Archive for the ‘Treatment’ Category

Validation of Babesia Proteasome as a Drug Target

Validation of Babesia proteasome as a drug target

Open Access funded by National Institutes of Health
Under a Creative Commons license


Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted zoonosis caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia. Treatment of this emerging malaria-related disease has relied on antimalarial drugs and antibiotics. The proteasome of Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, has recently been validated as a target for anti-malarial drug development and therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of epoxyketone (carfilzomib, ONX-0914 and epoxomicin) and boronic acid (bortezomib and ixazomib) proteasome inhibitors on the growth and survival of Babesia. Testing the compounds against Babesia divergens ex vivo revealed suppressive effects on parasite growth with activity that was higher than the cytotoxic effects on a non-transformed mouse macrophage cell line. Furthermore, we showed that the most-effective compound, carfilzomib, significantly reduces parasite multiplication in a Babesia microti infected mouse model without noticeable adverse effects. In addition, treatment with carfilzomib lead to an ex vivo and in vivo decrease in proteasome activity and accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins compared to untreated control. Overall, our results demonstrate that the Babesia proteasome is a valid target for drug development and warrants the design of potent and selective B. divergens proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of babesiosis.

Graphical abstract

Image 1


For more on Babesia:

The Facts About Candida Overgrowth & How to Overcome It

The Facts About Candida Overgrowth and How to Overcome It

June 28, 2018
candida overgrowth

Anna Hunt, Staff Writer
Waking Times

Candida is an essential fungus, a form of yeast, that lives in the human body. You can find it in the mouth and the intestines. Although it is normal to have some of this fungus in the body, candida can also invade the body beyond what is acceptable. This is called candida overgrowth, and it can have some detrimental health effects.

Candida Overgrowth

Having too much candida in the body can result in several health problems. This includes all types of digestive issues because too much candida can break down the walls of the intestines. In addition, candida overgrowth may cause problems such as depression, lack of energy, and a whole lot of annoying ailments.

When the production of candida in the body is out of control, it can manifest the following problems:

  • Allergies, sensitivities and intolerance to anything or any place that’s damp or moldy.
  • Hay fever and asthma.
  • Higher sensitivity to typical allergens, such as perfumes, smoke, odors, pets, dust, molds, pollen, and other airborne substances.
  • Athletes’ foot or fungus growth on other parts of the body.
  • Low body temperature, resulting on cold hands and feet.
  • Cold-like symptoms, including excessive mucus, as well as flu-like symptoms.
  • Digestive problems, such as constipation, abdominal bloating or pain, acid reflux, and gas.
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus), ear infections, ear aches, and abnormal wax build-up.
  • Fatigue, chronic fatigue and general feeling of being drained of energy.
  • Swollen salivary glands, dryness in the mouth, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • Dry or itchy scalp, dandruff, scalp sores, and hair loss.
  • Headaches, migraines, brain fog, and dizziness.
  • Fungal infections of the skin or nails.
  • Joint stiffness, swelling or pain.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Nasal congestion, postnasal drip, sinus inflammation or infections.
  • Muscle aches and pains, including numbness and tingling, as well as lack of strength and coordination.
  • Dry skin, acne, hives, itching skin, and rashes, including eczema and psoriasis.
  • Sleep problems, such as frequent waking up and restless sleep, as well as insomnia.

FREE ONLINE EVENT: The Candida Summit – register today

The sad part is that candida overgrowth may be easily mistaken for other illnesses. Therefore, medical professionals often treat the symptoms of candida overgrowth, and not the actual problem of candida.

Why Does Candida Get Out of Control?

One of the biggest culprits in candida overgrowth are antibiotics. These medications wipe out all bacteria, including beneficial bacteria in the digestive system. On the other hand, antibiotics do not affect candida, because it is a fungus. As a result, taking antibiotics can create an imbalance in the body.

Now, if the immune system is strong, it can usually handle the effects of candida overgrowth. Unfortunately, many people have a weakened immune system because the typical western diet lacks the nutrients necessary to maintain strong immune function.

The standard diet consists of lots of carbohydrates, hydrogenated oils, trans-fats, sugar, white flour products, and processed foods. In addition, food growers often treat live foods with pesticides and herbicides. As well, they grow these foods in nutrient-depleted soil and radiate them to extend shelf-live.

Consequently, mainstream food choices do not give us the nutrients and healthy probiotic properties necessary to maintain a healthy immune system. As a result, when candida overgrowth happens, the body frequently starts to break down.

Some other factors that may contribute to candida population growing beyond what is healthy are:

  • A diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates,
  • Drinking too much alcohol, and
  • A stressful lifestyle.

