Archive for the ‘Rickettsia’ Category

New Pathogens Found in Oklahoma Ticks

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vbz.2021.0057

Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi and Powassan Virus Lineage II (Deer Tick Virus) from Odocoileus virginianus Harvested Ixodes scapularis in Oklahoma

Published Online:https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2021.0057

Abstract

Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is the primary host of adult Ixodes scapularis (deer tick). Most of the research into I. scapularis has been geographically restricted to the northeastern United States, with limited interest in Oklahoma until recently as the I. scapularis populations spread due to climate change. Ticks serve as a vector for pathogenic bacteria, protozoans, and viruses that pose a significant human health risk. To date, there has been limited research to determine what potential tick-borne pathogens are present in I. scapularis in central Oklahoma. Using a one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR, I. scapularis collected from white-tailed deer was screened for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and deer tick virus (DTV). Ticks (n = 394) were pooled by gender and life stage into 117 samples. Three pooled samples were positive for B. miyamotoi and five pooled samples were positive for DTV. This represents a minimum infection rate of 0.8% and 1.2%, respectively. A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi, and B. microti were not detected in any samples. This is the first report of B. miyamotoi and DTV detection in Oklahoma I. scapularis ticks. This demonstrates that I. scapularis pathogens are present in Oklahoma and that further surveillance of I. scapularis is warranted.

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**Comment**

A few points:

  • This article is based upon the faulty premise that somehow “climate change” is causing tick and disease proliferation.  This has been proven to be false yet is continually regurgitated as truth.  This; however, does not mean “the powers that be” are not committing heinous acts of “climate engineering” which IS causing very real destruction of life.
    • This recent article proves Spain has admitted recently spraying deadly chemtrails as part of a secret UN program to fight COVID.
    • Four state meteorological agency whistleblowers announced in 2015 that planes were regularly spraying lead dioxide, silver iodide, and diatomite throughout Spain to ward off rain and allow temperatures to rise to create a summery climate for tourism as well as the agricultural sector – producing cold drops of great intensity.
  • We’ve also been told ad nauseum that Lyme doesn’t exist in Oklahoma and while this research also didn’t find it, it did discover B miyamotoi which symptoms are similar to Lyme. But again, just because they didn’t find it, doesn’t mean it isn’t there. The black legged tick is abundant in Oklahoma.
  • Oklahoma is Ehrlichiosis Central and has many other tick-borne diseases:
    • spotted fever rickettsiosis
    • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    • STARI (which many experts tell me is simply Lyme)
    • Tularemia
    • Heartland Virus
    • Tick paralysis
    • Anaplasmosis

4 New Published Articles on Ticks

https://lymediseaseassociation.org/news/james-occi-phd-4-new-published-articles-on-ticks/

James L. Occi, PhD: 4 New Published Articles on Ticks

James L. Occi, PhD
James L. Occi, PhD

James L. Occi, PhD, is the lead author of four new published articles regarding ticks over the last three years that have added to the scientific data necessary to understand the spread of ticks and the diseases they carry and transmit in the Northeast and that have provided a basis for moving the field of tick-borne diseases forward.

Jim has been on the Lyme Disease Association’s (LDA) Scientific & Professional Advisory Board since its inception in 1999.  He has been an invaluable resource to the LDA providing lectures, blogs, tick images, and consultations on ticks and the diseases they carry.

LDA Congratulates James Occi (Jim), who recently received his PhD at Rutgers University, the Center for Vector Biology (New Brunswick), and wishes him every success with his future endeavors.  He studied tick-borne diseases in New Jersey tick populations under the direction of Dr. Dina Fonseca and co-authored the below four published research articles for his dissertation.


Annotated List of the Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) of New Jersey,” J Med Entomol., April 2019, examines documented cases of hard ticks found in NJ.  After a thorough review of the scientific literature, government documents, and evaluation of tick collections (vouchers) in museums and other repositories, the authors determined there were 11 verifiable species of ticks found in NJ.  Nine are native to North America, while two are invasive (Asian longhorned tick and brown dog tick).  In addition, there are seven tick species that may be present or become established in the future, but confirmation with existing NJ vouchers was not found.

Five tick species were reviewed that were reported in NJ but not found in NJ vouchers or that were found within neighboring states.  The importance of vouchers for tick research and surveillance is discussed.

