Archive for the ‘Tickborne Relapsing Fever’ Category

Borrelia Crocidurae in Vaginal Swab After Miscarriage

2019 Dec 18. pii: S1201-9712(19)30493-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.12.020. [Epub ahead of print]

Detection of Borrelia crocidurae in a vaginal swab after miscarriage, rural Senegal, Western Africa.


Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) borrelias are one of the main causes of fever in rural Africa and can cause miscarriages. Here, we detected, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, Borrelia crocidurae in a self-vaginal sampling as a probable cause of spontaneous miscarriage.



When will mainstream medicine wake up?  When will they connect the dots that borrelia is all over genitilia?  That there is a real probability it can be sexually and congenitally transmitted?  When will they quit saying that because something is “rare” it doesn’t happen?  If you are the sorry sucker who contracted it that way – are you unimportant?

Borrelia is defying all boxes people attempt to put it into.

According to this paper written in 2013, Borrelia crocidurae, associated with tick-borne relapsing fever, is stated as being benign in one breath and then extremely neurotropic and can cross the blood/brain barrier and persist, as well as cause encephalitis and meningitis, in the next breath.  None of which are benign in my book:

And now it’s been found in a vaginal swab after a miscarriage.
This is a perfect example of how research for all things tick related is still in the Dark Ages.

Immunosuppressive Proteins Found in Tick Saliva – In Every Life Stage

2019 Nov 10:101332. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.101332. [Epub ahead of print]

Immunosuppressive effects of sialostatin L1 and L2 isolated from the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Schulze.


Tick saliva contains immunosuppressants which are important to obtain a blood meal and enhance the infectivity of tick-borne pathogens. In Japan, Ixodes persulcatus is a major vector for Lyme borreliosis pathogens, such as Borrelia garinii, as well as for those causing relapsing fever, such as B. miyamotoi. To date, little information is available on bioactive salivary molecules, produced by this tick. Thus, in this study, we identified two proteins, I. persulcatus derived sialostatin L1 (Ip-sL1) and sL2 (Ip-sL2), as orthologs of I. scapularis derived sL1 and sL2. cDNA clones of Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 shared a high identity with sequences of sL1 and sL2 isolated from the salivary glands of I. scapularis. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were expressed in the salivary glands throughout the life of the tick. In addition, Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were expressed even before the ticks started feeding, and their expression continued during blood feeding. Recombinant Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were developed to characterize the proteins via biological and immunological analyses. These analyses revealed that both Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2  had inhibitory effects on cathepsins L and S. Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 inhibited the production of IP-10, TNFα, and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Additionally, Ip-sL1 significantly impaired BMDC maturation. Taken together, these results suggest that Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 confer immunosuppressive functions and appear to be involved in the transmission of pathogens by suppressing host immune responses, such as cytokine production and dendritic cell maturation. Therefore, further studies are warranted to investigate the immunosuppressive functions of Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 in detail to clarify their involvement in pathogen transmission via I. persulcatus.


For more:

NY Grants Approval for IGeneX’s Newly Developed Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever ImmunoBlot Tests

New York State Grants Approval for IGeneX’s Newly Developed Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) ImmunoBlot Tests

TBRF ImmunoBlots (IgM and IgG) represent a quantum leap in testing for tick-borne diseases, particularly for patients with Lyme-like symptoms



MILPITAS, Calif., Oct. 8, 2019 /PRNewswire/ — The Division of Laboratories of the Department of Health of the State of New York has approved IGeneX’s newly developed Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) ImmunoBlots (IgM and IgG), making them immediately available to New Yorkpractitioners.

Until recently, diagnostic tests for TBRF have been grossly insensitive and have not been able to detect many of the ever-growing list of species and strains of TBRF Borrelia carried by hard and soft ticks. The new IGeneX ImmunoBlots overcome these obstacles with the ability to detect antibodies to TBRF Borrelia species including, but not limited to, B. hermsii, B. miyamotoi, and B. turicatae.

TBRF is often considered a Lyme disease imitator because both TBRF and Lyme sufferers display many similar symptoms, such as high fever, chills, and headache, often leading to misdiagnosis. Moreover, some of the Borrelia that cause TBRF are transmitted by the same ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Therefore, it is important for physicians to test for both TBRF and Lyme.

“We are very excited to be able to offer the TBRF ImmunoBlots to physicians in New York State,” said Dr. Jyotsna Shah, President of IGeneX. “Doctors use to call me and say ‘my patients have Lyme-like symptoms. Why are your tests negative?’ We now know that their symptoms might have been due to TBRF Borrelia infection. These new TBRF ImmunoBlot tests will help patients in this group, as well as patients with Lyme and TBRF Borrelia mixed infections.”

The accuracy of the TBRF ImmunoBlot has been established. The specificity is 98.5% for IgM and IgG based on a study performed on 212 well characterized samples, of which 50 were provided by the CDC. Additionally, the TBRF ImmunoBlots can detect the full spectrum of disease: early, active and late-stage disease.

For more information on IGeneX and the TBRF ImmunoBlot tests, please visit

About IGeneX
For over 25 years, IGeneX has been at the forefront of research and development of diagnostic testing for Lyme disease, TBRF, Bartonella, and other tick-borne diseases. IGeneX arms its talented scientists with the most cutting-edge technology available to enable them to find new solutions that challenge the status quo of testing for Lyme and associated tick-borne diseases. The mission of IGeneX is to aid practitioners in their diagnosis of tick-borne illnesses by providing the most comprehensive testing possible. Learn more at:

Media Contact:
Joseph Sullivan 


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More on Relapsing Fever:

Line Immunoblot Assay for Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever and Findings in Patient Sera From Australia, Ukraine, & the USA

Line Immunoblot Assay for Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever and Findings in Patient Sera from Australia, Ukraine and the USA

Healthcare 2019, 7(4), 121;
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lyme Disease and Related Tickborne Infections)
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by spirochete bacteria of the genus Borrelia termed relapsing fever Borreliae (RFB). TBRF shares symptoms with Lyme disease (LD) caused by related Lyme disease Borreliae (LDB). TBRF and LD are transmitted by ticks and occur in overlapping localities worldwide. Serological detection of antibodies used for laboratory confirmation of LD is not established for TBRF. A line immunoblot assay using recombinant proteins from different RFB species, termed TBRF IB, was developed and its diagnostic utility investigated. The TBRF IBs were able to differentiate between antibodies to RFB and LDB and had estimated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 70.5%, 99.5%, 97.3%, and 93.4%, respectively, based on results with reference sera from patients known to be positive and negative for TBRF. The use of TBRF IBs and analogous immunoblots for LD to test sera of patients from Australia, Ukraine, and the USA with LD symptoms revealed infection with TBRF alone, LD alone, and both TBRF and LD. Diagnosis by clinical criteria alone can, therefore, underestimate the incidence of TBRF. TBRF IBs will be useful for laboratory confirmation of TBRF and understanding its epidemiology worldwide. View Full-Text

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