Simple Home Test

The best way to know for sure if you have candida overgrowth is to see a holistic practitioner. However, you can try the following test at home:

  1. Make sure you conduct this test first thing in the morning, before you eat or drink anything.
  2. Fill a glass with room-temperature, filtered water.
  3. Work up some saliva and spit it into the glass of water.
  4. Wait 30 minutes (you may need to wait up to 60 minutes) and check the saliva. If you see string traveling down into the water from the saliva, or if cloudy saliva has sunk to the bottom of the glass, you may have a candida problem.
What You Should Do to Help with Candida Overgrowth

There is a process that you can follow to control candida overgrowth. The important thing is that you execute the following five steps simultaneously:

1. Eliminate sugary foods that feed candida.

These include foods with sweeteners such as honey and fructose. In addition, you may want to limit the intake of fruits because they are high in sugar.

When buying processed meats, always read the ingredients because many contain sugar. In fact, read the ingredients list for all processed foods. You’ll be surprised just how many contain sweeteners. Of course, don’t forget that alcohol and many drinks, like a chai latte and coffee drinks, also have lots of sugar.

2. Strengthen your immune system.

This requires a healthy diet, high in lean proteins, good fats and low carbohydrates. All the foods you eat should be fresh and as natural as possible. This means limit processed foods so you eat fewer additives, heavy metals, pesticides and other food industry chemicals.

Another step in supporting a healthy immune system is to supplement with essential vitamins and minerals. The best way to understand what supplements you need is to ask your healthcare practitioner to administer a blood test. Some typical supplements that typically help fortify the immune system are:

  • Chlorella, a whole food that has many vitamins and minerals. It helps the body purge heavy metals and pesticides.
  • Vitamin C, one of the biggest immune system boosters. Since we get lots of Vitamin C from fruit, you are more likely to be Vitamin C deficient when limiting fruit intake to eliminate sugar from your diet. Vegetables rich in Vitamin C include kale, spinach, and broccoli.
  • Vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant that helps the body fight off infection. Foods rich in vitamin E include nuts, seeds and spinach.

3. Kill off candida overgrowth.

The most effective way to start getting rid of excess candida is to fortify your diet with anti-fungal foods. These include the following:

  • Raw garlic, which contains Sulfur compounds with anti-fungal properties. Fresh garlic is most potent, especially if you first crush it and wait about 10 minutes before consuming it. Of course, you can eat the garlic with a meal to conceal the taste. Just keep it raw.
  • Raw unfiltered apple cider vinegar, preferably Bragg brand. It is best to dilute 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in a glass of room temperature water. Then, drink 30-60 minutes before a meal.
  • Olive leaf extract, which contains a phenolic compound with antiviral and anti-fungal properties.
  • Pau d’arco, which is sold as a tea or as a capsule supplement.

Remember that taking too many supplements can be a strain on the liver, so always check with your healthcare provider if you plan to take several supplements at one time. The ideal way to supplement is to eat a large variety of organic raw vegetables.

4. Introduce more good bacteria into the digestive system.

It is essential that you re-establish the balance of candida and good bacteria in your body. The best way to do this is by eating foods rich in probiotics, or “friendly” bacteria. These are also called probiotics.

Probiotics are present in foods such as yogurt, sauerkraut, kimchi and kombucha. The best way to get high quality probiotics into your system is to make fermented vegetables at home. Probiotic drinks are also very easy to make at home.

As well, you can buy probiotic supplements with a minimum of 50 billion CFUs (colony forming units). If possible, purchase probiotic supplements that require refrigeration.

5. Stay calm and expect the best results from your healing process.

When your body is already compromised, the last thing you need is stress. Stress on its own can make all the other previous four steps ineffective. In fact, it may have been a culprit in candida overgrowth in the first place.

It is important to utilize several stress relieving techniques during your healing process to help you stay calm. These include exercise, meditation and yoga. Also, don’t forget to have some fun!

Another important aspect of staying stress-free is to take it easy on yourself. Do your best following the steps above, and always be patient and kind to yourself.

Finally, having the right mindset is just as important as following a healthy diet. If you believe that your self-care efforts will pay off in improved health, then that will be your end result. There is a reason why the placebo effect works! The mind is one of the most powerful healing tools, so don’t forget to use it.

About the Author
Anna Hunt is writer, yoga instructor, mother of three, and lover of healthy food. She’s the founder of Awareness Junkie, an online community paving the way for better health and personal transformation. She’s also the co-editor at Waking Times, where she writes about optimal health and wellness. Anna spent 6 years in Costa Rica as a teacher of Hatha and therapeutic yoga. She now teaches at Asheville Yoga Center and is pursuing her Yoga Therapy certification. During her free time, you’ll find her on the mat or in the kitchen, creating new kid-friendly superfood recipes.