A detailed statewide tick surveillance program would give public health professionals and physicians information to help protect the public from tick-borne diseases.  They would be knowledgeable about what tick species were present, what the principal hosts were and what pathogens the ticks carry and transmit.  (Click here for published article)


“New Jersey-Wide Survey of Rickettsia (Proteobacteria: Rickettsiaceae) in Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae)” was published in Am J Trop Med Hyg., Sept. 2020, and concludes the increase in Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses (SFGR) in NJ is unlikely to come from D. variabilis.  Infection with the tick-borne R. rickettsia bacterium causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) which can be fatal if left untreated.

Two tick species, that are considered Rickettsia vectors, were collected from all 21 NJ counties.  560 Dermacentor variabilis Say, American dog tick; 245 Amblyomma americanum L., lone star tick; and an additional 394 D. variabilis were collected at different time periods.   Zero D. variabilis and zero A. americanum were found to be infected with Rickettsia rickettsia.  They detected R. montanensis in D. variabilis and R. amblyommatis in A. americanum.

Collaboration among medical doctors, public health professionals, medical entomologists, and diagnostic laboratories will be needed to understand the causes of SFGR east of the Mississippi. What is causing human cases of SFGR in NJ remains unanswered. (Click here for published article)


Carios kelleyi, tick vector, on hand (Photo Credit: J. Occi, Center for Vector Biology, Rutgers Univ.)
‘Carios kelleyi’ on hand (Photo Credit: J. Occi, Center for Vector Biology, Rutgers Univ.)

“First Record of Carios kelleyi (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) in New Jersey, United States and Implications for Public Health,” J Med Entomol., March 2021.  Carios kelleyi is a soft tick that is almost exclusively a parasite of bats and had been found in at least 29 states, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Cuba, and now in New Jersey.  The nymphs and adults take several short blood meals (min. to hrs.), while the larvae remain attached for several days. Relapsing fever Borrelia is known to come from soft ticks that feed on small rodents, and when bats are removed, ticks begin to seek blood meals from humans.

C. kelleyi has been found infected with a novel spotted fever Rickettsia; a novel relapsing fever-related Borrelia;  Bartonella henselae; and a novel relapsing fever spirochete, identified as Borrelia johnsonii.

Although C. kelleyi is not thought to be an important vector of pathogens, its prevalence in bats in New Jersey is increasing.  This creates the possibility for transmission to humans, animals, and livestock.  New Jersey bats and the pathogens they carry should be monitored to assess the risk to the public. (Click here for published article)


“Ixodes scapularis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Parasitizing an Unlikely Host: Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in New York State, USA,” was published in J Med Entomol, Jan. 2022.  I. scapularis is a three-host tick found throughout the Northeast, Southeast, and Upper Midwest in the U.S  and is the most common vector of tick-borne diseases to humans in North America.  It feeds on over 150 species of terrestrial vertebrates, yet it had not previously been reported to feed on bats.   During 2019 and 2020, injured big brown bats in four locations in rural NY had larvae and nymphs attached to them.  Bats are known to carry a large number of pathogens and these ticks could go from hosting on a bat to hosting on a human. This poses a significant epidemiological risk and should be investigated further.  It also threatens bat species that are at risk. (Click here for published article)

Bioweapons Expert Speaks Out & Pentagon Unit A1266 Studies Bioterrorism Agents in Kazakhstan & Collects 40,000 Ticks

https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2022/04/09/biolabs-in-ukraine

Bioweapons Expert Speaks Out About U.S. Bio labs in Ukraine

April 9, 2022

Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola

Story at-a-glance

  • According to bioweapons expert Francis Boyle, Russia’s accusation that Ukraine is conducting U.S.-funded bioweapons research appears to be accurate
  • If true, everyone involved is subject to life in prison under the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989
  • According to Boyle, the U.S. government and Pentagon have had a “comprehensive policy” to “surround Russia with biological warfare laboratories” and “preposition biological weapons” there for use against them
  • The problem with trying to make a distinction between “biodefense” and “biowarfare” is that, basically, there is none. No biodefense research is purely defensive, because to do biodefense work, you’re automatically engaged in the creation of biological weapons, and all dual use research can be used for military purposes. SARS-CoV-2 may be the result of such dual use research
  • Boyle believes we can hold the culprits behind the SARS-CoV-2 bioweapon accountable by asking local prosecutors to convene a grand jury to seek the indictment of those responsible for the pandemic for murder and conspiracy to commit murder

Excerpts of article:

“InfoWars” host Owen Shroyer interviews Francis Boyle, Ph.D., a Harvard educated lawyer and bioweapons expert with a Ph.D. in political science, about the biolabs in Ukraine, which Russia claims are engaged in U.S.-funded bioweapons research.

