

People also found ticks carrying Babesia — microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells and cause the potentially life-threatening disease babesiosis — in 26 counties across 10 states in which the public health department does not require physicians to report cases of the disease.

The new study “highlights the geographic variability of ticks and the pathogens they carry,” said Dr. Paul Auwaerter, clinical director of infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore.

Surveillance is increasingly important as we see climate and environmental changes, because we do see expanding ranges of ticks. We’ve seen that with Lyme disease. We’ve seen that with babesiosis,” said Auwaerter, president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Adams agreed, suggesting that more funding should be directed to these sorts of crowd-sourced tracking efforts.

“We have to invest federal dollars to examine the spread of ticks,” she said.

In the meantime, the Bay Area Lyme Foundation suggests that people protect themselves from ticks by:

  • Wearing light-colored clothes to make ticks more visible.
  • Do regular tick checks after being in a tick-infested area, and shower immediately after to wash away ticks that might be crawling on you.
  • Consider using tick repellents like DEET for skin and permethrin for clothing.
  • Talk with your doctor if you develop any symptoms following a tick bite.

The new study was published online July 12 in the journal PLOS One.“> (News story here on Lyme Disease in Dogs)



There has NEVER been a minimum time established for ticks to transmit the Lyme bacterium (or any other pathogen for that matter), so to exclaim with certainty that if the tick drops off the dog before 24 hours they will not get infected is pure conjecture. 

For more on that issue:

Research on transmission times as well as transmission modes are desperately needed.

This article points out that ticks don’t require a blood meal that they can be BORN infected.  This is important information to disseminate as many still believe a blood meal is required for them to become infected.

 A telling quote:  “These things are not obeying borders.”

Nope.  And they never have.  This tick border thing is a man-made constructed paradigm that has never been accurate, but it’s fit the CDC/NIH/IDSA narrative. (go to page 6 and read about Speilman’s maps which are faulty but have ruled like the Iron Curtain, and have been used to keep folks from being diagnosed and treated)

Time to pull the blinders off and look at this thing as the PANDEMIC it truly is.

Recently, Wisconsin had it’s first death from Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, transmitted by the Lone Star Tick that isn’t supposed to be in Wisconsin at all:

The climate-change issue is another man-made paradigm regarding ticks who will be the last species on the planet besides the IRS:

We don’t need any more climate studies regarding ticks.  What we need to know is how this thing is transmitted (sexual, congenital, via breastmilk as well as other bugs, etc), testing that picks up all the pathogens, how long it takes for transmission, how to control ticks, what effectively kills the pathogens, and how to get our treatments paid for by insurance).

So thankful they brought up Babesia; however, there are 18 and counting pathogens spread by ticks and we need mandatory reporting for ALL of them as well as proper and effective treatments paid for by insurance:

Great work Bay Area Lyme Foundation!

We Have No Idea How Bad the US Tick Problem Is


WHEN RICK OSTFELD gets bitten by a tick, he knows right away. After decades studying tick-borne diseases as an ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, Ostfeld has been bitten more than 100 times, and his body now reacts to tick saliva with an intense burning sensation. He’s an exception. Most people don’t even notice that they’ve been bitten until after the pest has had time to suck up a blood meal and transfer any infections it has circulating in its spit.

Around the world, diseases spread by ticks are on the rise. Reported cases of Lyme, the most common US tick-borne illness, have quadrupled since the 1990s. Other life-threatening infections like anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are increasing in incidence even more quickly than Lyme. Meat allergies caused by tick bites have skyrocketed from a few dozen a decade ago to more than 5,000 in the US alone, according to experts. And new tick-borne pathogens are emerging at a troubling clip; since 2004, seven new viruses and bugs transmitted through tick bite have shown up in humans in the US.

Scientists don’t know exactly which combination of factors—shifting climate patterns, human sprawl, deforestation—is leading to more ticks in more places. But there’s no denying the recent population explosion, especially of the species that carries Lyme disease: the black-legged tick.

“Whole new communities are being engulfed by this tick every year,” says Ostfeld. “And that means more people getting sick.

Tick science, surveillance, and management efforts have so far not kept pace. But the country’s increasingly dire tick-borne disease burden has begun to galvanize a groundswell of research interest and funding.

In 1942, Congress established the CDC specifically to prevent malaria, a public health crisis spreading through mosquitoes. Which is why many US states and counties today still have active surveillance programs for skeeters. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses data from these government entities to regularly update distribution maps, track emerging threats (like Zika), and coordinate control efforts. No such system exists for ticks.