This article (The Facts About Candida Overgrowth and How to Overcome It) was originally created and published by Waking Times and is published here under a Creative Commonslicense with attribution to Anna Hunt and It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution, author bio, and this copyright statement.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of Waking Times or its staff.

Jen Springer, 2016

3 Reasons You Can’t Get Rid Of Candida Yeast : HCL, estrogen, thyroid.
  1. The first thing most people miss is restoring the pH to the proper level in the stomach. pH of 2-4. If you don’t get to that level your stomach doesn’t catalyze the pancreas to make enzymes, the gallbladder to make bile, and the proper growth of acid loving good bacteria: acidophilus. Betaine HCL is what you need before any other supplements. SIBO is caused by low stomach HCL. Low good bacteria is from low stomach HCL. The right pH needs to be first before anything else.
  2. Estrogen dominance / imbalance. Many people have estrogen higher than testosterone and progesterone. Even excess environmental estrogenic toxins. This causes high insulin and blood sugar levels. High blood sugar is YEAST FOOD!!! Yeast loves sugar. You be come a puffy loaf of bread.
  3. The thyroid!!! The candida likes to grow when the body is not operating at 98.6. When the body is low, like 97.5, the body can’t cook off the pathogens and keep them in check.
In my search for answers I found this:
This chiropractor resolved her candida with this treatment:
  • 1 drop clove essential oil mixed with olive or coconut oil in a capsule in the am and pm (so twice a day)  
  • Increase to a maximum dose of 6 drops of clove in oil per capsule twice a day
  • Use for 14 days then take a break for a week or two
  • It might take a few cycles to resolve
  • She noticed a “yeast dump” on day 8 of the first cycle
  • Clove oil is supposedly 75% more effective than Nystatin
  • Make sure you use reputable sources for all ingredients
Please work with your medical practitioner on all treatment suggestions.

For more:



Girl on a Public Health Mission

Girl on a public health mission

School’s youngest donor supports Lyme research

Olivia Goodreau and Dr Ying Zhang

Olivia Goodreau presents Dr. Ying Zhang with a $25,000 grant from her LivLyme Foundation

Budding scientist. Social entrepreneur. Lyme disease patient. Philanthropist. App developer. The youngest donor in Bloomberg School history. At age 13, Olivia Goodreau is all these things and more.

According to the Centers for Disease Control, as many as 350,000 Americans are diagnosed annually with Lyme disease, a vector-borne illness spread by ticks. When Olivia was six, she contracted Lyme disease but her family did not see the tick, nor did she develop the characteristic bullseye rash. As a second-grader, she began experiencing body aches, brain fog, headaches, a hand tremor, and blackouts. Her teacher and parents grew increasingly concerned and she soon could barely get out of bed.

Olivia experienced firsthand the difficulty of getting an accurate Lyme disease diagnosis. After visiting more than 50 doctors over 18 months and enduring a barrage of tests, she was finally diagnosed with Lyme disease and put on antibiotics. But the delay in treatment meant that, until a cure is discovered, Olivia will never be completely free of Lyme disease.

Fast Olivia facts:

  • She loves art.
  • She misses 38 school days each year because of Lyme, but she’s still a great student.
  • She takes 86 pills a day to control Lyme disease and its symptoms.
  • She’d love to enroll and do Lyme research at one of universities where her LivLyme Foundation has made a grant.
  • The first and second LivLyme Gala events in 2017 and 2018 have raised more than $500,000 to support Lyme disease research and assist pediatric patients with the costs of treatment.
  • In December 2017, Olivia spoke to the US Department of Health and Human Services Working Group on Tickborne Diseases.
  • In February 2018, Olivia launched the TickTrack app to educate users and enable them to report and track ticks using geolocation. TickTrack is now available globally in multiple languages, and Olivia will share the data collected with scientists.

Liv in the Lymelight

As Olivia and her parents began to meet more other children with Lyme, she learned that many families couldn’t afford their medications. Others were living in their car so their child could see a doctor and get the necessary drugs. Olivia was deeply moved and wanted to do something to help.

At age 11, Olivia’s involvement with Lyme awareness activities quickly escalated from doing the Lyme Challenge to starting a Facebook page called Olivia and Lyme to speaking to 300 medical professionals at the invitation of Lyme specialist and advocate Dr. Richard Horowitz.

Philanthropic footsteps

Olivia’s mother, Holiday Goodreau, says that she and her husband “have raised our kids to be very giving and get involved and do things for others,” including taking an active role in the family’s philanthropy to support early childhood learning and end homelessness in Colorado.

