LYME DISEASE, TRANSPLACENTAL TRANSMISSION AND FETAL DAMAGE
The two sides of the coin in pregnancy and LYME DISEASE
Hello friends of the network DERMAGIC EXPRESS, I bring you today another topic for what I call the “SAGA” on LYME DISEASE, in this case the controversial issue of TRANSPLACENTAL TRANSMISSION AND FETAL DAMAGE AND DEATH in pregnant women and infected with the feared BORRELIA BURGDORFERI.
I have found numerous references; most claim that BORRELIA in pregnant women with LYME DISEASE traverses the placenta and reaches the fetus and can cause multi organic damage, including the death of the same, intrauterine or a few hours or days after birth. Other authors say that this is false.
The CDC (Center of Control of Infectious Diseases) affirms that if the pregnant woman with LYME does her treatment, the child will be born healthy and recommends the use of the antibiotic AMOXICILLIN, because DOXYCYCLINE can cause damage to the developing fetus. The question here is what would happen if the BORRELIA species is resistant to AMOXICILLIN? Or the antibiotic to which BORRELIA is sensitive cannot be indicated because it would harm the fetus?
BORRELIA BURGDORFERI was discovered in 1982 by the aforementioned Willy Burgdorfer, the causal agent of the ERYTHEMA MIGRANS or LYME DISEASE, and only 1 year later the first study in 1983 described that it is suspected that this ESPIROCHETE can cross the placenta and infect the fetus, study published by Shirts SR, Brown MS, and Bobitt JR. under the name of “Listeriosis and borreliosis as causes of antepartum fever”. (8)
Later in the year 1985 Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT published a paper called “Maternal-fetal transmission of the spirochete of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi” where they report a case of a woman who developed LYME DISEASE and did not receive treatment with antibiotics. The child was born at 35 weeks of pregnancy and died of congenital heart disease the first week of life. The autopsy revealed the LYME ESPIROCHETE in the SPLEEN, KIDNEYS AND BONE MARROW. (2)
Later, the same WILLY BURGDORFER the discoverer and “father” of the ESPIROCHETE BORRELIA, who along with Dr. Alan Mc Donald and Jorge Benach PhD, published in the year 1987 (31 years ago) a work they called “stillbirth following maternal LYME DISEASE.” and I quote from the conclusions of these scientists: (24.)
“… Two cases of transplacental transmission of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI were found associated with fetal death and congenital malformations, different anomalies were detected in each case …”
“… We recommend that pathologists study the tissues of stillborn fetuses in search of BORRELIA BURGDORFERI especially those with cardiac anomalies, and clinical doctors investigate the exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy to BORRELIA BURGDORFERI and in these cases determine if cardiac organogenesis is complete by the end of the first trimester of pregnancy”
“… We believe that there is enough evidence to alert women living in endemic areas of LYME DISEASE and doctors to recognize the early signs and symptoms of the disease and to start treatment with PENICILLIN at the same dose of SYPHILIS as used in pregnant women in the first trimester, regardless of the results of the laboratory tests … “
Another study that is worth noting is the one made by the MEDLINE database updated for the year of July 2012, the last revision of November 2012 of 88 journal articles from the PUBMED database, which I summarize as follows:
Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Lyme Disease
1.) Mothers with active Lyme Disease,Treated: 14.6% of the pregnancies with sequelae,
2.) Untreated: 66.7% of the pregnancies with sequelae,
3.) Unknown as to treatment: 30.3% with sequelae.
4.) Specific adverse outcomes included: cardiac 22.7%, neurologic 15.2%, orthopedic 12.1%, ophthalmic 4.5%, genitourinary 10.6%, miscellaneous anomalies 12.1%, 2nd trimester demise 12.1%. Highest rate of adverse outcome (72.7%) in women with infection acquired prior to or during first trimester.)