Public health departments are required to report back to the CDC on Lyme and six other tick-borne infections. Those cases combined with county-level surveys and some published academic studies make up the bulk of what the agency knows about national tick distribution. But this data, patchy and stuck in time, doesn’t do a lot to help public health officials on the ground.

“We’ve got national maps, but we don’t have detailed local information about where the worst areas for ticks are located,” says Ben Beard, chief of the CDC’s bacterial diseases branch in the division of vector-borne diseases. “The reason for that is there has never been public funding to support systematic tick surveillance efforts.

That’s something Beard is trying to change. He says the CDC is currently in the process of organizing a nationwide surveillance program, which could launch within the year. It will pull data collected by state health departments and the CDC’s five regional centers about tick prevalence and the pathogens they’re carrying to build a better picture of where outbreaks and hot spots are developing, especially on the expanding edge of tick populations.

The CDC is also a few years into a massive nationwide study it’s conducting with the Mayo Clinic, which will eventually enroll 30,000 people who’ve been bitten by ticks. Each one will be tested for known tick diseases, and next-generation sequencing conducted at CDC will screen for any other pathogens that might be present. Together with patient data, it should provide a more detailed picture of exactly what’s out there.

Together, these efforts are helping to change the way people and government agencies think about ticks as a public health threat.

“Responsibility for tick control has always fallen to individuals and homeowners,” says Beard. “It’s not been seen as an official civic duty, but we think it’s time whole communities got engaged. And getting better tick surveillance data will help us define risk for these communities in areas where people aren’t used to looking for tick-borne diseases.”

The trouble is that scientists also know very little about which interventions actually reduce those risks.

“There’s no shortage of products to control ticks,” says Ostfeld. “But it’s never been demonstrated that they do a good enough job, deployed in the right places, to prevent any cases of tick-borne disease.”

In a double-blind trial published in 2016, CDC researchers treated some yards with insecticides and others with a placebo. The treated yards knocked back tick numbers by 63 percent, but families living in the treated homes were still just as likely to be diagnosed with Lyme.

Ostfeld and his wife and research partner Felicia Keesing are in the middle of a four-year study to evaluate the efficacy of two tick-control methods in their home territory of Dutchess County, an area with one of the country’s highest rates of Lyme disease. It’s a private-public partnership between their academic institutions, the CDC, and the Steven and Alexandra Cohen Foundation, which provided a $5 million grant.

Ostfeld and Keesing are blanketing entire neighborhoods in either a natural fungus-based spray or tick boxes, or both. The tick boxes attract small mammal hosts, which get a splash of tick-killing chemicals when they venture inside. They check with all the human participants every two weeks for 10 months of the year to see if anyone’s gotten sick. By the end of 2020 the study should be able to tell them how well these methods, used together or separately on a neighborhood-wide scale, can reduce the risk of Lyme.

“If we get a definitive answer that these work the next task would be to figure out how to make such a program more broadly available. Who’s going to pay for it, who’s going to coordinate it?” says Ostfeld. “If it doesn’t work then perhaps the conclusion is maybe environmental control just can’t be done.”

In that case, people would be stuck with pretty much the same options they have today: protective clothing, repellants, and daily partner tick-checks. It’s better than nothing. But with more and more people getting sick, the US will need better solutions soon.



Great article pointing out the scary fact that only 6 pathogens transmitted by ticks are being reported on.  There are currently 18 pathogens and counting… the numbers are woefully inadequate.

Here’s the list so far:

Borrelia miyamotoi
Bourbon Virus
Colorado Tick Fever
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic Fever
Heartland Virus
Meat Allergy/Alpha Gal
Pacific Coast Tick Fever: Richettsia philipii
Powassan Encephalitis
Q Fever
Rickettsia parkeri Richettsiosis
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
STARI: Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness
Tickborne meningoencephalitis
Tick Paralysis

And the number keeps growing…..but nobody’s keeping score.

Infected Ticks Collected From Birds in Northern Italy

Molecular screening for bacterial pathogens in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) collected on migratory birds captured in northern Italy.

Pajoro M, et al. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2018.