While helping her mother set tables before a fundraising gala, Olivia said, “Mom, you do all this great stuff for other people, I want to do something for Lyme disease. It will be called the LivLyme Foundation, because my name is Liv and I’m living with Lyme.” That was in January 2017.

Olivia identified her philanthropic goals: raise $10,000 to help children afford treatment and to support research for a cure. The first LiveLyme Gala raked in more than 20 times that modest goal.

When Olivia’s mother heard that Olivia had invited Dr. Horowitz to speak at her gala, “My jaw dropped, because we hadn’t talked about it or planned anything. So we got the foundation started and vowed to do it right, not just as a little side hobby.

Within three hours after the LiveLyme Foundation website went live, the first grant application was submitted.

“It was powerful and humbling,” Holiday remembers, “to read through the applications from 49 families in 22 states. Every family is struggling to help their child.”

Researching the researchers

Olivia and Dr Zhang in lab

To decide which scientists she wanted to support, Olivia scoured the web and found the very best researchers who were on a path to make progress against Lyme disease. She chose Lyme specialists at three universities, including Ying Zhang, MD, PhD in the Bloomberg School’s Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, who is pursuing new treatments, vaccines, and diagnostic tests for Lyme disease.

In partnership with the Global Lyme Alliance, the LivLyme Foundation is supporting Dr. Zhang’s evaluation of the activity of essential oils and how they can enhance the power of antibiotics against Borrelia persisters and biofilms.

Olivia’s research didn’t stop at her computer screen. In November 2017, she visited Dr. Zhang’s lab at the Bloomberg School to witness the science of Lyme disease first hand.

“It was amazing, like something out of a movie!” she exclaimed. “I definitely want to come back. The coolest thing I got to see was the Lyme bacteria under the microscope.”

Olivia described Dr. Zhang as “super kind. We even Skyped!” He was a special guest at the April 2018 LivLyme Gala.

Many patients are suffering from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome or PTLDS, a poorly understood condition with no cure.  The support from the LivLyme Foundation will help us move closer to a cure.

—Ying Zhang, MD, PhD

When asked why she thinks people should give to support Lyme disease research, Olivia replied, “Everything helps! Your gift could mean that a child who has been suffering could feel much better.” We couldn’t have said it better.

Please join us in supporting the Bloomberg School’s new initiative to establish a Lyme Disease and Tick Institute dedicated to developing better methods to diagnose, cure and block transmission of Lyme disease.

For more information, please contact Heath Elliott, Associate Dean for External Affairs, at 410‑955‑5194.


For more on Dr. Zhang’s work:




To Sleep, Perchance to Dream

Earlier today I wrote about helping my husband try to unravel his crazy dreams.  This article shows this is not an individual occurrence but that many with neuro-Lyme struggle with it.

August 2, 2018

To Sleep, Perchance to Dream

by Jennifer Crystal

GLA writer and Lyme Warrior, Jennifer Crystal writes about her experience with “crazy dreams” as a result of neurological Lyme disease

Last night I had a dream that a college friend and I were attending a wedding. People from all walks of my life were there. I was running around trying to take care of my cousin’s baby while figuring out how to get on a boat.

When I later described the dream to a friend, she said, “That’s crazy!”

The dream did not seem crazy to me, given how crazy my dreams had once been as a result of neurological Lyme disease. When the Lyme bacterium, called a spirochete, crosses into the brain, it can cause a host of sleep disturbances, including insomnia and hallucinogenic dreams. My Lyme doctor said it was like the spirochetes had made the needle in my brain get stuck. He meant Lyme was making it impossible for me to sleep and, when I finally did doze off, causing vividly detailed rapid fire dreams—many of which were recurring. Some came in levels (there was a dream about me telling someone else about a previous dream); some that were so “active” that I woke up with sore muscles, more exhausted than when I went to bed. Inflammation in the brain caused by tick-borne illness is the reason for these sleep disturbances.

So dreams, like the one I described to my healthy friend, may have seemed crazy to her. But for a chronic neurological Lyme patient like me, it’s about as normal as I can hope to get. The dreams involved no major trauma, which often happens in the worst nightmares. There were no levels to the dream. That is, it wasn’t a lucid dream—I didn’t have the power to change the dream while I was experiencing it, something that often happens when the spirochetes are running rampant in my brain. Nor were they occurring at a hallucinogenic, rapid fire rate. The images were fuzzy and nonsensical, as most healthy dreams are.

Nights like the latter are a blessing to me now, 21 years after getting a tick bite that gave me Lyme disease, Ehrlichia and Babesia, and 10 years after suffering a relapse that brought me to the lowest point of these sleep disturbances.

