Archive for the ‘Rickettsia’ Category

Other Arthropod-Borne Bacteria Causing Nonmalarial Fever in Ethiopia

2019 Jun 10. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2018.2396. [Epub ahead of print]

Arthropod-Borne Bacteria Cause Nonmalarial Fever in Rural Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in 394 Patients.


Bacterial arthropod-borne pathogens are a common cause of fever in Africa, but their precise impact is unknown and usually underdiagnosed in the basic rural laboratories of low-resourced African countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of arthropod-borne bacterial diseases causing fever among malaria smear-negative patients in a rural hospital located in Ethiopia. The study population included patients aged 2 years or older; referred to Gambo Rural General Hospital (West Arsi, Ethiopia), between July and November 2013, for fever or report of fever in the previous 48 h; attending the outpatient department; and testing negative for malaria by Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. We extracted DNA from 394 whole blood samples, using reverse line blot assays of amplicons to look for bacteria from the genera: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia.

Thirteen patients showed presence of DNA for these pathogens: three each by Borrelia spp., the Francisella group (F. tularensis tularensis, F. tularensis holartica, and F. novicia), Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia Felis, and one by Bartonella rochalimae. Thus, in this rural area of Africa, febrile symptoms could be due to bacteria transmitted by arthropods. Further studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenic role of R. bellii.



What if some of this is mosquito-borne as well? We frankly don’t know because the transmission studies are screaming to be done.





SPbU Scientists Have Discovered the First Family of Extracellular Rickettsia-Like Bacteria


SPbU scientists have discovered the first family of extracellular Rickettsia-like bacteria

Microbiologists have discovered a new family of bacteria belonging to the order Rickettsiales — Deianiraeaceae; this is the first report of the Rickettsia-like bacteria that display a unique extracellular lifestyle and are in fact predators


Like Heracles’ wife

The Deianiraeaceae, which has become the fourth family in the order Rickettsiales, currently contains one genus, Deianiraea. All previously investigated Rickettsiales are obligate intracellular specialised parasites. By contrast, Deianiraea not only attacks the victim from the outside, but also it never enters the host cell throughout its entire life cycle. Deianiraea colonises the extracellular surface of the ciliate Paramecium: the predatory bacterium attacks the ciliate and replicates on its surface, taking the victim’s resources, and eventually its life.

The name for the newly discovered bacterium – Deianiraea – refers to the myth of Deianira, the wife of Heracles. According to legend, the centaur Nessus attempted to kidnap Deianira, but she was rescued by Heracles. Heracles shot the centaur with an arrow dipped in the Lernaean Hydra’s venomous blood. The dying Nessus, seeking vengeance, persuaded Deianira to take some of his blood, as it would allegedly make a powerful love potion. When Deianira heard that Heracles had fallen in love with another woman, she feared that he would leave her. Deianira sent him a tunic smeared with the centaur’s blood. The tunic poisoned with the Hydra’s venom in the centaur’s blood killed Heracles. ‘Similarly, the Deianiraea bacterium kills the ciliates, covering the host cell like a poisoned tunic,’ notes Alexey Potekhin, Professor at the Department of Microbiology of St Petersburg University and a member of the international research team.

Predator of the microworld

The novel bacterium was discovered by chance. Natalia Lebedeva is one of the co-authors of the study and a leading expert of the Centre for Culture Collection of Microorganisms at the St Petersburg University Research Park. She took a sample of water from a waste water stream in Larnaca, Cyprus. Microbiological analysis of the water sample revealed that it contained a large number of ciliates. Laboratory observation showed massive loss of cilia, which are employed for locomotion and feeding. This resulted in the death of the affected ciliate. Other paramecia, which were added into the same culture, also soon died. Upon closer inspection of the affected ciliates it became evident that the deciliated areas of the cell surface were covered by tightly packed bacteria – unknown to science at that moment.

