Archive for the ‘Mycoplasma’ Category

Co-infections Among COVID-19 Patients: The Need for Combination Therapy With Non-Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Agents?

Co-infections among patients with COVID-19: The need for combination therapy with non-anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents?

Under a Creative Commons license
open access


Co-infection has been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but there is limited knowledge on co-infection among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence of co-infection was variable among COVID-19 patients in different studies, however, it could be up to 50% among non-survivors. Co-pathogens included bacteria, such as

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Chlamydia pneumonia
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Candida species
  • Aspergillus flavus
  • viruses such as influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus

Influenza A was one of the most common co-infective viruses, which may have caused initial false-negative results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Laboratory and imaging findings alone cannot help distinguish co-infection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Newly developed syndromic multiplex panels that incorporate SARS-CoV-2 may facilitate the early detection of co-infection among COVID-19 patients. By contrast, clinicians cannot rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection by ruling in other respiratory pathogens through old syndromic multiplex panels at this stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for coinfection among COVID-19 patients. Clinicians can neither rule out other co-infections caused by respiratory pathogens by diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection nor rule out COVID-19 by detection of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogens.

After recognizing the possible pathogens causing co-infection among COVID-19 patients, appropriate antimicrobial agents can be recommended.



This would explain why COVID-19 does not resemble a simple virus, just as Lyme disease doesn’t present identically from individual to individual. Lyme/MSIDS is also best treated with combination therapy; however, most regular practitioners follow the antiquated and unscientific CDC treatment guidelines which haven’t worked for over 40 years (which in a nutshell is 21 days of doxycycline for all despite body weight and coinfections).

With each day there seems to be more and more similarities to Lyme/MSIDS in that cases are complex and individual. Medicine needs to acknowledge and embrace this complexity:

This also explains why things like antibiotics and anti-parasitics work.  The pathogen list did not include tick-borne pathogens but should, as undoubtedly many of these people could very well have undiagnosed infections that COVID-19, much like vaccines, can reactivate latent infections:

Is Your Child Crazy, or Sick? Mental Illness vs. Medical Disorder

Is your child crazy, or sick? Mental illness vs. medical disorder




Can Lyme Disease Lead to Bladder Problems?

Can Lyme Disease Lead To Bladder Problems?

Lyme disease can cause many disparate symptoms over the course of its progression. It’s often called ‘The Great Imitator’ because many of its generalised symptoms resemble the symptoms of other, more prominent chronic conditions. This makes it very difficult to diagnose, and misdiagnosis rates are suspected to be extremely high. Compounding this is the fact that chronic Lyme is not widely recognised as a legitimate disorder. Despite many thousands of people suffering from long-term Lyme symptoms, hugely different from the accepted acute symptoms, the condition remains an outlier. Therefore, patient and doctor education on Lyme disease in all its forms is not as good as it should be. Many symptoms fall by the wayside because of this, and either go uninvestigated or misdiagnosed. Bladder issues might not be the first thing you associate with Lyme disease; but can Lyme disease cause bladder problems?

What is Lyme disease?

Lyme disease was christened in the town of Old Lyme, Connecticut, in 1975. This is relatively recent for a major disease, which speaks of its insidious nature. Lyme is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans via the deer (or black-legged) tick in America, and the castor bean tick in Europe. Ticks are conduits of disease-causing bacteria, and often carry many different strains simultaneously. However, not every tick carries Borrelia burgdorferi and not every tick bite from those that do will result in Lyme.

Although the disease is often associated with America, particularly the north-eastern states, it is a global issue. Lyme rates remain alarmingly high in Europe as well as the U.S., with global warming compounding the issue. As the global temperature increases, ticks are able to live longer and migrate further, thereby increasing the instances of Lyme all over the world.

Image by Meli1670 on Pixabay: Despite many thousands of people suffering from long-term Lyme symptoms, the condition remains an outlier.

Acute vs. Chronic Lyme

The initial symptoms of Lyme present much like the flu. They manifest a day or two after the tick bite, and often involve a headache, fatigue, aches and fever – standard flu symptoms. The calling card of Lyme is a distinctive bullseye-shaped rash, which is present at the site of the bite in the majority of cases. If this is present, Lyme can be conclusively diagnosed. However, it is often overlooked, as many times people don’t realise they’ve been bitten. If treated with antibiotics, acute Lyme can be resolved rapidly and successfully for many patients. However, if that window is missed, Lyme will progress to its chronic long-term form, bringing with it a whole host of new, problematic symptoms.

Chronic Lyme represents an interplay between infection symptoms and inflammation symptoms. The former is caused by the underlying Borrelia infection, while the latter is caused by the body’s exaggerated response to the persistent bacteria. Because of this, a wide spectrum of symptoms is possible, varying in severity depending on the patient. The highly resistant Borrelia bacteria can travel and infect various parts of the body, including the neurological system and the pulmonary system.

Can Lyme disease lead to bladder problems?

Can Lyme disease affect your bladder? Some experts say it might. Bladder conditions might seem inferior to more severe issues relating to the brain and heart. But anyone who’s suffered from bladder pain can testify that it’s not a symptom to be taken lightly. The uniform name for frequent urination, bladder pain and inflammation is interstitial cystitis (IC), although a diagnosis of this disorder often means that the root cause is unknown. So does Lyme disease cause interstitial cystitis?

Lyme specialists are claiming there is a frequent crossover between Lyme symptoms and bladder issues, although not many studies have been conducted on this apparent link. There is seemingly also a connection between stomach issues, a common complaint of Lyme patients, and bladder problems. An animal study, conducted in 2006, found that in rodents, Borrelia burgdorferi is most often found in the bladder. While this and the anecdotal evidence are intriguing, it remains an unexplored area in the field of Lyme disease.

Image by Qaudronet_Webdesign on Pixabay: Can Lyme disease cause frequent urination? Some experts are suggesting it might.

Another, more recent study has provided a more concrete link in humans. This one found that voiding dysfunction (a catchall term used to describe poor coordination between the bladder muscle and the urethra) can appear as an early or late stage symptom of Lyme. Micturition (urination) disorders can subsequently occur via two paths. The first involves the Borrelia bacteria directly invading the bladder. The second occurs as a by-product of neuroborreliosis, a symptom of Lyme caused by the Borrelia bacteria breaching the blood-brain barrier and inflaming the brain. This is a serious manifestation of chronic Lyme disease, which has repercussions for many different areas of the body.

Seven out of seven patients who suffered from Lyme encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain) reported reflex response problems with their bladders.

While it seems conclusive to say that there is some link between chronic Lyme disease and bladder problems, most doctors won’t have the necessary Lyme education to correctly diagnose it as such. Lyme specialists (like BCA-clinic in Germany) are few and far between; and until more medical professionals are aware of the insidious dangers of chronic Lyme in all its potential forms, patients will continue to suffer sustained misdiagnoses.

Featured image by mohamed_hassan on Pixaba


For more:


People with interstitial cystitis feel like they have a bladder infection that never goes away. It doesn’t respond to antibiotics, and urine cultures are typically negative. Because these patients are often treated repeatedly with antibiotics, however, they frequently end up having chronic urinary tract infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria induced by taking antibiotics. The condition occurs more often in women than men at a 5:1 ratio.

I’m starting to hear from chronic Lyme patients who suffer from bladder pain and symptoms consistent with IC. I’m also hearing from men with chronic Lyme who have bladder symptoms and chronic prostatitis (chronic infection of the prostate gland).

And, interestingly, remembering back to patients from the past, sufferers of IC frequently had chronic pain in other areas of the body. Many of them also had fatigue and symptoms common to fibromyalgia and chronic Lyme disease.

And, according to Dr. Rawls, a former OBGYN,

This makes me believe there has to be a microbial connection. Borrelia, the microbe commonly associated with Lyme disease, could be a culprit. However, I would lay odds on mycoplasma and a closely related bacterium called ureaplasma. About 75% of chronic Lyme disease sufferers have been found to harbor at least one species of mycoplasma.

According to Garth Nicolson, who’s wife survived a lethal form of bioweaponized Mycoplasma,

90% of evaluated ALS patients had Mycoplasma. 100% of ALS patients with Gulf War Syndrome had Mycoplasma and nearly all of those were specifically the weaponized M. fermentans incognitus.

*One of the hallmark symptoms of Mycoplasma is fatigue*

And the bad news for us is that Nicholson’s experience has found Mycoplasma to be the number one Lyme coinfection, and similar to other coinfections can be supposedly cleared for years only to reappear when conditions are right.

His latest paper on treating Myco:

The bioweaponized form of Mycoplasma was designed to go undetected.  It doesn’t have a cell wall, making it tough to treat.

Zoonotic Diseases & Why We Are So Interested in Bats (Bartonella, Mycoplasma, & Coronavirus)

Zoonotic Diseases and Why We Are So Interested in Bats

Pathogenic Mycoplasma Infections in Chronic Illnesses: General Considerations in Selecting Conventional and Integrative Treatments

Pathogenic Mycoplasma Infections in Chronic Illnesses: General Considerations in Selecting Conventional and Integrative Treatments

Author(s)  Garth L. Nicolson
Department of Molecular Pathology, The Institute for Molecular Medicine, Huntington Beach, California, USA.


The presence of pathogenic mycoplasmas in various chronic illnesses and their successful suppression using conventional and integrative medicine approaches are reviewed. Evidence gathered over the last three decades has demonstrated the presence of pathogenic mycoplasma species in the blood, body fluids and tissues from patients with a variety of chronic clinical conditions: atypical pneumonia, asthma and other respiratory conditions; oral cavity infections; urogenital conditions; neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases; autoimmune diseases; immunosuppressive diseases; inflammatory diseases; and illnesses and syndromes of unknown origin, such as fatiguing illnesses.
Only recently have these small intracellular bacteria received attention as possible causative agents, cofactors or opportunistic infections or co-infections in these and other conditions. Their clinical management is often inadequate, primarily because of missed diagnosis, under- and inadequate treatment and the presence of persister or dormant microorganisms due to biofilm, resistence and other mechanisms.
Pathogenic Mycoplasma species infections have been suppressed slowly by anti-microbial and integrative treatments, resulting in gradual reductions in morbidity, but not in every patient. Even if mycoplasmas are not a cause or an initial trigger for many chronic illnesses, they appear to play important roles in the inception, progression, morbidity and relapse of chronic illnesses in rather large patient subsets. Ignoring such infections can result in failure to achieve eventual patient recovery, even with application of potentially curative treatments.
As Dr. Breitshwerdt is the Bart Guru, Dr. Nicolson is the Mycoplasma King.  Both are involved intimately with pathogens that have changed their lives.  We owe these men a great debt as without their expertise and fortitude, we would be completely in the dark.  To read about Dr. Nicolson’s experience with bioweaponized Mycoplasma read the provocative book, “Project Daylily.”  I notice that he dedicated this article to his deceased wife who survived a lethal mycoplasma infection.
Please refer to the full-length article in the link at the top of the story but I’ve highlighted a few things below on how Mycoplasma evades the immune system as well as effective treatment.  There’s much, much more in the full-length article you should understand.
According to Dr. Nicolson, 80% of Lyme/MSIDS patients also have Mycoplasma.
CFS/ME patients according to PCR have various mycoplasmas.
Excerpt from section 2 on Host Response Systems:
Pathogenic mycoplasmas can evade immune recognition and destruction by undergoing rapid surface antigenic variations [7] [27]. Even with their slow intracellular growth rates, by rapidly altering their cell surface antigenic structures as well as modulating host immune responses, pathogenic mycoplasmas can evade host surveillance mechanisms [7] [27]. This helps explain the chronic nature of mycoplasmal infections and the inability of hosts to completely suppress pathogenic mycoplasmal infections via host responses that are effective against other more rapidly growing bacteria [27].
Excerpt from 4.12 Fatiguing Illnesses:
The most common fatiguing illness is chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or myalgic encephalomyelitis. This is an unexplained, long-term, persistent illness characterized by disabling fatigue plus additional signs and symptoms [98] [99]. Most if not all patients with CFS show evidence of chronic viral and bacterial infections (reviewed in [45] [47] ). In fact, the odds ratio for the presence of chronic infections was calculated to be 18.0 (p < 0.001), suggesting that CFS patients have a very high probability of multiple chronic infections [100]. The most commonly found infections (by PCR of blood monocytes) were various pathogenic species of mycoplasmas [100] [101].  M. pneumoniae was the most common mycoplasma species found, followed by M. fermentans, M. hominis, and M. penetrans [101].
Excerpt from Section 5 Treatment of Pathogenic Mycoplasmal Infections:
In many cases mycoplasmal infections are not the definitive infection that defines the condition. An example of this is chronic Lyme disease, a complex clinical condition with Borrelia species as the prominent infectious agent but with other bacterial, parasite, and viral components as co-infections [47] [119] [120] [121]. Pathogenic mycoplasmal co-infections are important in such multiple infection diseases, being present in up to 80% of chronic Lyme diseases cases [120] [122].
Excerpt from Section 5.1 Antimicrobial Treatments:

The conventional antimicrobial treatments of pathogenic mycoplasmal infections usually involve systemic therapy with oral antibiotics, but the choice of antibiotic(s) depends to a certain degree on the mycoplasma species being treated. Since mycoplasmas do not have a cell wall, antibiotics that act on cell wall synthesis are ineffective [2] [3] [7] [40] [50] [59] [124] [125]. Instead, mycoplasmas are treated with anti-microbials that attack their metabolism, replication, synthetic machinery or other specific bacterial targets. Since most mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas are generally sensitive to tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline, among others), with some notable exceptions, these should be considered for frontline treatment, and quinolones (ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, among others) [125] [126] [127] [128] , as alternative treatment. However, M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium strains are especially sensitive to macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, among others), whereas M. hominis strains are usually resistant [126] [127] [128]. Ureaplasmas are moderately susceptible to macrolides [127] [128]. M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are generally more resistant to tetracyclines than other species [129] [130] , and M. hominis strains have been observed to be resistant to quinolones [131]. Some discussion of these antimicrobials and their uses in treating pathogenic mycoplasmal infections in chronic illnesses can be found in [132] [133] [134].

Treatment of pathogenic mycoplasma infections with oral antibiotics generally involves daily or pulsed treatment, such as every-other-day administration, at the maximum dose recommended for a particular antibiotic [132] [133] [134] [135]. Due to the cyclic nature of mycoplasmal proliferation some organizations recommend every-other-day antibiotic regimens [135].

Another important consideration is antibiotic resistance, which can occur during treatment [132] [138]. A major problem has been the shifting minimum inhibitory dose concentrations required to treat mycoplasmal infections with antibiotics, such as treatment of M. genitalium infections with oral tetracyclines [139]. This requires increasing dose levels or shifting to a different antibiotic regimen [132].

In most chronic illness patients pathogenic mycoplasma infections do not respond quickly to anti-microbial therapy, so long-term therapy must be considered [123] [132] [133] [135].

When antibiotics are used to treat pathogenic mycoplasmal infections, Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions (J-H reactions) usually occur [132] [141]. These are observed as temporary increases in the severity of signs and symptoms, and J-H reactions generally involve fevers, chills, muscle aches, fatigue, skin rashes, pain and other signs and symptoms related to cytokine release [141].

In most patients this has required prolonged treatments that have resulted in very slow recoveries, often requiring a year or more of treatment [48] [121] [123] [132] [133].

There are some alternative procedures that can increase the in vivo effectiveness of antimicrobial therapies. One method that has been used to increase the effectiveness of antibiotics has been the use of agents that increase the penetrability or the intracellular activities or effectiveness of antibiotics or other drugs. For example, the anti-malarial drug Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) has been used to alkalize intracellular compartments and improve antimicrobial entry and cytotoxic effects [121] [132] [145].


For more:, also known as Mono, is an infection that triggers Guillain-Barre as well as mycoplasma and cytomegalovirus.