Let me give you an example of one of my vivid, detailed dreams, recorded in my journal in 2005 (edited for clarity-notes are in parentheses):

I was driving to pick up my brother (I don’t really have a brother) in a police station that looked like a warehouse. The Dave Matthews song “Warehouse” was going through my head in the dream (and still is now that I’m awake). I was watching this scene like a movie. I saw my “brother” open a window upstairs and look down to see me in my car. It was like watching a detective movie. I realized he was able to open the window because it was a very old and rundown building that didn’t have air conditioning. Then I was no longer watching the dream as an observer, but was acting in as myself. I went upstairs to my “brother’s” office. He was on the phone with a Mrs. Vance who’d said she’d sent a check that had never arrived. When my “brother” said, “we send the money directly to the families,” I thought this was some kind of funeral home. Then I saw Mrs. Vance’s check  on the desk in front of me and also an envelope from her with $750 cash. I knew that $150 had been owed and that my” brother” was pocketing the other $600. When he hung up I started to say, “I won’t tell anyone,” but thought better of it because I thought he might kill me if he realized I knew what he was up to. He looked sort of wild and had these big sunglasses on. I said I was at a wedding and had come to pick him up because we needed someone who was good at having fun and pulling pranks and we knew he’d be the right person. He got excited and said, “Let’s go.” We went down the stairs and I realized he was the only one in the building. I asked if he always worked this late (even though it was still light out) and he said, “Well last week I only worked 98 hours.” We got outside and got in my car. I started driving but I couldn’t hit the brakes very well and kept almost crashing. I turned in to a gas station and said, “See, the turning radius isn’t even very good on this car, I can’t turn in to get to the right side of the pump.” My “brother” directed me. Then I was still in the dream, but once again not acting in it but instead watching it from afar like a scene. I said, “Wait, if I were in this dream, I wouldn’t want to have that” brother” with me because he’s bad.” So I replayed it so when he was on the phone I said, “I’m just going to go bring the car around.” Then I ran out and ran down the stairs and got in the car and locked the doors. I was trying to drive away before he came downstairs.

This is a good example of a detailed dream that has levels (at times I was in it, and at times I was observing it) and also one that becomes lucid (when I decide to change the course of the dream). Like most Lyme patients, I woke up so exhausted after a night of 15-20 of these types of dreams—all as detailed as this one, sometimes with a soundtrack or narration playing over them—that I didn’t have time or energy to process them. They were just another symptom that made it impossible for me to get the rest I needed. Most days, I woke up feeling hungover, like my brain was as a pinball machine.

For me and for other Lyme patients I’ve talked to, these crazy dreams are often mixed with hallucinogenic nightmares. For me, they involved trauma I’d never experienced in real life. I’d be burned alive or shot in an elevator. I’d be raped, sodomized, or stabbed. I always survived even though I shouldn’t have. I was afraid to tell anyone the details of those nightmares; I thought people would judge me for coming up with such ideas, or shake their heads and walk away because they didn’t want to hear about such horror.

With the help of my therapist, I found meaning in some of my dreams, such as the recurring one I described in this previous post. I learned that my nightmares were symbolic, too. The trauma in them were manifestations of things that had actually happened to my body. I wasn’t literally raped or sodomized, but my body had been violated, burned, and almost killed by spirochetes. And despite all odds, I had survived.

Eventually, with a combination of medications, neurofeedback, cranial sacral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and talk therapy, I got to a point where the dreams were still intense but not quite as detailed or awful or fast, at least not every night. I still have nights with rapid fire hallucinogenic nightmares, but they are the exception now, no longer the norm. And while the nightly activity in my brain is still busier than the average person’s, it’s manageable. The other night, I even woke myself up laughing in my sleep. There is light—even joy—at the end of the endless nights.

jennifer crystalOpinions expressed by contributors are their own.

Jennifer Crystal is a writer and educator in Boston. She is working on a memoir about her journey with chronic tick-borne illness. Contact her at