While the U.S. has vehemently denied Russia’s accusations, Boyle says that based on what he’s discovered so far, the labs in Ukraine are all conducting biological warfare research — including ethnic-specific biological weapons — at the behest of the U.S. Pentagon, just as Russian authorities are claiming.

Go here for a background on biolabs in Ukraine.
Go here for background on Metabiota, a U.S. firm with ties to WEF, DOD & is implicated in a cover-up.

According to Boyle, the justification that the labs are for bio defense and health purposes is nothing but a façade for the fact that they’re conducting offensive biological warfare research with genetic research, gain-of-function and synthetic biology.

And if it is so innocent, why did the US embassy remove all evidence of Obama constructed Ukraine bio weapons labs from its website?

When asked what the motive behind this kind of research might be, Boyle highlights two potential reasons:

  1. a global “Nazi cult” that wants rid the world of certain ethnic groups, hence the focus on DNA-based ethnic-specific weapons. Please see this video of Dr. Ariyana Love on this topic as well as this supporting evidence
  2.  money – made on the research and creation of biological weapons, and money made on the supposed cures, be they vaccines or therapeutics

Boyle states that because our federal government has been captured by those who seek to destroy the U.S. from within, it’s highly unlikely federal authorities, even judges, will ever enforce the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act, but that we need to go to our local prosecutors, states’ attorneys, district attorneys, county attorneys, etc., who have been empowered by the 10th amendment and are accountable to the people of the community. These elected officials can convene a grand jury and return indictments for murder and conspiracy to commit murder. He recommends a two-step plan – the first of which is aimed at those responsible for the COVID ‘pandemic,’ and the second of which is aimed for those behind the COVID shots.  Go here to see the list of 27 State AGs Suing Biden Administration Over Vaccine Mandates.

I highly recommend following Boyle’s advice and contacting your State Attorney General.  Here is more information including a sample letter:  Letter to AG and the felony indictment notice:  https://www.davidmartin.world/attorney-general-document (This document clearly lays out the criminal conspiracy of COVID)

http://  Approx. 3 Min

July, 2020

Pentagon Unit A1266

Bioterrorism Agents in Kazakhstan

https://veritybase.info/pentagon-unit-a1266-studies-bioterrorism-agents-in-kazakhstan/  Full article & pictures Here

By Dilyana Gaytandzhieva

SUMMARY:

The U.S. military biological research program in Kazakhstan started in 2008 and the Pentagon has spent more than $300 MILLION on two bio labs in this former Soviet country doing risky biological research. The two labs are:

  • Central Reference Laboratory in Almaty (also known as Kazakh Scientific Center of Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases (KSCQZD)
  • Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems (RIBSP) in Otar

These labs are just two of the many Pentagon labs in 25 countries across the world. They are funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under a $2.1 billion military program – Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP), and are located in former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Georgia and Ukraine, the Middle East, South East Asia and Africa.

Unit A1266 and local scientists have collected 40,000 ticks from 13 regions in Kazakhstan. Why Kazakhstan? It borders Russia and China – the main rivals of the U.S.

They have isolated four bio-agents that post a serious bio-terrorism threat. The following bio agents have the potential to be engineered for mass aerosol dissemination and used as bioweapons:

A US Air Force C 17 cargo plane transported plague samples, a priority Pentagon project, from Kazakhstan the the U.S. as well as anthrax, tularemia, and coronavirus.  Plague has been developed as an aerosol weapon by several countries in the past.  The Pentagon project from 2015-2018 & funded by the DOD, showed all bat guano samples screened were positive for coronaviruses. 

