Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Fluorescent Image of Borrelia Living Quite Happily With a Macrophage

 

Bb.Rt.rt.RAW_2014.11.12_composite_4merge

Fluorescent Image of Borrelia, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease.

Click on link for picture. Permission granted by Dr. Benjamin L. Clark, University of Minnesota Medical School, Director, Bridges to the Baccalaureate Degree  Program, Director, Pathways to Advance Degrees in the Life Sciences, 218-726-6587

  • Green is the intracellular Borrelia, blue-purple is the nucleus of the macrophage, a type of white blood cell of the immune system that is supposed to engulf and digest pathogens and anything else considered a foreign invader.

 

  • The red is a cell surface marker (CD86) known as Cluster of Differentiation 86, a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival. It is the ligand for two different proteins on the T cell surface: CD28 and CTLA-4. CD86 works in tandem with CD80 to prime T cells. Co-stimulation is an essential step in the induction of adaptive immune responses.

 

  • There are probably 4 or more spirochetes in the phagosome (a vacuole within a phagocyte that contains bacteria or other ingested particles that becomes fused with a lysosome which functions as the digestive system of the cell).
Dr. Clarke’s future work will be to study that internal chamber and how the spirochete potentially thrives.

When it is proven & accepted that Bb infects white blood cells, it will give a potential answer to some late-disseminated Lyme cases as an immune-deficiency syndrome demonstrating why some patients have frequent and prolonged infections and may acquire new allergies as well as Mast Cell issues.

We also need post-mortem studies to demonstrate persistent infection:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/04/13/chronic-lyme-post-mortem-study-needed-to-end-the-lyme-wars/

This is a list of  700 Peer-Reviewed Evidence of Persistence of Lyme:MSIDS copy

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/06/12/bb-microscopy-a-pictures-worth-1000-words-how-bb-evades-the-immune-system/  There is a video in this link showing Bb’s ability to get into and out of the blood stream & lymphatic system quickly demonstrating its ability to go anywhere in the body to colonize.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/29/microscopy-of-spirochaete-biofilm/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/27/spirochete-culture-microscopy-videos-see-whats-inside-you/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/04/19/first-study-showing-borrelia-chlamydia-mixed-biofilms-in-infected-human-skin-tissues/

Legal Defense Fund For Dr. Kenneth Stoller

https://gogetfunding.com/legal-defense-fund-stoller/

Legal Defense Fund For Dr. Kenneth Stoller

‘Something’s Wrong, I’m in Pain:’ Lyme Disease Sufferers Worry Doctors Lack Knowledge of Disease

https://leaderpost.com/news/local-news/somethings-wrong-im-in-pain-lyme-disease-sufferers-worry-doctors-lack-knowledge-of-disease

‘Something’s wrong, I’m in pain:’ Lyme disease sufferers worry doctors lack knowledge of disease

“If I could wave a magic wand, I would want the SHA to commit to letting (Lyme sufferers) help train a physician.”

Erica Fraser took up to 40 pills a day to manage the pain she had as a result of Lyme disease.

She contracted the illness from a tick in Manitoba in 2014. Then a healthy and active 16-year-old, she was bedridden within weeks.

“I horseback rode, I played volleyball then all of a sudden I got sick,” she said. “It was like my life collapsed.”

It took a year for her to be diagnosed. Doctors didn’t know what was wrong.

“At first they were saying it was anxiety and depression,” she said. “Then a possible autoimmune disorder or cancer.”

After initial tests for Lyme came back negative, she sent a blood sample to a California lab. That test came back positive, but wasn’t approved by Health Canada. She was finally diagnosed by a doctor in Vancouver. But upon returning to Saskatchewan, doctors weren’t convinced of the diagnoses.

“My diagnoses they came up with here was (that it was) just a pain syndrome,” she said. “I was put on Oxycodone and told to seek a psychologist. At this point I was using a cane. I was in so much pain even the Oxycodone wasn’t working.”