While I don’t remember my dreams (they pale in comparison to my husband’s) I remember feeling guilty because I seemed to spend more time with my infected husband than I did with my three teenagers whom we were homeschooling.
The reason for all this time spent talking with my husband on a daily basis was due to the crazy, hallucinogenic dreams he had which made him believe I was having an affair.  I’d get up in the middle of the night to use the bathroom and he’d awaken and accuse me of just coming home from somewhere – obviously having an affair. (Please understand I was a homeschool mom who pretty much was home 24/7 teaching children!  If I left the house it was for activities with the children or the grocery store.)  
The arguments and craziness that this caused in our marriage is beyond believable.  We were seriously two crazy people trying to life in a paradigm that makes nightmares look normal.  
This complex illness causes needless divorces & family upheaval due to this erratic, unbelievable behavior.  Even though both of us were infected, our symptoms were very different – with his having more psychological manifestations.  Thankfully, I dug into the literature and read about neuro-Lyme and psychiatric manifestations.  I read everything I could get my hands on by Drs. Bransfield, Marke, and Frid.  I learned that rage, hallucinations, depression, and even suicide can be a part of the Lyme/MSIDS picture.  I learned about the importance of effective treatment that kills pathogens while strengthening the immune system and properly detoxing the body from the dead debris.
Reading articles like Jennifer’s takes me back to a frightening time in my journey, but I’m happy to report those days are long gone and that effective treatment along with the hard work of discussing problems/issues as they came up worked.  (Please type “Lyme Disease treatment” into the search bar for more info)
We are still together after all these years with a new appreciation for life we never would have had without this valley.  All my initial symptoms were gynecological and I believe many of these TBI’s can be transmitted sexually.

Meet the Researcher: Kim Lewis, Ph.D.

July 27, 2018

Meet the Researcher: Kim Lewis, Ph.D.


NAME: Kim Lewis, Ph.D.
TITLE: University Distinguished Professor; Director, Antimicrobial Discovery Center; Department of Biology
INSTITUTION: Northeastern University

Dr. Lewis is one of the foremost scientists tackling Lyme disease. In 2015, Dr. Lewis’s published report in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy confirms GLA/Johns Hopkins original findings that the bacterium that causes Lyme disease forms dormant persister cells, which are known to survive antibiotics. He identified compounds for eliminating persister bacteria, and is also investigating the role of the microbiome in chronic Lyme disease.

lyme disease research
Dr. Kim Lewis, far right, with Drs. Ying Zhang, Klemen Strle, Nicole Baumgarth and Brian Fallon at GLA’s 2018 Research Symposium

GLA: What motivated you to focus on Lyme and tick-borne disease research?

KL: The challenge of a tough unsolved problem, and the promise of finding a cure for Lyme disease.

GLA: What discovery has been most gratifying?

KL: We identified two compounds that are highly active, and selective, against Borrelia burgdorferi in a mouse model of Lyme disease. These compounds hold the promise to rapidly treat acute Lyme and diminish development of PTLDS. If a dormant pathogen is contributing to PTLDS, these selective compounds will be able to eradicate the remaining bacteria. Finally, mixing these compounds into a bait may interrupt the cycle of transmission and eradicate Lyme disease.

GLA: Are you confident we’ll find a cure?   

KL: Yes. It is important to develop therapies that will work irrespective of the causes of PTLDS, and that is what we are focusing on.

GLA-funded research grants with Dr. Lewis include:

“Persister Cells and Antibiotic Tolerance in Borrelia burgdorferi” (2013-14)
“Formation of Persisters in Bb and Their Elimination” (2014-15)
“Discovery of New Antibiotics and Combos” (2016-17)
“Treatment of Lyme Disease” (2015-16, 2017-18)

Hear Dr. Lewis discuss his finding on Chronic Lyme disease:


(a sample)

Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells Bijaya Sharmaa, Autumn V. Browna, Nicole E. Matlucka, Linden T. Hub and Kim Lewis   Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. August 2015 vol. 59 no. 8 4616-4624 


For More:

Can These Essential Oils Help Lyme Patients Overcome Chronic Candida?

Can These Essential Oils Help Lyme Disease Patients Overcome Chronic Candida Infections?

By Greg Lee Published on


photo credit:

For people diagnosed with Lyme disease that have persistent Candida infections

Have you ever been frustrated by a really slow computer? A month ago, I was making a video and it took f-o-r-e-v-e-r to edit the final version. The computer was being choked by a group of programs called “Bloatware.” These programs ate up huge amounts of disk space and processing which turned my computer into a slow moving tortoise.

How is Bloatware that slows down your computer similar to recurring Candida infections in people also diagnosed with Lyme disease?

Just like Bloatware, Candida can slow you down by eating up your valuable energy and increasing inflammation

According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Candida lives on the skin and in the digestive tract without normally causing symptoms. Candida can cause local infections in the mouth, throat, esophagus and in the vagina. Candida can also cause systemic infections which affect the blood, heart, brain, eyes, bones, and other parts of the body1. Symptoms found in persistent Candida infections can include leaky gut, irritable bowel syndrome2, chronic fatigue3, arthritis4, clinical depression5, cerebral abscesses6, neck stiffness, seizures7, fever, chills, weakness, and death8. An immune system weakened by Lyme disease may make people more vulnerable to Candida infections.