More recently, Project GG-21, a five year long project with a possible 3 year extension studies “Arthropod-borne and zoonotic infections among military personnel in Georgia.”  Blood samples looking for the following pathogens will be obtained form 1,000 military recruits during their physical exam at the Georgian military hospital:

  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Brucella
  • CCHF virus
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Hantavirus
  • Rickettsia species
  • TBE virus
  • Bartonella species
  • Borrelia species
  • Ehlrichia species
  • Leptospira species
  • Salmonella typhi
  • WNV

The project report states:

“all volunteer deaths will be promptly reported (usually within 48 h of the PI being notified) to the Georgian Military Hospital and WRAIR.

The author of the article points out that simply testing blood for antibodies cannot cause death, which raises the question why this statement is even given.

The results will NOT be given to the study participants and the samples will be stored at the controversial and heavily guarded Lugar Center, a U.S. funded (2.1 BILLION) Pentagon bio lab in the country of Georgia, known for laboratory incidents and scandals surrounding the US drug giant Gilead Science‘s Hepatitis C program which has resulted in at least 248 deaths. The cause of death in the majority of cases has been listed as unknown, internal documents have shown.

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has funded a similar project involving soldiers in Ukraine code-named UP-8, which will look at the spread of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantaviruses in Ukraine as well as the potential need for differential diagnosis in patients with suspected leptospirosis. The project started in 2017 and was extended until 2020, internal documents show.

This project will also collect blood samples from 4,400 healthy soldiers in Lviv, Kharkov, Odesa and Kyiv. 4,000 of these samples will be tested for antibodies against hantaviruses, and 400 for the presence of antibodies against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. The results of the blood testing will also not be provided to the study participants.

The project report also states:

serious incidents, including deaths should be reported within 24 hours. All deaths of study subjects that are suspected or known to be related to the research procedures should be brought to the attention of the bioethics committees in the USA and Ukraine.”

But, again, simply testing blood does not cause deaths or serious incidents – begging the question, are these soldiers being infected and then tested?

Similarly to “vaccine” manufacturers, DTRA-sponsored scientists have full indemnity if they cause deaths or injuries to the local population.

For more:

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2022/01/24/we-do-need-an-overhaul-of-public-health-just-not-the-way-walensky-wants/ And due to typical CDC bungling of every single thing it touches, there’s been a call for a public health overhaul.  Unfortunately, the Data Modernization Initiative’’ — a CDC plan to strengthen the health surveillance infrastructure will:

  • unify public health data systems at the state and federal levels
  • “help” states hire staff to work on data collection & analysis (using $3 BILLION CDC funds)
  • create a “Travelocity”-like system where a “cloud-based” framework would allow staff to quickly analyze data and understand what is happening in real-time. WHO minion Dr. Harari, a real life Dr. Evil, states “intelligent design, not created by “some God above the clouds,” “but our intelligent design,” and the “intelligent design of our Clouds, the IBM Cloud, the Microsoft Cloud, these are the new driving forces of evolution.”
  • This centralization and monopolization of health data will give the CDC even more power and authority, and sounds like a perfect prelude to global “vaccine” passports
The CDC already rules both research and the medical profession with an iron fist and medical freedom is increasingly under fire.

Nearly every single detail about the current COVID “White House Plan” is flawed.  Walensky wants to create an even more powerful federally based health system which further forces people into a box with no options or individualization, and which would be a top down approach where independent doctors wouldn’t stand a prayer of a chance.  As it is, independent doctors who dare defy the accepted narrative are being hunted down and persecuted.  These medical renegades are branded as giving “misinformation,” and Walenski’s plan would only amplify this polarization, and would take away the already few options for desperate patients.

 

Lyme-Carrying Ticks in West Differ From Their Eastern Cousins

https://www.lymedisease.org/ixodes-pacificus-review/

LYME SCI: Lyme-carrying ticks in West differ from their Eastern cousins

March 21, 2022

By Lonnie Marcum

In most of the United States, a tick called Ixodes scapularis carries Lyme disease. However, in the Western states, there’s a different culprit—Ixodes pacificus—also known as the Western blacklegged tick.

A recent review article provides new insight into the pathogens carried by and diseases caused by Ixodes pacificus. The behavior, habitat and pathogens transmitted by the Western blacklegged tick differ from its Eastern cousin.

Notably, the authors state, ”I. pacificus carry several pathogens of human significance, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella, and Rickettsiales.” (McVicar et al, 2022)

The authors, from the University of Nevada, published their report in a special issue of journal Pathogens. The article is entitled “Current Research on Hard Tick-Borne Diseases.”