“I kept saying ‘Somethings wrong, I’m in pain,’ ” Fraser said. “Everyone’s telling you ‘You’re not in pain, it’s all in your head.’ ”

Fraser’s story is not unique. Other Lyme sufferers have complained Saskatchewan doctors don’t have enough knowledge about the disease because it’s not as prevalent here. According to the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health, only one person in the past decade contracted Lyme from a local tick.

Kimberly Epp was diagnosed with the illness in 2005. That was after a more than five-year battle convincing doctors in Saskatchewan she had Lyme.

“I was working in parks and outdoors and just had a knowledge of (Lyme),” she said. “I saw several doctors; they (weren’t) educated on it.”

The 49-year-old Moose Jaw resident was working in Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park in Alberta around 20 years ago when she was bitten. Like Fraser, she received her diagnosis in B.C. and had difficulty getting treatment for Lyme in Saskatchewan. She only received a month’s worth of antibiotics.

“After five days (off antibiotics) my symptoms came back and nobody would treat me,” she said.

“After (Lyme) goes late stage there is no set treatment protocol,” said Fraser.

Triant Steuart, president of the Saskatchewan Lyme Disease, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Illness Association, said the lack of knowledge about the disease boils down to one thing:

“There hasn’t been enough of a focus on the science,” Stueart said.

He believes there isn’t enough money dedicated to Lyme research.

“We need to get a task force … that puts surveillance on ticks … so that we can say ‘This is what’s in our bugs right now,’ ” he said.

While the Saskatchewan Health Authority (SHA) doesn’t surveil for ticks on the ground, ticks can be mailed to the Roy Romanow Provincial Lab in Regina. The lab then sends them to a national testing centre.

In an emailed statement, the Ministry of Health said Saskatchewan participates in the newly formed Pan-Canadian Research Network on Lyme disease, which has set aside $4 million for Lyme research.

Steuart wants doctors to be mandated to take an educational course on Lyme disease.

“If I could wave a magic wand, I would want the SHA to commit to letting (Lyme sufferers) help train a physician,” he said.

The ministry did not say if it is looking at additional training, but said updated Lyme information has been provided to physicians and have directed them to resources for testing and research.

For now, Fraser and Epp are managing with the disease. Both have used CBD oil, which lowers pain without side effects. Fraser said it’s important to push for support.

“You need to be your own advocate,” she said.

ewilliams@postmedia.com 

twitter.com/EWilliams_LP 

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**Comment**

Doctors ARE uneducated about tick-borne illness.  Period.

What they DO know is straight CDC propaganda that is antiquated and unscientific.

They have CHOSEN to completely disregard what patients are saying, the evidence right in front of their eyes, and the information coming out on a daily basis from another group of doctors in opposition to the CDC’s rhetoric.  This group called ILADS for International Lyme & Associated Disease Syndrome, is completely science-based and frankly, is the only group treating this pandemic appropriately.

Mainstream doctors have CHOSEN to disregard their colleagues, call them quacks, and state that all of the thousands upon thousands of patients with remaining symptoms have MUS (Medically unexplained symptoms) – the equivalent of a psychosomatic state – in other words, they believe patients are simply making it all up.  They would rather hand you an antidepressant – or in the case of this poor woman, Oxycodone, than give you proper antimicrobials for a systemic infection(s). They are lazy and frankly abusive. I’ve heard absolute horror stories from patients.

One warning about needing more research; however, as where this money is channeled is extremely important.  Too much unhelpful research has been done and continues to be done that isn’t helping patients. Since an independent tick researcher has shown that ticks are being spread world-wide by birds and has nothing to do with the climate – that’s a dead end and further research in that area isn’t needed.  Here’s a great example of tax payer dollars paying for shoddy, biased, & erroneous research: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/06/17/ontario-public-health-officials-called-out-on-shoddy-biased-research-utilizing-an-erroneous-climate-change-model-to-program-a-futuristic-tick-problem/