Now I will put a summary of the most frequent clinical manifestations described in the studies of children born to mothers with LYME disease, LYME positive
COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS IN LYME POSITIVE CHILDREN:
1.) LOW GRADE FEVER: 59% -60%
2.) FATIGUE AND LACK OF RESISTANCE: 72%
3.) NOCTURNAL SWEATING: 23%
4.) PALE, DARK CIRCLE UNDER THE EYES: 42%
5.) ABDOMINAL PAIN: 20-29%
6.) DIARRHEA OR CONSTIPATION: 32%
7.) NAUSEA: 23%
8.) CARDIAC ANOMALIES: 23%: PALPITATIONS, (PVC) HERAT MURMUR, MITRAL VALVLE PROLAPSE
9.) ORTHOPEDIC DISORDERS: SENSITIVITY (55%), PAIN (69%) SPASMS AND GENERALIZED MUSCLE PAIN (69%), RIGIDITY AND / OR DELAY OF MOVEMENTS (23%).
10.) RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS OF THE SUPERIOR TRACT AND OTITIS: 40%
11.) ARTHRITIC DISORDERS AND PAINFUL JOINTS: 6% -50-%
12.) NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS:
A- HEADACHES: 50%
B-) IRRITABILITY: 54%.
C-) BAD MEMORY: 39%
13.) DELAY IN DEVELOPMENT: 18%
14.) SEIZURE DISORDERS: 11%
15.) VERTIGO: 30%
16.) TIC DISORDERS: 14%
17.) INVOLUNTARY ATETOID MOVEMENTS: 9%.
18.) LEARNING DISORDERS AND HUMOR CHANGES: 80%
A-) COGNITIVE SPEAKING: 27%
B-) SPEACH DELAY: 21%
C-) READING-WRITING PROBLEMS: 19%
D.) PROBLEMS OF VOCAL ARTICULATION: 17%.
E-) PROBLEMS OF AUDITIVES / VISUAL PROCESSING: 13%
F-) WORD SELECTION PROBLEMS: 12%
G-) DYSLEXIA: 8%
19.) SUICIDAL THOUGHTS: 7%
20.) ANXIETY: 21%
21.) ANGER OR RAGE: 23%
22.) AGGRESSION OR VIOLENCE: 13%
23.) IRRITABILITY: 54% -80%
24.) EMOTIONAL DISORDERS: 13%
25.) DEPRESSION: 13%
26.) HYPERACTIVITY: 36%
27.) PHOTOPHOBIA: 40-43%
28.) GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX WITH VOMIT AND COUGH: 40%
29.) SECONDARY ERUPTIONS: 23%
30.) OTHER ERUPTIONS: 45%
31.) CAVERNOUS HAEMANGIOMA: 30%
32.) OULAR PROBLEMS: POSTERIOR CATARACTS, MYOPIA, STIGMATISM, CONJUNCTIVE ERYTHEMA (LYME EYES), OPTICAL NERVE ATROPHY AND / OR UVEITIS: 30%
44.) FATIGUE AND LACK OF RESISTANCE: 72%
45.) SENSITIVITY OF SKIN AND NOISE (HYPERACUITY): 36-40%
There are numerous studies showing a clear EVIDENCE that the BORRELIA BURGDORGFERI in pregnant women is able to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. I could get tired here of giving you the description of each of them. But I will give you ALL the BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES that I found from the year 1983 until the year 2017, first the ones I found and then a chronology of ALL of them.
I close this issue which is HIGHLY DISCUSSED TODAY, with a post by Angélica Johansson, a great fighter against THIS PLAGUE that I found in my LINKEDIN network about the future of the planet and the LYME DISEASE … I quote:
“…”1 million people are predicted to get infected with Lyme disease in the USA in 2018. Given the same incidence rate of Lyme disease in Europe as in the USA, then 2.4 million people will get infected with Lyme disease in Europe in 2018. In the USA by 2050, 55.7 million people (12% of the population) will have been infected with Lyme disease. In Europe by 2050, 134.9 million people (17% of the population) will have been infected with Lyme disease. Most of these infections will, unfortunately, become chronic.
The estimated treatment cost for acute and chronic Lyme disease for 2018 for the USA is somewhere between 4.8 billion USD and 9.6 billion USD and for Europe somewhere between 10.1 billion EUR and 20.1 billion EUR. If governments do not finance IV treatment with antibiotics for chronic Lyme disease, then the estimated government cost for chronic Lyme disease for 2018 for the USA is 10.1 billion USD and in Europe 20.1 billion EUR.
If governments in the USA and Europe want to minimize future costs and maximize future revenues, then they should pay for IV antibiotic treatment up to a year even if the estimated cure rate is as low as 25%. The cost for governments of having chronic Lyme patients sick in perpetuity is very large….”