The reviewers do a fantastic job of describing the ecological diversity and complex nature of ticks found in the Western US.

In fact, there are up to 20 different species of Ixodes (hard bodied) ticks reported in California alone. However, Ixodes pacificus is the only known vector for Lyme disease along the West Coast.

The additional hard tick species endemic to the West include Ixodes spinipalpis, I. angustus, I. neotomae, and I. jellisoni. Although these ticks prefer to feed on rodents, both I. spinipalpis and I. agustus occasionally bite humans.

Habitat

As pictured below, the Western blacklegged tick is well established throughout most of California, the coastal regions of Oregon and Washington, and parts of southern Nevada, northern Arizona and western Utah.

Note: Counties classified as “established” are those where six or more I. pacificus of a single life stage or more than one life stage of the tick were collected in the county within any 12-month period.

The ideal habitat for I. pacificus is one that is sheltered from hot, dry summers. Research has shown nymphal I. pacificus numbers start to decline when temperatures exceed 73º F (23º C), and average daily humidity drops below 83 – 85%. Excessive heat between 90º – 104º F (32º – 40º C) begins to kill off ticks.

The preferred microclimate includes moist, shady areas provided by trees, shrubs, leaf litter or undergrowth. I. pacificus are often found amongst dense oak woodlands, but they can also be found near beaches, and on rocks and picnic tables.

The full range of the Western blacklegged tick extends from Baja California, Mexico, to British Columbia, Canada, but not all of those areas have been thoroughly studied. The process of “active tick surveillance” is quite labor-intensive, and requires funding often not provided to vector-control districts.

Another method of tracking ticks can be done by citizens finding and reporting ticks themselves. This “passive surveillance” technique, as the authors point out, can sometimes give a broader picture from counties that do not conduct active surveillance.

Ticks found where previously undetected

For example, a Northern Arizona University study funded by Bay Area Lyme Disease Foundation received over16,000 ticks from 49 states between 2016-2017. In that study, blacklegged ticks were found in 83 counties (in 24 states) where they had not previously been recorded. (Nieto et al, 2018)

Another recent study looked at crowdsourced images submitted to “TickSpotters” between 2014-2019.  The tick image submissions identified potentially nine new counties of occurrence for I. pacificus across five states including: Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Utah and Idaho. (Kopsco et al, 2021)

Lifecycle

The lifecycle of Ixodes pacificus ticks generally lasts three years, compared to the I. scapularis which has a two-year life span. During this time, they go through four life stages: egg, larva, nymph, and adult.

After the eggs hatch, the ticks must have a blood meal at every stage to survive.

Blacklegged ticks can feed on mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The ticks need a new host at each stage of their life. If the host is infected with a pathogen, any tick feeding on that animal will become infected as well.

Although rare, larval ticks may be infectious from birth as some tick-borne pathogens may be transmitted from the female tick to her eggs. This is called transovarial transmission.

Pathogens

The paper lists the pathogens and reservoir hosts associated with I. pacificus, accompanied by countless references. For those interested in full details, I recommend reading the review. This table recaps the authors’ second table, followed by a short recap of their findings. (McVicar et al, 2022)

Anaplasmosis

Anaplasmosis, also known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), is caused by the Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacterium (previously known as Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi).

It belongs to a larger group of bacteria known as Rickettsia, which infect white blood cells. I. pacificus is a vector for anaplasmosis in the western US. The infection rate of nymphal and adult I. pacificus ticks is 1% and 10% respectively.

Babesiosis

Babesiosis is a disease caused by a malaria-like parasite called Babesia, which infects red blood cells.

As I recently wrote, North America is “ground zero” for Babesiosis, a disease that can be passed from mother to unborn child and through blood transfusions.

On the East Coast, I. scapularis is the vector for babesiosis. On the West Coast, I. pacificus is the predicted vector for babesiosis, but researchers have been unable to confirm this.

One study that collected ticks from multiple sites in California found 3% of I. pacificus ticks were infected with Babesia odocoilei. This is an emerging pathogen not listed on the CDC website as a cause of babesiosis.