Also, the CDC/IDSA has had a myopic view of this disease – as a singular organism, when many are coinfected have concurrent infection with numerous things.  We know zero about that.  They also have not addressed the ability of borrelia to shapeshift (pleomorphism), as well as the fact borrelia is persistent.  They haven’t addressed transmission properly and looked enough at other bugs being able to transmit as well as sexual, congenital, via breast milk, via tears, urine, etc.  There is plenty to show ALL of these areas have great potential for transmitting and would explain the high numbers affected:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/24/microbiology-professor-im-convinced-lyme-disease-is-transmittable-from-person-to-person/

They ridiculed Dr. Burgess’s work back in the 80’s and 90’s:

 

 

Leading Lyme Disease Expert Weighs in on New Study Showing Public Health Crisis – GLA

https://globallymealliance.org/leading-lyme-disease-expert-weighs-new-study-showing-public-health-crisis/?

GUEST POINT OF VIEW: JOHN AUCOTT, M.D., DIRECTOR OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS LYME DISEASE CLINICAL RESEARCH CENTER; ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

In a recently published study, the authors* estimate the cumulative number of post-treatment Lyme disease (PTLD) cases in the United States in both 2016 and 2020. This is important because it represents the first time that researchers have attempted to estimate a downstream effect of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi; the number of people living with PTLD. Their results suggest that the predicted prevalence of PTLD by the year 2020 could be as high as 1,944,189, depending on the assumptions used.

The magnitude of this result points out the major public health impact of the unchecked tick-borne disease epidemic.

It has long been challenging for researchers to estimate the number of new cases of Lyme disease, let alone the rate of PTLD. A number of assumptions and estimations need to be made to generate a mathematical model with as much accuracy as possible. Therefore, the underlying assumptions used in this paper are extremely important, as they directly determine the results. This is illustrated by the wide range of predicted cases for 2020; estimated cases range from 81,509 to 1,944,189 cases, over a 20-fold difference. The first key assumption needed to create the model is the number of new cases of Lyme disease each year (i.e. the incidence). Data reported to the CDC on the yearly incidence of Lyme disease are widely assumed to be under-reported due to passive surveillance methods. Estimates derived from laboratory testing and health claims records all point to an annual incidence in the hundreds of thousands of cases a year. Furthermore, it is difficult to precisely estimate how this rate may change over time due to a range of factors such as climate change, seasonal variation, expansion of the tick vector, and/or increased public awareness of the disease. The authors included three different scenarios to account for this variability.

A more difficult assumption to pinpoint mathematically for inclusion into the model is the rate used for estimating the percentage of patients who develop chronic illness after receiving standard antibiotic treatment, partial treatment, or no intentional antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. In prospective studies of both early Lyme disease and late Lyme arthritis the percentage of patients who experience ongoing symptoms after antibiotic therapy is approximately 10%. The 10% rate in these studies among ideally diagnosed and treated patients may underestimate the rates found in the community practice of medicine, where delayed diagnosis and imperfect and delayed treatment may be more common. The rate may also be higher in early disseminated Lyme disease with neurologic involvement, which has not been studied extensively in North America, and thus may be under-represented in estimates of PTLD. The authors incorporated two different PTLD rates (10% and 20%) to account for the uncertainty in this estimation.

There are additional assumptions that may have been important to add to the model. First, this study does not account for patients who recover from PTLD over time and no longer suffer from the disease. In the current model, survival and death rates, but not recovery, are accounted for as long-term events. Second, there is no attempt to include different PTLD risk percentages for children who, some have suggested, may have a lower rate of PTLD compared to adults. The absence of these different rates in the model may lead to an over estimation of the number of cases of PTLD.

These limitations should not detract from the importance and relevance of this novel research. The fact that the number of cases of chronic illness related to Lyme disease, as estimated by published rates of PTLD, is so high is extremely important.

These numbers are on par with other important public health threats such as HIV. When combined with the recognized severity of PTLD for patients, the impact is even more significant.

Another important result of this study is the estimated future age distribution of PTLD cases. As the US population ages, the impact of PTLD on older Americans with other co-existing, chronic, conditions may become an important, unrecognized, public health issue. It is unknown how PTLD may interact with or alter the progression of common conditions such as dementia. It will be extremely difficult to tease out the role of prior Lyme disease as a cause or an aggravating factor without molecular markers of central nervous system infection and/or ongoing inflammation in the setting of PTLD.