But what you see every day is a fight between IDSA and ILADS, CDC and others on the subject of whether it is a simple tick bite and you take an antibiotic and you cure or that it is a disease of difficult diagnosis and high cost of treatment. Between believers and non-believers to summarize. The truth is that it is spreading all over the world in leaps and bounds.
And if you have doubts that this ESPIROCHETE may or may not harm the fetus of pregnant women, cause birth defects, and many other consequences including, stillborn babies, read this “MOUNTAIN” of references that I leave here.
Approx. 25 Min.
Sue Faber, RN and Co-Founder of LymeHope speaks to pregnancy and Gestational Lyme at the LymeHope Education Event, Oakville, Ontario on November 3, 2017.
Published on Jan 18, 2017 www.elenafridmd.com
Dr. Elena Frid, a board-certified NYC neurologist and specialist in Lyme disease & other vector-borne diseases, discusses congenital Lyme disease.
**Comment** In reference to Dr. Frid’s comment that congenital Lyme is rare, I would disagree. We have not been keeping track of numbers and there are probably way more than is being acknowledged.
CONCLUSION: BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, not only transmitted by the tick bite, is TRANSMITTED by sexual contact, fluids and can also colonize the fetus of pregnant women if there is no effective treatment able to eradicate it during the same. And it is not exclusive to the Northern Hemisphere. The BORRELIA is also in the Southern Hemisphere.
Greetings to all.
Dr. José Lapenta.
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES / REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRAFICAS
1.) Lyme disease during pregnancy. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997 Mar;11(1):93-7. ]PUBMED] Silver HM1.
2.) Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Jul;103(1):67-8. [PUBMED]. Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT.
3.) Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Apr;7(4):286-9. [PUBMED]. Weber K1, Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, Wilske B, Duray PH.
4.) Neonatal skin lesions due to a spirochetal infection: a case of congenital Lyme borreliosis? Int J Dermatol. 1997 Sep;36(9):677-80. [PUBMED]. Trevisan G1, Stinco G, Cinco M.
5.) Confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction in placentas of women with reactive serology for Lyme antibodies. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1996;41(4):240-3. [PUBMED]. Figueroa R1, Bracero LA, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Beneck D, Coleman J, Schwartz I.
6.) Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in urine of patients with ocular Lyme borreliosis.
Pleyer U1, Priem S, Bergmann L, Burmester G, Hartmann C, Krause A. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 May;85(5):552-5. [PUBMED]
7.) Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions [version 1; referees: 1 not approved]. Marianne J. Middelveen1, Jennie Burke2, Eva Sapi3, Cheryl Bandoski3, Katherine R. Filush3, Yean Wang2, Agustin Franco2, Arun Timmaraju3, Hilary A. Schlinger1, Peter J. Mayne1, Raphael B. Stricker1
Source: https://f1000research.com/articles/3-309/v1 F1000 RESEARCH
8.) Listeriosis and borreliosis as causes of antepartum fever. Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Aug;62(2):256-61. [PUBMED]. Shirts SR, Brown MS, Bobitt JR.
9.) Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT.
10.) Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1989 Nov 15:657-77. MacDonald AB. Source: . Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1989 Nov 15:657-77
11.) transplacental Lyme borreliosis infant mortality. Arthritis Rheum 1987; Volume 30, Number 4, 3(Suppl):S50. Lavoie PE;Lattner BP;Duray PH; Barbour AG; Johnson HC.
12) Lyme Borrelia positive serology associated with spontaneous abortion in an endemic Italian area.) Acta Eur Fertil. 1988 Sep-Oct;19(5):279-81. [PUBMED]. Carlomagno G1, Luksa V, Candussi G, Rizzi GM, Trevisan G.
13.) Infection with Borrelia: Implications for Pregnancy. James M O’Brien 1. and 2 Odessa P Hamidi. Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Pennsylvania College of Medicine, USA. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pennsylvania College of Medicine, USA.
14.) MEDLINE results for: borrelia pregnancy AND human. 88 journal articles in the PubMed
database BDH, July 2012, Latest Revision Novemb
er 2012, http://www.Huismans.de.vu
15.) Infants born to mothers with antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi at delivery. Eur J Pediatr. 1989 Feb;148(5):426-7. [PUBMED]. Nadal D1, Hunziker UA, Bucher HU, Hitzig WH, Duc G.