Lyme disease patients may be more susceptible to recurring Candida infections 

A Lyme disease infection may weaken the immune system and make people more susceptible to opportunistic Candida infections9. Also, many Lyme patients receive prolonged antibiotic therapy which can kill off healthy gut microbes and can lead to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), leaky gut and Candida overgrowth10. Another theory for chronic Candida in Lyme patients is an inability to produce the necessary inflammatory compounds for eliminating yeast infections.

Chronic Candida infection patients may not be able to produce important anti-fungal inflammatory compounds

In a UK study on chronic Candida infection patients, Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-12 (IL-12) production was significantly lower and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production was much higher11. The study indicates that Candida patients over produce IL-6 which can lead to decreased IL-12. Lower IL-12 is correlated with the inability to clear fungal infections. Patients with gastrointestinal Candida have higher levels of Interleukin-17 (IL-17) which promotes fungal colonization12. Not only Candida, but also Lyme infections can lead to excess inflammation production.

Excess inflammatory compounds may also prevent clearing of Lyme as well as Candida

Increased IL-6 leading to decreased levels of IL-12 may enable Lyme and Candida infections to persist. In neurological Lyme patients, higher levels of inflammatory compounds including IL-6, IL-2, Interleukin-5 (IL-5), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and CXCL13 were found in spinal fluid13. In a Borrelia infected mice study, decreased IL-12 lead to decreased arthritis and increased levels of Lyme disease in tissues14. In another study, increased IL-17 led to the development of destructive arthritis in mice infected with Borrelia15. Drug resistant strains of Candida may also lead to persistent yeast infections in Lyme patients.

Candida can persist despite multiple anti-fungal medications

In the US and Canada, multi-drug resistant strains of Candida have been found in immune compromised patients16. Candida can also produce a protective slime called a “biofilm” which may make infections up to 1000x more drug resistant17. As a result of resistant and biofilm forms of Candida, Lyme patients undergoing antibiotic therapy may experience recurring Candida infections.

Are there natural remedies that can help to reduce recurring symptoms by targeting antibiotic resistant and biofilm forms of Candida?

Fortunately, there are five essential oils that have been effective against drug resistant and biofilm forms of Candida

In a multiple studies, essential oils were effective at inhibiting drug resistant forms of Candida than anti-fungal medications. Other essential oils were highly effective at reducing Candida biofilms. Many of these essential oils have been used safely for years in our food supply18 and to help patients with Candida and Lyme disease to reduce relapsing symptoms. Microparticle “liposome” essential oils have greater penetration into organs and tissues in animal and lab studies19.

Anti-Drug Resistant Candida Essential Oil #1: Clove Bud

Clove bud essential oil demonstrated considerable anti-fungal properties against Fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida in one lab study20. In another study, clove bud exhibited anti-biofilm activity against Candida species biofilms21. In another lab study, clove bud inhibited IL-6, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-1022.

Clove bud essential oil eradicated all Lyme disease persister cells and dissolved biofilms in a lab study23. In multiple animal and lab studies, clove bud oil has also been effective against biofilms produced by Staphylococcus aureus24, E. Coli25, and Aeromonas hydrophila26. In multiple lab studies, clove oil inhibits Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli, B. cereus, Listeria innocua, Morganella morganii, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas species27. This oil also posses potent anti-fungal properties against Aspergillus flavus28.

Clove bud oil use is cautioned in pregnancy. This oil has anti-coagulant properties and is cautioned with the use of diabetic medications, anticoagulant medications, after major surgery, peptic ulcer, hemophilia, and other bleeding disorders. It may interact with pethidine, MAOIs or SSRIs. It is also cautioned against using this oil on diseased or damaged, or hypersensitive skin, and with children under 2 years old This oil has US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status29. Similar to clove bud oil, tea tree has excellent anti-Candida properties.

Anti-Drug Resistant Candida Essential Oil #2: Tea Tree

In lab studies, tea tree oil inhibited drug resistant Candida strains30 and was effective at inhibiting biofilm growth31. Tea tree oil was also effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae32, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its biofilm,33 Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus34, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum35, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma fermentans36, group A streptococcus37, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Pyrenophora graminea38, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum39 in lab and animal studies.

In an endotoxin lab study, tea tree essential oil was effective at lowering inflammatory compounds IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-1040. In another lab study, tea tree oil decreased IL-2 and increased anti-inflammatory compound IL-441. Caution: some cases have been reported where tea tree oil caused allergic dermatitis when placed on the skin42. In five cases, high doses of this oil internally, 0.5-1.0 ml/kg, have produced central nervous system symptoms of loss of coordination, drowsiness, unconsciousness, diarrhea, and abdominal pain43. Just like tea tree, geranium essential oil has multiple anti-Candida properties.