In conclusion, this study is extremely relevant in understanding the important public health significance of chronic illness related to Lyme disease.

The methodologies used and the magnitude of the findings should inform future epidemiologic studies of disease risk and population-level impact. As research in Lyme and other tick-borne diseases advances and more exact estimates of the model assumptions used in this paper are generated, it will be important for future studies to revisit these calculations, as well as strive to estimate the long-term impact of other tick-borne diseases, including Babesia microti and Borrelia miyamotoi. Finally, this paper should serve as another wake up call to leaders in the public health, medicine, and policy arenas regarding the impact of the expanding tick-borne disease epidemic.

Click here to access published study.
Click here to access GLA press release.

*About study authors: Allison DeLong, M.S., a biostatistician at Brown University’s Center for Statistical Sciences and a member of GLA’s Scientific Advisory Board; Mayla Hsu, Ph.D., Director of Research and Science at GLA; Harriet Kotsoris, M.D. former CSO, GLA


 

john aucottOpinions expressed by contributors are their own.

John Aucott, M.D., is Director of the Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center; Associate Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Learn more at https://www.hopkinslyme.org/ 

Dr. Aucott is a GLA research grantee, and co-director of the landmark Study of Lyme Immunological and Clinical Events (SLICE) Study that has defined many parameters of acute and long-term LD.

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**Comment**

The one thing this study doe not take into account is an issue I’ve been writing about since I learned about it – those patients who do not fit into the 10-20 percentile due to a late diagnosis and late treatment. I contacted the study author with this important detail and she wasn’t having it.

For far too long authorities have pigeon-holed patients into strict categories that just do not play out in reality.  They continue to use the EM rash criteria and faulty blood serology testing as entrance into research studies even though those getting the rash is highly variable and everyone now admits testing is abysmal.

PTLD issue is another great example.

The reason it’s important is lower percentages allow the CDC/IDSA to keep a lid on this thing as well as to downplay how many are affected. It also makes it look like their “Lyme Guidelines” work for most people. All of this plays out in whether future research is done. The lower percentages also allows them to continue to fixate on the acute phase as it’s only a few of us sorry suckers who remain with symptoms.

The 30-40% of patients diagnosed and treated late desperately need proper research done on them as they are the ones continually neglected.  For a great read on this:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/02/25/medical-stalemate-what-causes-continuing-symptoms-after-lyme-treatment/

While two million is nothing to sneeze at, imagine if it included everyone who had persistent symptoms.

Boston Bites Back Gala Raises Lyme Disease Awareness & Support

https://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/names/2019/06/05/boston-bites-back-gala-raises-lyme-disease-awareness-and-support/fdc7Usq29YqVn16McEM17K/story.html

Boston Bites Back gala raises Lyme disease awareness and support

From left: Chris Dean; Dr. David Crandell; Dr. Charlotte Mao, pediatric infectious diseases physician at The Dean Center; Dr. Nevena Zubcevik; and Brandi Dean at the first Boston Bites Back in Concord.
From left: Chris Dean; Dr. David Crandell; Dr. Charlotte Mao, pediatric infectious diseases physician at The Dean Center; Dr. Nevena Zubcevik; and Brandi Dean at the first Boston Bites Back in Concord.(MIKE CASEY/CASEY PHOTOGRAPHY)

The inaugural Boston Bites Back gala was held Saturday at the Concord home of Christine Grace and Sean Green, where guests honored Nicole Malachowski, the first USAF female Thunderbird fighter pilot and a Lyme disease advocate. The event — sponsored by Ride Out Lyme and the Dean Center for Tick Borne Illness — drew 120 guests including Dean Center and Ride Out Lyme cofounder Brandi Dean, Ride Out Lyme cofounder Jill Fulginite, WCVB’s Erika Tarantal, and Didier Cohen, a DJ, producer, and Lyme advocate. One of the highlights of the evening: the announcement of a $1 million grant to the Dean Center, with a focus on pediatric Lyme treatment.