16.) Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death..Amanda B Macdonald
Published .1986 in Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie…Hyg A.1986 Dec;263(1-2):189-200
17.) Congenital relapsing fever (Borrelia hermsii).Blood, 15 November 2000, Vol. 96, No. 10, pp. 3333-3333William A. Dittman. Sr, Sacred Heart Medical Center, Spokane, WA.
18.) Lyme Disease and Pregnancy. James M. Alexander and Susan M. Cox. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwaestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX
19.) Teratogen update: Lyme disease. Teratology. 2001 Nov;64(5):276-81. [PUBMED]. Elliott DJ1, Eppes SC, Klein JD.
20.) Borreliosis during pregnancy: a risk for the unborn child?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Jul;11(7):891-8. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0102. Epub 2010 Oct 6. [PUBMED]. Mylonas I1.
21.) Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1993 Jun;54(6):882-90. [PUBMED]. Gustafson JM1, Burgess EC, Wachal MD, Steinberg H.
22.) Fetal outcome in murine Lyme disease. Infect Immun. 1995 Jan;63(1):66-72. [PUBMED] Silver RM1, Yang L, Daynes RA, Branch DW, Salafia CM, Weis JJ.
23.) The association between tick-borne infections, Lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(5):967-74. Epub 2007 Nov 5. [PUBMED]. Bransfield RC1, Wulfman JS, Harvey WT, Usman AI. The full text here: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/03f3/d6363df849e1af7d976e3a313665e55ab764.pdf
24.) Gestational Lyme Disease Case Studies of 102 Live Births. by Charles Ray Jones, M.D., Harold Smith, M.D., Edina Gibb,. and Lorraine Johnson, JD, MBA
25.) Stillbirth following maternal LYME DISEASE. N Y State J Med. 1987 Nov;87(11):615-6.
[PUBMED] MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W. Source: full text: http://www.lymeutah.com/Stillbirth_Following_Maternal_Lyme_Disease__1987.pdf
26. ) The Enlarging Spectrum of Tick Borne Spirochetoses; R.R. Parker Memorial address. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol.8, no.6 (Nov-Dec 1986), pp.932940 Source fulle text: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1005.7976&rep=rep1&type=pdf
27.) Teratogenic effects of the bacteria Borrelia sp. on the fetuses of pregnant women with Lyme disease. Sliwa, Leopold. Nowa Medycyna 04/2011. (Translation of above article)
28.) Lyme disease in pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007 Jan;62(1):41-50. [PUBMED] Walsh CA1, Mayer EW, Baxi LV.
29.) Borreliosis During Pregnancy: A Risk for the Unborn Child? VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES. Volume 11, Number 7, 2011. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc..DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0102. Ioannis Mylonas. Source full text: http://boreliozaonline.pl/publikacje/Borelioza-w-ciazy.pdf
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES BY CHRONOLOGY
Lyme Disease and Pregnancy, Maternal Fetal Transmission of Lyme Disease:
1983 Shirts SR, Brown MS, Bobitt Jr. Listeriosis and borreliosis as causes of antepartum fever. Obstet Gynecol 1983;62:256.
1985 Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT. Maternal fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (1985) Ann Intern Med, 103, 67-8.
1985 MMWR. Update: Lyme Disease and Cases Occurring during Pregnancy—United States. Vol. 34, No. 25 (June 28, 1985), pp. 376- 378, 383-384
1986 MacDonald A. Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):189-200.
1986 Burgdorfer, W., The Enlarging Spectrum of Tick Borne Spirochetoses; R.R. Parker Memorial address. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol.8, no.6 (Nov-Dec 1986), pp.932940
1986 Markowitz LE, Steere AC, Benach JL, et al. Lyme disease during pregnancy. JAMA.(1986); 255(24), 3394-6.
1987 MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W. Stillbirth following maternal Lyme disease. N Y State J Med. 1987 Nov;87(11):615-6.
1987. Lavoie PE, Lattner BP, Duray PH, Barbour AG, Johnson HC. Culture positive seronegative transplacental Lyme borreliosis infant mortality. (1987) Arthritis Rheum, 30(4), 3(Suppl):S50.