Migratory birds have an important role in transporting ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens over long distances. In this study, 2,793 migratory birds were captured by nets in a ringing station, located in northern Italy, and checked for the presence of ticks. Two-hundred and fifty-one ticks were identified as nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) and they were PCR-screened for the presence of bacteria belonging to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Francisella tularensis and Coxiella burnetii. Four species of Borrelia (B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae) and three species of Rickettsia (R. monacensis, R. helvetica and Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii) were detected in 74 (30%) and 25 (10%) respectively out of 251 ticks examined. Co-infection with Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in the same tick sample was encountered in 7 (7%) out of the 99 infected ticks. We report for the first time the presence of Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii in I. ricinus collected on birds in Italy. This study, besides confirming the role of birds in dispersal of I. ricinus, highlights an important route by which tick-borne pathogens might spread across different countries and from natural environments towards urbanised areas.



So glad this work on birds commuting infected ticks around the globe is being done as it highlights an important way tick-borne illness is becoming a global pandemic.  I honestly can’t believe it’s taken this long to get the word out and I also can’t believe doctors and authorities seriously believe that certain ticks and therefore infections CAN’T be in certain geographical locations.  Really?

It’s simple logic that birds, rodents, lizards, deer, and other reservoirs can carry these ticks everywhere.   This work, done in Romania, a gateway to Europe, showed:

All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen.  The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in this study and the frequency of co-infections should influence all infection risk evaluations following a tick bite.

More on migratory birds spreading infection:






Cat Scratch Disease in a 1.5 Year Old Girl – Case Report

Cat Scratch Disease in a 1.5-year-old girl – Case report.

Karski J, et al. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2018.

INTRODUCTION: The paper is a case report presenting Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) in a 1.5-year- old girl. Bartoneloses, including CSD, are a group of infectious diseases which are rarely detected, therefore there are no statistical data concerning the aetiology, and the incidence of CSD noted in Poland is low in comparison with other European countries.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the paper is to discuss several problems related to CSD.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 1.5-year-old girl who was seen in hospital for the sparing use of her left arm when crawling. X-rays showed osteolytic lesions which radiologists described as multi-ocular cyst or infection. As neither clinical examination nor laboratory investigations found pathological signs, the patient was followed-up on an ambulant basis. Repeated x-ray taken 4 weeks later showed increased periosteal proliferation accompanied by pain. The baby was admitted to the Clinic but additional investigations found no pathologies. The baby was consulted by a rheumatologist and haematologist; however, they did not facilitate a definitive diagnosis. As the baby developed, because of a thickening of the soft tissues on the dorsal side of the distal epiphisis in the forearm the doctors decided to inspect the condition operatively. Macroscopic examination found brownish granulated tissue. Suction drainage was inserted and a tissue sample was tested for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, tuberculosis and borelliosis. The test results were negative. The baby was in good condition, was not pyrexial and suffered from less pain. The diagnostics was further expanded and the baby tested for yersinia, chlamydia, tuberculosis and bartonella, i.e. CSD. The postoperative wound healed soon and radiological bony lesions began to resolve. After a month, we received a positive bartonella test result, the baby tested positively for Bartonella henselae IgG class, which confirmed past or active infection of CSD. A repeated test for B. henselae taken 6 months later showed a lower level of antibodies.

CONCLUSIONS: It should be remembered that CSD, which is an extremely rare infection, can be diagnosed despite mediocre clinical and radiological manifestations. Thus, in the case of infections of unexplained aetiology and mediocre manifestations diagnostics should include testing for Bartonella henselae.

PMID 29936799 [ – in process]



There is little to no statistical data on Bartonella, that’s for sure, but it’s far from a rare infection & it is far from benign, in fact I would go as far to state it is prolific and devastating.  

Please note the finding of granulated tissue.  Bartonella is primarily a vascular disease and causes all sorts of bizarre symptoms – including nodules on the shins and painful soles of the feet; however, please do not underestimate the cognitive/psychological symptoms of this disease (anxiety, anger, suicidal thoughts).  It can also cause:  aseptic meningitis, neuroretinitis & other vision problems, lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), headaches, seizures, heartburn, abdominal pain, skin rash, gastritis, duodentis, mesenteric adenitis, myocarditis & endocarditis, and cysts.  

Authorities are still squabbling over whether ticks transmit this or not, but we know for sure spiders and other arachnids do as well as cat scratches, biting flies, fleas, needle stick transmission in veterinarians as well as drug users.  And just because something can’t be seen/proven in ticks, doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen.  Frankly, all it shows is the science is lagging and this is a fastidious organism which is hard to detect.  All I know is that nearly every Lyme/MSIDS patient I work with has Bart.  So either the tick transmits directly OR a previously asymptomatic case is triggered upon getting a tick bite.  Either way, WE GOT IT and it needs to be considered in each and every Lyme/MSIDS patient.