Christine Grace and Sean Green at the Boston Bites Back gala.
Christine Grace and Sean Green at the Boston Bites Back gala.(MIKE CASEY/CASEY PHOTOGRAPHY)

3 Conditions That May Be Mistaken For Lyme Disease

https://www.rheumatologyadvisor.com/home/topics/lyme-disease/3-conditions-that-may-be-mistaken-for-lyme-disease/

3 Conditions That May Be Mistaken for Lyme Disease

Lyme disease ring on body
Not all patients with Lyme disease present with a rash, making it difficult to diagnose the condition in some cases.

Lyme disease is difficult to diagnose accurately. Not all patients present with its signature symptom, erythema migrans (EM), with or without the presence of a bull’s-eye-shaped rash. Other symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, and headache are nonspecific. The people who are infected with the tick-borne illness don’t always remember being bitten by a tick. And, to compound matters, testing for Lyme disease is not an exact science.

As a result, sometimes people who are infected with Lyme disease are incorrectly diagnosed with other ailments such as fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). These chronic conditions aren’t the only illnesses that can be mistaken for Lyme disease. We explore 3 Lyme-like conditions that might not immediately come to mind.

Borrelia miyamotoi Disease

Borrelia miyamotoi (B miyamotoi) disease is an emerging infectious disease spread by deer ticks. First discovered by Japanese scientists in 1995, B miyamotoi disease can be found in all areas of the United States where Lyme disease is endemic.1

The first human cases of B miyamotoi infection were found in Russia in 2011, when researchers identified 46 patients who had presented with the influenza-like illness.2 Two years later, the first recognized cases in North America were reported in the Northeastern United States.3

Symptoms of B miyamotoi infection are similar to those seen in Lyme disease: fever, chills, headache, joint pain, muscle pain, and fatigue. One key difference: patients with B miyamotoi disease rarely develop a rash. Whereas just 4 (9%) of the 46 cases of B miyamotoi infection identified in Russia involved EM, an estimated 70% to 80% of people with Lyme develop a rash.4

Blood tests to identify Lyme disease are not effective in diagnosing B miyamotoi disease. Instead, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that detect B miyamotoi DNA and antibody-based tests are used to confirm a diagnosis.  Doxycycline, amoxicillin, and ceftriaxone have been used successfully to treat patients with B miyamotoi infection.5

Summer Flu

Early symptoms of Lyme disease such as fever, chills, fatigue, and pain closely resemble those of influenza. Because Lyme disease is not always accompanied by a rash, the tick-borne illness can be mistaken for the summer flu. One such case was documented in Orthopedic Reviews.6

A 58-year-old woman presented with flu-like symptoms including body aches, headache, and fever. She was diagnosed with acute influenza and prescribed antiviral medication. Two days later, she reported a welt on her stomach and generalized joint pain. She revealed that 3 weeks prior she had irritation or a bite behind her knee that she couldn’t see. Examination revealed an EM lesion behind her knee, and the patient was administered doxycycline. Her symptoms resolved in the following week.

“This case report illustrates the difficulty in distinguishing patients with early Lyme disease from those with an undifferentiated viral illness,” the authors wrote. “The viral-like symptoms of fever, headache, stiff neck, body aches, and fatigue are the common presenting features of many infections, both viral and non-viral. These illnesses often lack localizing symptoms such as cough, diarrhea, or urinary symptoms that point to more specific diagnosis such as pneumonia, gastroenteritis, or genitourinary infection.”

Related Articles

Cellulitis

Patients with cellulitis typically present with warmth, tenderness, inflammation, swelling, redness, and/or pain in the affected area. As such, the bacterial infection can be mistaken for Lyme disease.

A study in the Archives of Family Medicine identified several patients who were originally diagnosed with cellulitis but actually had Lyme disease. The researchers noted that, despite its distinctive appearance, EM may be confused with the bacterial infection. 7

A case study in Clinical Infectious Diseases chronicled a 39-year-old man who suddenly lost consciousness and collapsed. After the patient was revived in the emergency department (ED), he reported that he had consulted a clinician 3 weeks earlier for a rash that was subsequently diagnosed as cellulitis. However, following cardiology consultation in the ED, an ELISA test for Lyme disease was conducted; the study was reported as positive and confirmed by Western blot.8

The author argued that the case history “illustrates failure of patients to be aware of tick bites and failure of diagnosis by a primary physician even in an area of endemicity.”

References

  1. Glatter R. The disease that looks like Lyme – but isn’t. Forbes. July 12, 2013. Accessed May 28, 2019.
  2. Platonov AE, Karan LS, Kolyasnikova NM, et al. Humans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1816-1823.
  3. Molloy PJ, Telford SR 3rd, Chowdri HR, et al. Borrelia miyamotoi disease in the northeastern United States: a case series. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(2):91-98.
  4. Signs and symptoms of untreated Lyme disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reviewed December 21, 2018. Accessed May 28, 2019.
  5. B. miyamotoi. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reviewed January 10, 2019. Accessed May 28, 2019.
  6. Aucott JN, Seifter A. Misdiagnosis of early Lyme disease as the summer flu. Orthop Rev. 2011;3(2):e14.
  7. Nowakowski J, McKenna D, Nadelman RB, et al. Failure of treatment with cephalexin for Lyme disease. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(6):563-567.
  8. Plotkin SA. Correcting a public health fiasco: the need for a new vaccine against Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52 Suppl 3:s271-s275.

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**Comment**

The oft quoted 70-80% patients getting the EM rash is WRONG.  Once again, the percentages range widely from 25-80% depending upon who’s counting:

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/26/study-says-only-about-18-of-children-with-lyme-recall-tick-bite/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/26/formally-challenging-cdc-advice-on-lyme-disease-rashes/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/02/21/lyme-disease-dont-wait-for-blood-tests-where-patients-have-bullseye-rash/Read comment after article

Lyme disease is commonly misdiagnosed as 1,000 different things. Mainstream medicine needs to wake up.

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/09/seven-conditions-lyme-disease-gets-misdiagnosed-as/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/03/lyme-patient-misdiagnosed-with-anxiety-depression/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/15/life-with-lyme-disease-a-womans-15-year-journey-to-diagnosis/  Initially diagnosed wth depression, then epilepsy, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, & suffered numerous miscarriages.  A friend told her about Lyme.  Finally diagnosed with Lyme.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/04/11/diagnosed-with-ebv-had-lyme/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/24/diagnosed-with-cellulitis-child-had-lyme-docs-said-it-was-a-non-relevant-tick-bite/  “Non relevant tick bite,” what a joke.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/08/13/diagnosed-with-hiv-14-year-old-really-had-lyme/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/21/bartonella-sudden-onset-adolescent-schizophrenia-a-case-study/

Oh, I could go on and on all day…..

 

 

Former CDC Chief Pleads Guilty in Connection with Misconduct Case, Won’t Serve Jail Time

https://www.foxnews.com/us/former-head-of-the-cdc-pleads-guilty-to-violation  (News Story Here)

Former CDC chief pleads guilty in connection with misconduct case, won’t serve jail time

The former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) has pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct related to his arrest last August for alleged sexual misconduct and will not serve jail time, Fox News has learned.

Dr. Thomas Frieden, also a former New York City health commissioner, appeared Tuesday in Brooklyn Criminal Court.

Under the terms of his plea, Frieden’s case will be sealed and dismissed in a year if he isn’t arrested during that time.

Frieden was the director of the CDC from 2009 to 2017.

Frieden was arrested in August. A woman he knew had accused Frieden of grabbing her buttocks on Oct. 20, 2017, in his Brooklyn home.

He did not admit guilt in the groping allegation.

He and his attorney declined to comment.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

__________________

**Comment**

This isn’t the first time CDC directors have been guilty:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/01/31/another-cdc-conflict-of-interest-director-resigns/

It becomes clearer all the time, why we are in the fix we are in.