1988 Weber K; Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, Wilske B, Duray PH. (1988) Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 7:286-9.
1988 Carlomagno G, Luksa V, Candussi G, et al. (1988) Lyme Borrelia positive serology associated with spontaneous abortion in an endemic Italian area. Acta Eur Fertil 19(5), 279-81.
1988 Medici F, Benach J, Williams C. Lyme Disease during Pregnancy A Cord Blood Serosurvey. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 539, Lyme Disease and Related Disorders Pages 504–506.
1988 Health and Welfare Canada. Canada Diseases Weekly Report, June 4, 1988. Lyme disease in Canada.
1988 Lyme disease in Canada. Epidemiologic Report. CMAJ Vol. 139, Aug 1, 1988
1989 MacDonald A. Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77.
1989 Halperin JJ., Dattwyler R., et al. A Perspective on the treatment of Lyme Borreliosis. Reviews of infectious diseases. Vol. 11 Supp 6. Sept/Oct 1989. S1518-1525
1989 Nadal D, Hunziker UA, Bucher HU, et al. (1989) Infants born to mothers with antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi at delivery. Eur J Pediatr 148(5), 426-7.
1989 Steere et al. Lyme Seropositivity and pregnancy outcome in the absence of symptoms of Lyme disease. Scientific Abstracts June 12-17, 1989. 53 Annual Meeting of American College of Rheumatology.
1991 Lakos A. Lyme Borreliosis in Hungary in the years 1984 through 1989. Parasit hung., 24;5-51, 1991
1992 ACOG Committee Opinion. Lyme disease during pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1992, 39; 59-60.
1992. Bracero LA, Wormser GP, Leikin E. Tejani N. Prevalence of seropositivity to the Lyme disease spirochetes during pregnancy in an epidemic area: A preliminary report. J Matern Fetal Investig. 1992(2): 265-268
1993 Hercogova J, Tomankova M, Frosslova D, Janovska D. Early-stage lyme borreliosis during pregnancy: treatment in 15 women with erythema migrans. Ceska Gynekol 58(5):229-232.
1993 Strobino BA, Williams CL, Abid S, et al. (1993) Lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of two thousand prenatal patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169(2 Pt 1), 367-74.
1994 Gasser R. et al. A Most Unusual case of a whole family suffering from late Lyme Borreliosis for Over 20 years. Angiology Vol. 45, No. 1: 85-86.
1994 Trevisan G. Lyme Borreliosis; A general survey. Acta dermatovenerologica A.P.S. Vol 3, 94, No. 1/2 4-12
1994 Elsukova LV, Korenberg EI, Kozin GA., [Pathology of pregnancy and the fetus in Lyme disease] [Article in Russian]. Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1994 Oct-Dec;(4):59-62
1995 Gardner T. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn, 4th edition, New York, NY. W.B. Saunders Company (1995) Chapter 11, Lyme Disease. page 447 – 528.
1995 Williams CL, Strobino B, Weinstein A, et al. (1995) Maternal Lyme disease and congenital malformations: a cord blood serosurvey in endemic and control areas. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 9(3), 320-30.
1995 Schmidt, B. et al. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Urine and Breast Milk of Patients with Lyme Borreliosis. DIAGN MICROBIOL INFECT DIS 1995;21:121-128.
1995 Alexander, J. Cox, S. Lyme disease and Pregnancy. Infectious diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 3?256-261 (1995)
1996. Figueroa R. et al. Confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Placentas of Women with Reactive Serology for Lyme Antibodies. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1996; 41?240-243
1996. Maraspin V, Cimperman J. Treatment of Erythema Migrans during Pregnancy. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996; 22?788-93
1997 Silver H. (1997) Lyme Disease During Pregnancy. Inf Dis Clinics of N. Amer. Vol 11, No 1.
1997 Trevisan G, Stinco G, Cinco M. Neonatal skin lesions due to a spirochetal infection; a case of congenital lyme borreliosis? International Journal of Dermatology 36; 677-99
1999 Norris C., Gardner T. Aseptic Meningitis in the Newborn and Young Infant. Am Fam Physician 1999 May 15;59(10):2761-2770
2001 Elliot D, Eppes S., Klein J. Terratogen Update; Lyme disease. TERATOLOGY 64?276 – 281 (2001)
2001 Gardner T. Chapter 11, Lyme Disease. Remington and Klein: Infectious diseases of the Fetus and Newborn, Fifth edition. New York, NY. W.B. Saunders Company 2001 pgs. 519-641
2001 Gardner T. Lyme disease in pregnancy. Program and abstracts of the 14th International Scientific Conference on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Disorders; April 21-23, 2001; Hartford, Connecticut.
2003 Goldenberg, R. L and C. Thompson (2003). “The infectious origins of stillbirth.” Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(3): 861-73.
2003 Salvato, WT, Salvato P. Lyme disease: ancient engine of an unrecognized borreliosis pandemic? Medical Hypotheses 60(5): 742-759.
2005 Onk G, Acun C, Kalayci M, Cagavi F, et al. (2005) Gestational Lyme disease as a rare cause of congenital hydrocephalus. J Turkish German Gynecology Association Artemis, 6(2), 156-157.
2005 Jones CR, Smith H, Gibb E, Johnson L (2005) Gestational Lyme Disease: Case Studies of 102 Live Births. Lyme Times. Gestational Lyme Studies 34-36
2005 Goldenberg et al. Maternal Infection and Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes. Clin Perinatol 32 (2005) 523–559.
2006 Walsh et al. Lyme disease in pregnancy. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. CME Review Volume 62, Number 1.
2007 Bransfield, Robert C. et al. The association between tick borne infection, lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorder. Medical hypotheses (2007)
2008 Hercogova J, Vanousova D. Syphilis and borreliosis during pregnancy. Dermatol Ther 21(3), 205-9.
2008 Theiler RN, Rasmussen, S. et al. Emerging and Zoonotic infections in women. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2008 December ; 22(4): 755–viii
2009 Lakos et al. Maternal Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy outcome. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 14 (2010) e494–e498
2009. Hulinska D, Votypka J, Vanousova D, Hercogova J, Hulinsky V, Drevova H, Kurzova K, Uherkova L. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia Burgdorferi sensu lato in Patients with Erythema Migrans. Folia Microbiol. 54(3), 246-256 (2009)
2011 Mylonas I. Borreliosis During Pregnancy: A Risk for the Unborn Child? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11?891-8.
2011 Sliwa, Leopold. Teratogenny wplyw bakterii Borelli sp. Na ploy matek chorujacych na borelioze z Lyme. Zaklad Biologi Rozwoju Czlowieka. Instytus Pielegniarstwa.
2011 Sliwa, Leopold. Teratogenic effects of the bacteria Borrelia sp. on the fetuses of pregnant women with Lyme disease. Nowa Medycyna 04/2011. (Translation of above article)
2012 Relic, Milijana, Relic, Goran. Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy. Vojnosanit Pregl 2012; 69(11): 994–998.
2014 Onyett, H . Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on Children. Paediatr Child Health 2014;19(7):379-83
2014 OʼBrien, JM. Martens MG. Lyme disease in pregnancy; a New Jersey medical advisory. MD advisory, Winter 2014, pgs 24-27
2015 Krysztof PJ et al. Congenital tick borne Diseases: Is this an alternative route of transmission of tick borne pathogens in Mammals? Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Vol 15, Number 11, 2015.
2015 Hu LT, Tsibris AM, Branda JA. Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Case 24-2015; A 28 year-old pregnant woman with fever, chills, headache and fatigue. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 30;373(5):468-75.
2016 Maldonato, Y, Nizet, V, Klein, J, Remington, J, Wilson, C. Current concepts of Infections of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Chapter 1. page 6. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. 8th Edition. 2016
2017 OʼBrien, JM. Baum JD. Case Report. The Journal of Family Practice. August 2017; 66(8) pg E9-10 Updated and printed by JC on November 2, 2017
2017 March of Dimes. Lyme disease and Pregnancy. Retrieved from: https://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/lyme-disease-and-pregnancy.aspx
2017 Centers for Disease Control,USA. Pregnancy and Lyme Disease. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/resources/toolkit/factsheets/10_508_lymedisease_pregnantwoman_factsheet.pdf
Compiled Dec 6, 2017 – by JC and Sue Faber RN www.lymehope.ca
Produced by Dr. Jose Lapenta R. Dermatologist
Maracay Estado Aragua Venezuela 2.018