The authors state, “Although there is substantive evidence that ixodid ticks on the west coast (i.e., Ixodes angustus, Ixodes pacificus, and Ixodes spinipalpis) are vectors of B. duncani, this has not been yet experimentally confirmed.”  (McVicar et al, 2022)

Bartonellosis

Bartonella is a bacterium carried by many types of human-biting arthropods including fleas, flies, lice, ticks, and chiggers. In one California study, 19% of ticks tested positive for Bartonella.

“Molecular analysis showed a variety of Bartonella strains, which were closely related to cattle Bartonella and several known human-pathogenic Bartonella species and subspecies: B. henselae, B. quintana, B. washoensis, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, suggesting that I. pacificus adults could be a source for Bartonella infections in humans,” as stated by the authors. (McVicar et al, 2022)

Ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichiosis is a term that describes several different bacterial diseases caused by a group of intracellular bacteria called Ehrlichia. These pathogens cause two groups of human infections, called human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE.)

While the pathogens that cause HME and HGE are different, the symptoms of the disease are similar. Left untreated, both HME and HGE can be life-threatening.

I. pacificus ticks can carry both diseases. The average infection rate of HME and HGE in California’s I. pacificus ticks is 3.4% and 2.0% respectively.

Lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a spirochete, causes Lyme disease in North America. The CDC estimates that 476,000 people contract Lyme every year in the US. That’s nearly 5 million cases in the past 10 years, making it the most important vector-borne disease in the nation.

There has been a great deal of research on Lyme disease in California, beginning with the pioneering work of Willy Burgdorfer, Bob Lane and Alan Barbour in the early 1980s.

On the west coast, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), there are four additional Borrelia species within the B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. These include B. americana, B. bissettiae, B. californensis, and B. laneithe latter named after Bob Lane for his discovery.  However, B. burgdorferi s.s. is currently the only one of these recognized as causing Lyme disease.

Compare this to the eastern half of the country, with B. burgdorferi s.s. also causing Lyme disease, and only three additional species in the B. burgdorferi s.l complex: B. andersonii, B. kurtenbachii, and B. mayonii. (B. mayonii is also recognized as causing Lyme disease.)

Hard ticks can also carry one species of relapsing fever Borrelia—Borrelia miyamotoi. All other species of relapsing fever borreliosis are believed to be carried by soft ticks.

Several studies in and around the San Francisco Bay Area  have shown that the average infection rate of B. miyamotoi (5.1%) in I. pacificus ticks is higher than the rate of B. burgdorferi (1.3%). Although, depending on the location, infection rates for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi can be as high as 17% and 6% respectively.

Co-infections

Co-infection with multiple pathogens is possible in animal hosts and ticks. Thus, a single tick bite can infect a human with more than one pathogen.

One study found that 14% of grey squirrels, a common host to I. pacificus ticks, were co-infected with B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma. Another study from Washington state found I. pacificus ticks co-infected with B. burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi. and Anaplasma.

In a more recent study, researchers tested ticks for up to five pathogens. In one area of California, infection rates were as high as 31%. (Salkeld et al, 2021)

While Lyme disease accounts for over 80% of all tick-borne cases in the U.S., spotted fever rickettsiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have also seen an increase over the past four decades.

It’s important for researchers and clinicians to know which pathogens co-exist in all regions of the U.S., including the West coast.

Conclusion

As climate changes, tick ecology changes. The authors recommend, “To fully understand these systems, interdisciplinary teams with expertise in tick biology, tick genetics and genomics, computational biology, geography, meteorology, veterinary and human health, as well as vector-control districts and public health, need to work together.”  (McVicar et al, 2022)

A great deal of work has been carried out on ticks in California. However, surveillance and ecological research is lacking in the other Western states.

LymeSci is written by Lonnie Marcum, a Licensed Physical Therapist and mother of a daughter with Lyme. She serves on a subcommittee of the federal Tick-Borne Disease Working Group. Follow her on Twitter: @LonnieRhea  Email her at: lmarcum@lymedisease.org.

Reference

Kopsco H,  Duhaime R, Mather T, (2021) Crowdsourced Tick Image-Informed Updates to U.S. County Records of Three Medically Important Tick Species, Journal of Medical Entomology.  58:6; 2412–2424, https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjab082

McVicar M, Rivera I, Reyes JB, Gulia-Nuss M. (2022) Ecology of Ixodes pacificus Ticks and Associated Pathogens in the Western United States. Pathogens. 2022 Jan 13;11(1):89. doi: 10.3390/pathogens11010089. PMID: 35056037; PMCID: PMC8780575.