For more on Bartonella:  (Checklist and treatment options within this link)

Fifteen species of gram-negative aerobic Bartonella are known to infect humans; however Dr. Ricardo Maggi’s statement is quite telling, “This case reinforces the hypothesis that any Bartonella species can cause human infection.”

Dr. Mozayeni talks about Bartonella as one of the major co-infections of Lyme disease. It’s more prevalent than Lyme, as there are many more ways to contract the disease (eg. flees, cats). In a study, that Dr. Breitschwerdt and Mozayeni published in The Journal of Emerging Diseases, about 60% of Lyme patients tested positive for Bartonella. Dr. Mozayeni also talks about the importance of looking at Biofilm when treating Lyme, Bartonella etc. as biofilm can harbor many of these microbes and be the cause of many symptoms.  Please note the joint popping with each articulation and continual joint subluxation issue.
Chiropractors need to be told about this. Please educate! Send them this article.  I too had this bizarre popping of the joints with a lot of instability in the knees. Treatment completely ameliorated this issue so treatment is primo important.





New UVA Study Tentatively Links Ticks to Heart Disease


The bite of the lone star tick had previously been shown to cause an allergy to red meat. Now it is linked with an increased risk of heart disease.

June 14, 2018 Josh Barney,

University of Virginia School of Medicine researchers have linked sensitivity to an allergen in red meat – a sensitivity spread by tick bites – with a buildup of fatty plaque in the arteries of the heart. This buildup may increase the risk of heart attacks and stroke.

The bite of the lone star tick can cause people to develop an allergic reaction to red meat. However, many people who do not exhibit symptoms of the allergy are still sensitive to the allergen found in meat. UVA’s new study linked sensitivity to the allergen with the increased plaque buildup, as measured by a blood test.

The researchers emphasize that their findings are preliminary, but say further research is warranted.

The research team drew from both allergists and cardiologists, and included, from left, Dr. Thomas Platts-Mills, Dr. Coleen McNamara, Dr. Jeff Wilson and Anh Nguyen. (Photo by Dan Addison, University Communications)

“This novel finding from a small group of subjects examined at the University of Virginia raises the intriguing possibility that asymptomatic allergy to red meat may be an under-recognized factor in heart disease,” said study leader Dr. Coleen McNamara of UVA’s Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center and UVA’s Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. “These preliminary findings underscore the need for further clinical studies in larger populations from diverse geographic regions.”

Allergens and Clogged Arteries

Looking at 118 patients, the researchers determined that those sensitive to the meat allergen had 30 percent more plaque accumulation inside their arteries than those without the sensitivity. Further, a higher percentage of the plaques had features characteristic of unstable plaques that are more likely to cause heart attacks.

With the meat allergy, people become sensitized to alpha-gal, a type of sugar found in red meat. People with the symptomatic form of the allergy can develop hives, stomach upset, have trouble breathing or exhibit other symptoms three to eight hours after consuming meat from mammals. (Poultry and fish do not trigger a reaction.)

What’s it like to develop a meat allergy?

Other people can be sensitive to alpha-gal and not develop symptoms. In fact, far more people are thought to be in this latter group. For example, up to 20 percent of people in Central Virginia and other parts of the Southeast may be sensitized to alpha-gal, but not show symptoms.

The allergy to alpha-gal was first reported in 2009 by Dr. Thomas Platts-Mills, who heads UVA’s Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and his colleague Dr. Scott Commins. Since then, there have been increasing numbers of cases of the meat allergy reported across the U.S., especially as the lone star tick’s territory grows. Previously found predominantly in the Southeast, the tick has now spread west and north, all the way into Canada.

UVA’s new study suggests that doctors could develop a blood test to benefit people sensitive to the allergen.

“This work raises the possibility that in the future a blood test could help predict individuals, even those without symptoms of red meat allergy, who might benefit from avoiding red meat. However, at the moment, red meat avoidance is only indicated for those with allergic symptoms,” said researcher Dr. Jeff Wilson of UVA’s allergy division.

Findings Published

The work represents a significant collaboration between allergy and cardiology experts at UVA. The researchers have published their findings in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, a journal of the American Heart Association. The research team consisted of Wilson, Anh Nguyen, Alexander Schuyler, Commins, Angela Taylor, Platts-Mills and McNamara.

The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, grants KO8-AI085190, K23-HL093118, RO1-AI 20565, PO1-HL55798, RO1-HL136098-01 and RO1-HL107490.


Josh Barney
UVA Health System 434-243-1988


For more: