Archive for the ‘Toxoplasmosis’ Category
Review, Open Access, Published:
The global serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in felids during the last five decades (1967–2017): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Parasites & Vectors volume 13, Article number: 82 (2020)
Felids (domestic and wild cats) are important in the epidemiology of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae.
We searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Science) for studies reporting seroprevalence of T. gondii in felids from 1967 to 31 December 2017. A total of 217 published papers, containing 223 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, comprised 59,517 domestic and 2733 wild cats from 1967 to 2017.
The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence was estimated to be 35% (95% CI: 32–38%) and 59% (95% CI: 56–63%) in domestic cats and wild felids, respectively, using random effects model. The seroprevalence was higher in Australia and Africa where the T. gondii seropositivity in domestic cats was 52% (95% CI: 15–89%) and 51% (95% CI: 20–81%), respectively. The lowest seroprevalence was estimated in Asia 27% (95% CI: 24–30%). The seroprevalence values for T. gondii in wild felids were 74% (95% CI: 62–83%) in Africa, 67% (95% CI: 23–111%) in Asia, 67% (95% CI: 58–75%) in Europe and 66% (95% CI: 41–91%) in South America.
Our study provides the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae and is a source of information to aid public health workers in developing prevention plans.
Based on formal reports, over one billion people in the world are estimated to be infected with T. gondii, which is transmitted mainly by ingestion of food, water, vegetables and fruits contaminated with sporulated oocysts shed from cats or ingesting tissue cysts from raw or undercooked meat ….The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that toxoplasmosis is the second most common cause of death due to food-borne diseases.
Nymphs of Ixodes ricinus are most susceptible to infection with T. gondii and they reported that the role of ticks in transmitting of toxoplasmosis should be considered in further investigations. They also added that Toxoplasma artificially (intracoelomatically) introduced into the organism of I. ricinus females can penetrate and multiply in hypoderma, salivary glands, peritracheal connective tissue and muscular tissue. Moreover, Jagow and Hoffmann (1970) found that Toxoplasma lived in Nymphs and adults of Ornithodoros moubata up till 10 and 2 days, respectively. They also found transmission was unsuccessful either through sucking or with the next stage of the same ticks or through the F1-generation of the ticks infected with Toxoplasma. Whereas, Gidel and Provost (1965) isolated Toxoplasma gondiifrom to the genus Amblyomma parasiting a bovine in Centre African Republic by inoculation into rabbits and guinea pigs and proved pathogenic for mice.
Prudence would err on the side of caution and transmission of T. gondii by ticks should be highly suspected.
For more: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/05/21/toxoplasmosis/ T. gondii is responsible for about 1/5 of schizophrenia cases.
And lastly, I’ll never forget this information on how parasites affect human behavior by Dr. Klinghardt, which I found here: http://www.betterhealthguy.com/a-deep-look-beyond-lyme
Parasite patients often express the psyche of the parasites – sticky, clingy, impossible to tolerate – but a wonderful human being is behind all of that.
We are all a composite of many personalities. Chronic infections outnumber our own cells by 10:1. We are 90% “other” and 10% “us”. Our consciousness is a composite of 90% microbes and 10% us.
Our thinking, feeling, creativity, and expression are 90% from the microbes within us. Patients often think, crave, and behave as if they are the parasite.
Our thinking is shaded by the microbes thinking through us. The food choices, behavioral choices, and who we like is the thinking of the microbes within us expressing themselves.
Patients will reject all treatments that affect the issue that requires treating.
Patients will not guide themselves to health when the microbes have taken over.
With this information in mind, it’s quite clear how Lyme/MSIDS is such a complex disease as many are dealing not only with Lyme but other coinfections including parasites which are either directly transmitted by a tick or activated due to a trigger and a dysfunctional immune system.
Psychiatric Disorders: Are Infectious Agents to Blame?
INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND PSYCHIATRY
The association between infection and psychiatric disorders was one of the milestones of early 20th century medicine. The identification of Treponema pallidum in the brains of individuals with “general paresis of the insane” by Noguchi and Moore in 1913 established the role of tertiary syphilis and showed that bacterial infections can cause long-term changes in both neurological and psychiatric functioning. The eventual development of treatments for syphilis and the subsequent curing of individuals with general paresis also showed that the discovery of an infectious cause of a neuropsychiatric disorder could be followed by effective treatment. The association between infection and some cases of psychiatric disorders was further solidified by the identification of an increased rate of encephalitis lethargica following the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. Influenza control measures might be partially credited for the rarity of encephalitis lethargica in the modern era…..
Microorganisms capable of his latency include a diverse range of taxa including viruses such as the herpesviruses herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein Barr virus as well as retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, measles virus, bacteria such as Chlamydiae and Borreliae, and protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii…(See link for article)
BTW: t. gondii has been found in ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and these ticks also transmit Lyme and tick-borne encephalitis virus: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40846277_The_occurrence_of_Toxoplasma_gondii_and_Borrelia_burgdorferi_sensu_lato_in_Ixodes_ricinus_ticks_from_Eastern_Poland_with_the_use_of_PCR, and https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/facts/tick-factsheets/ixodes-ricinus
Toxoplasmosis causes many mental issues and psychiatrist E. Fuller Torry believes that 75% of schizophrenia is associated with infections, with Toxo a significant portion. https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/05/21/toxoplasmosis/
Toxoplasmosis outbreak reported in Quebec hunters
Quebec health officials reported an outbreak of the parasitic infection, toxoplasmosis, in a at least six hunters who consumed the deer meat they killed during a hunting trip to the United States last November-December.
According to their Mar. 2019 health bulletin (computer translated), in December 2018, they received a report of a person presenting with severe headache, fever, myalgia and arthralgia, and who was coming back from the deer hunt. He required hospitalization for a few days
This hunter had left with nine other hunters, including five others who have also presented with symptoms. The similarity of symptoms and clinical signs of the six sick hunters exhibited a common etiology.
The source of the contamination was identified to be undercooked meat from white-tailed deer harvested in Illinois.
Testing was performed for leptospirosis, hepatitis E, brucellosis, tularemia and toxoplasmosis. The results of the serologies were compatible with an acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in all cases (presence of IgM antibodies or seroconversion of antibodies IgG negative to positive; the avidity of IgG, when tested, was low, indicating a recent infection).
This is the first case of toxoplasmosis outbreak in Quebec associated with the consumption of deer meat.
More on Toxoplasmosis: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/05/21/toxoplasmosis/ In 2009 it was found in Ixodes ricinus ticks (endemic in Europe, also called the castor bean tick). Fact sheet: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/disease-vectors/facts/tick-factsheets/ixodes-ricinus
So this is frightening for Wisconsinites as infection can be obtained by eating undercooked deer meat as well as it’s been found in Castor bean ticks which can potentially be spread here by migrating birds.
Furthermore, this study on the castor bean tick found “Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia garinii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and Rickettsia helvetica in both midgut and salivary glands with Rickettsia felis only detected in salivary glands suggesting that the migration of these pathogens between these two organs might not be triggered by the blood meal. https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-019-3418-7.
Plain English – transmission could happen much more quickly.
This pdf explains transmission: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/ixodes_ricinus.pdf
I. ricinus can also transmit a number of pathogens including Babesia divergens (babesiosis), louping ill virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Anaplasma phagocytophila (tick-borne fever of ruminants, human granulocytic anaplasmosis).
Castor Bean TickJames Lindsey at Ecology of Commanster, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1669738
https://www.facebook.com/drjaydavidsondetox/videos/2157853841138452/ Video here Approx. 15 Min.
The top link shows Dr. Jay Davidson talking about rat lungworm, hookworm, Strongyloides, and nematodes in the eye. Believe it or not, this particular eye parasite affects 12 million people worldwide.
He also gives a preview of a parasite symptom checklist.