Nieto NC, Porter WT, Wachara JC, Lowrey TJ, Martin L, Motyka PJ, et al. (2018) Using citizen science to describe the prevalence and distribution of tick bite and exposure to tick-borne diseases in the United States. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0199644. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199644

Salkeld D.J., Lagana D.M., Wachara J., Porter W.T., Nieto N.C. (2021) Examining prevalence and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes pacificus ticks in California. Appl Environ Microbiol. Apr23:00319-21. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00319-21. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33893109.

___________________

For more:

There’s an important link with the accepted narrative about”climate change” and the current COVID debacle.  If you are unaware of this connection, please take the time to go down a dark rabbit-hole that connects the dots. This news story reports on the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) ESG score, (environment, social, and corporate governance) which is similar to a credit score and is centered around sustainability & ethics.  Currently given only to corporations, it isn’t a stretch to imagine this extended to individuals. Like everything else, the system is subjective to whomever decides what “ethical, diverse, and sustainable” is.  The scores can change on a whim. Companies are changing slogans, censoring content, firing controversial people, and modifying behavior to ingratiate themselves to those in power. This system is already being used in China.

In this recent article, we learn about the WHO’s “pandemic treaty” which would yet further erode individual and medical freedom under the guise of pandemic preparedness and control.  Keep in mind the WHO already changed the definition of what a pandemic is that essentially allows them to proclaim any disease they deem a threat a ‘pandemic,’ despite the fact it doesn’t cause mass casualties.

You may ask what this has to do with climate change.  Everything.
The climate change moniker is a ruse for a huge power grab in terms in money and control.

While the world was distracted by Will Smith, the internal elite met at the World Government Summit (WGS) in Dubai where World Economic Forum (WEF) head Klaus Schwab and ilk spoke of a “longer-term narrative” to make the world “more resilient, more inclusive, and more sustainable.”

The WGS spent considerable time discussing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which form the core of the Agenda 2030, (formerly Agenda 21) itself part of The Great Reset agenda, as well as topics like Blockchain, AI, 6G, and Human Meta-Cities, a rebranding of the so-called Smart Cities.

Go here for a wonderful explanation of Agenda 2030.

Within the video you learn that Agenda 2030 is about inventory & control of all resources of the world:
food, water, energy, land, production, education, construction, yes, even people. The plan will clear out rural areas and relocate people to large cities where people will be tightly controlled, monitored, and managed with intrusive technology.  It will enforce Communitarianism – ruled by governments and companies: where the needs of the community trump individual rights and freedoms (which we are already seeing with COVID).  Dissidents will be outcasts – which we’ve also already experienced with COVID injection apartheid.

No less than 14 out of 17 sustainable development goals SDGs include vaccination or immunization.
What does vaccination have to do with green economies?

Schwab’s “the 4th Industrial Revolution,” is the “digital panopticon of the future, where digital surveillance is omnipresent and humanity uses digital technology to alter our lives. Often associated with terms like the Internet of Things, the Internet of Bodies, the Internet of Humans, and the Internet of Senses, this world will be powered by 5G and 6G technology.”  (Please note many believe this technology is dangerous to the human body and remains untested for adverse effects)

The truly frightening discussion was titled: The Invisible Government: Eliminating Bureaucracy Through Technology: “What goes unsaid in the panel description is that making the government “invisible” will actually lead to a world of no accountability for government and politicians. In reality, the Technocrats imagine a world where the tyrannical technological systems are invisible and the average person has zero recourse for preventing exclusion or punishment based on their social credit score.”

While few argue that the climate changes, as it always has since the beginning of time, many climate experts defy the accepted narrative and state political games are being played to create policy. Further, according to Pat Michaels, former president of the American Association of State Climatologists, it has warmed up around 1 degree Celsius since 1900, and life expectancy has doubled. Climatologists have also debunked that “global warming” is making storms worse and that carbon dioxide is harmful.

What is very real; however, is the concerted effort to engineer the earth’s climate.  Dane Wigington states “geoengineering must be considered weather and biological warfare due to the endless list of catastrophic downstream impacts and effects.”  He also states: “That massive covert government programs have been playing “God” with the biosphere for well over 60 years, perhaps even longer. In recent years the scope and scale of these devastating weather modification programs has been ramped up so much that the entire climate system and biosphere is now hanging in the balance.”

Excerpt:

Polymer nanofibers are a component of these operations. The science community has now confirmed that microplastics have been found in human blood and farm animals. These puzzle pieces are not hard to connect for any that conduct objective investigation. New studies now also confirm that plastic pollution could “make much of humanity infertile”. How well would this serve the objectives of those in power? Engineered winter weather and temperature whiplash scenarios are continuing wherever and whenever the climate engineers have compatible conditions for carrying out the highly toxic chemical ice nucleation cloud seeding operations. In the meantime the weather makers are relentlessly cutting off the flow of rain from the Western US. Crop production is being crushed while the stage is being set for yet another summer of record wildfires. What will it take for a greater percentage of the population to look up and connect the dots?”  source

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rf78rEAJvhY  Video Here

The Dimming

Full Length Climate Engineering Documentary

Rehabilitating Your Lyme-Impaired Vision

https://www.lymedisease.org/lyme-affected-eyes-visual-rehab/

TOUCHED BY LYME: Rehabilitating your Lyme-impaired vision

March 22, 2022

Dr. William V. Padula is a pioneer in the field of how Lyme and other tick-borne diseases can affect your vision. He’s worked with patients from all over the world. Many of them had no idea that Lyme and TBDs were at the root of their deteriorating eyesight.

Though treating the underlying infections is necessary, he says such treatment alone may not be enough to resolve vision problems. Instead, he finds that many patients need various kinds of visual rehabilitation, as well.

In a recent Zoom conversation, he explained to me that among other things, Lyme disease can cause spatial-visual processing dysfunction. This isn’t a defect of the eye itself. Rather, the issue is that the brain has trouble processing the signals the eyes send to it. It’s a neurological impairment.

Spatial-visual processing dysfunction can result in eyestrain, headaches, light sensitivity, and double vision. “Also, people who have a compromised spatial-visual process can have difficulty in crowded, moving environments,” he says.

As a result, people with this disorder may feel overwhelmed by seeing anything moving in their peripheral vision. Much like people who have suffered concussions, Dr. Padula says, many folks with Lyme find they must strictly avoid busy supermarkets and other congested places.

Proprioception

The spatial process links up to what’s called proprioception—how the brain senses when the body is in an upright position, says Dr. Padula. “A frequent complaint of patients with tick-borne infections is that they feel clumsy—they are bumping into tables and doorways. Some have balance problems or actually fall.

His visual rehabilitation techniques use special lenses and prisms to help the brain “reset” the way it processes information.

According to Dr. Padula, when Lyme and other tick-borne infections disrupt visual processing in children, serious learning disabilities can result. He says identifying and treating the problem as early as possible is essential.

He established the Padula Institute of Vision Rehabilitation in Guilford, Connecticut, about 20 years ago, because he knew of no other place that offered this kind of help for children and adults with these neurological challenges.

“We see people here not just with Lyme dysfunction and infection, but also concussion, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s, Friedreich’s ataxia—quite a variety of neurological conditions that affect the visual process.”

Dr. Padula says after they’ve worked with someone at the Institute, he and his staff try to find a practitioner in the patient’s own area to continue the treatment. He also lectures and consults internationally, trying to share his methods with other eye doctors throughout the world.

Floaters and dry eyes

I also asked Dr. Padula about something I hear Lyme patients complain about a lot—floaters and dry eyes. He said this often results from a change in tear film. We have three different layers of tear film in our eyes—water, oily, and mucus. When these protective layers are damaged, floaters and dry eye can result.

He finds that additive-free eye drops and supplementation with bioflavonoids, Vitamin C, zinc and magnesium can help.

In the following YouTube video, Dr. Padula and an associate explain more about how Lyme disease can affect your vision.

More videos and further information available at his website.

Dr. Padula has co-authored a book called Neuro-Visual Processing Rehabilitation, which gives details about his methods.

TOUCHED BY LYME is written by Dorothy Kupcha Leland, LymeDisease.org’s Vice-president and Director of Communications. She is co-author of When Your Child Has Lyme Disease: A Parent’s Survival Guide. Contact her at dleland@lymedisease.org.

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