Anti-Drug Resistant Candida Essential Oil #3: Geranium

In multiple lab studies, geranium oil inhibited Fluconazole resistant Candida strains44 and inhibited multiple Candida species biofilms45. Geranium oil was also effective at significantly decreasing inflammatory compounds IL-6, IL-10, IL-2 and COX-2 levels when exposed to Candida proteins in another lab study46. In a mouse study, this oil inhibited the degranulation of mast cells47.

The use of geranium oil is cautioned with diabetes medications, drugs metabolized by CYP2B6, and has a low risk of skin sensitization48. Just like geranium, savory reduced resistant forms of Candida.

Anti-Drug Resistant Candida Essential Oil #4: Savory

Due to their compositional similarity, winter and summer savory essential oils are grouped together here. In one lab study, winter savory essential oil was highly effective at inhibiting drug resistant strains of Candida glabrata49. In another lab study, summer savory essential oil demonstrated substantial anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans and it’s biofilms50.

Since these oils may inhibit blood clotting; use is cautioned with anticoagulant medications, major surgery, peptic ulcer, hemophilia, other bleeding disorders. Use is also cautioned with diabetic medications, use on mucous membranes due to a moderate risk of irritation and use on hypersensitive, diseased or damaged skin due to a low risk of skin irritation. Use is also cautioned in children under 2 years of age51. Similar to savory, lemon has demonstrated anti-Candida properties.

Anti-Drug Resistant Candida Essential Oil #5: Lemon

In lab studies, lemon essential oil was effective at inhibiting drug-resistant Candida species52. This oil was also 100% effective at reducing a mixed species Candida albicans and E. Coli biofilm53. If applied to the skin, skin must not be exposed to sunlight or sunbed rays for 12 hours54. These essential oils in combination may help to reduce relapsing symptoms caused by drug resistant and biofilm forms of Candida in patients with Lyme disease.

Essential oils may help to reduce recurring symptoms caused by antifungal resistant and biofilm forms of Candida

Similar to deleting the Bloatware off your computer to speed it up, a powerful combination of essential oils may help you to overcome energy draining and relapsing symptoms caused by drug resistant and biofilm forms of Candida. Formulating these remedies into microparticle liposomes may enhance the stability and extend the anti-fungal activity of these essential oils. Since these essential oils have cautions and contraindications on their use, work with a Lyme literate essential oil practitioner to develop a proper, safe, and effective strategy for your condition.

– Greg

“Recitas, author of ‘The Plan,’ calls MSM the wonder supplement for your gut. It can alleviate allergy symptoms, helps with detoxification, eliminates free radicals, and improves cell permeability. She states that with given time, MSM will start to actually repair damage caused by leaky gut – a common problem with Lyme/MSIDS patients. It can also help the body’s ability to absorb nutrients from food. Many Lyme patients struggle with paralysis of the gut where the muscles of the stomach and intestines stop being efficient. MSM helps this muscle tone as well.”














FREE Online IBS & SIBO Summit – Sept. 3-10, 2018  (Register here and watch short video)

The IBS & SIBO SOS™ Summit is online and FREE from September 3-10, 2018!

Left untreated, these pervasive digestion issues can have devastating effects on your quality of life — but there ARE solutions and our world-renowned experts are here to share them! Anyone who suffers from IBS, SIBO, leaky gut or related digestive disorders will benefit greatly from their cutting-edge research and education — information that’s available here first!

Join us at The IBS & SIBO SOS™ Summit to learn more about:

  • Identifying the root cause of your digestive struggles
  • Saving money from wasted doctor visits and ineffective treatments
  • Identifying which foods cause your flares
  • Naturopathic and conventional principles important to gut healing
  • Strategies for food reintroduction
  • Treatments, protocols and diets for IBS and/or SIBO
  • And more!

The IBS & SIBO SOS™ Summit is hosted by health advocate and popular TV personality Shivan Sarna. Shivan asks the questions YOU would ask if you were in the room with these experts. She draws on her own experience with painful digestive issues and years of failed treatments (alternative and conventional) to be YOUR champion for improved health &mdashl and she’s here to share her knowledge with you!

Meet Your Host

Shivan Sarna

Shivan Sarna

Shivan Sarna has played many roles in her life: daughter, wife, friend, yoga instructor, successful TV host. Now, she’s a passionate SIBO / IBS health educator and advocate. In 2015, Shivan was diagnosed with SIBO (Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth) after a lifetime of struggling with digestive issues. She decided to turn her past pain and victory over SIBO into a tangible way to help others suffering with similar health challenges. Shivan made her vision a reality when SIBO SOS™ was born — a movement for awareness, advocacy and patient empowerment.