‘New bacterial families are rarely discovered these days. It is always an important finding, no matter what order this family may belong to. In our case, a new family has been found in a very well-studied order – the Rickettsiales. Previously, only DNA of related bacteria were detected in the samples. Therefore, the bacteria were classified as Rickettsia-like, as the scientists were not able to place them into the existing system of families of the order. It was the first time that we had found these bacteria alive. The molecular phylogenetic analysis enabled us to reassemble all the data fragments and, consequently, to establish a new bacterial family – Deianiraeaceae. One may say we were lucky,’ says Alexey Potekhin.

Strong and almost independent

Unlike other Rickettsia-like bacteria, Deianiraea is not only able to replicate – to reproduce outside the cell – but also to sustain itself with less dependence on the host.Deianiraea possesses a higher capability to synthesise amino acids, compared to all other Rickettsiales. It can synthesise 16 amino acids, including the 8 that other representatives of the order cannot produce. 16 out of the 20 main amino acids is almost a full set. The rest it is most likely to acquire from its victims, but we do not know that for certain. Moreover, Deianiraea can synthesise nucleotides: other Rickettsiales do not do this because they receive them from the host,’ Alexey Potekhin explains.

Another feature of Deianiraea is that it has several secretion systems. In bacteria, this enables protein secretion that can be employed for interaction with other cells as well. Deianiraea does have a specialised secretion system for interacting with other bacteria. It also has a specialised type IV secretion system which putatively enables it to establish contact with the ciliate. At present, the researchers have not yet established the exact mechanism of the parasite-host cell interaction, and what the bacterium may acquire from the ciliate or other host organisms.

Related to mitochondria

The order Rickettsiales encompasses three previously known families of highly diverse representatives of intracellular symbionts and parasites associated with eukaryotes, including animal and human pathogens (e.g., typhus). It has been suggested that all Rickettsia-like may have shared a common ancestor with mitochondria. Mitochondria are responsible for ATP synthesis in all eukaryotic cells, i.e. for energy metabolism. The discovery of a novel — extracellular — Rickettsiales bacterium suggests that the evolutionary path of mitochondria may have been different, contrary to what has been previously assumed.

‘Evolution, whenever possible, tends to choose the path of least effort, reducing the number of redundant functions: all that is unnecessary is eliminated. It has been assumed that the common ancestor of all Rickettsia-like bacteria was a specialised intracellular parasite with a low biosynthetic potential. In other words, it was unable to synthesise many of the essential substances, acquiring them from the host. It could sustain itself and reproduce only inside host cells. The results of our research allow us to assert with confidence that the last common ancestor of all Rickettsia-like bacteria led an extracellular lifestyle, lived in water, had a flagellum and was metabolically independent. It also must have had cellular systems that enabled parasite-host interactions. Adaptation to the lifestyle of intracellular parasites of the modern families of the Rickettsiales order would have evolved later in parallel and independently in different sub-lineages. The discovery of Deianiraea impels us to reopen the debate about the time when the ancestor of mitochondria would have established itself inside a proto-eukaryote, and the particular traits this mitochondrial ancestor would have possessed,’ the scientist concludes.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.


For more on Rickettsia:

Lastly, I’ll never forget what Dr. Hoffman, RIP, told me years ago when he was a medical resident in Illinois treating people with tick-borne illness before it had a name (Lyme).  He called it a “Rickettsial-like” disease.  He may have been closer to the truth than he knew.

ArminLabs (EliSpot) With Dr. Schwarzbach – Podcast

Why You Should Listen

In this episode, you will learn about EliSpot testing and the various testing options available through ArminLabs in Germany.

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About My Guest

My guest for this episode is Dr. Armin Schwarzbach.  Armin Schwarzbach, MD, PhD is a medical doctor and a specialist in laboratory medicine from the laboratory ArminLabs in Augsburg, Germany.  Dr. Schwarzbach began by studying biochemistry at Hoechst AG in Frankfurt, Germany and pharmacy at the University of Mainz in Germany in 1984. In 1985 he studied medicine for 6 years at the University of Mainz and finished his MD in 1991.  Dr. Schwarzbach developed the worldwide first Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide from 1986 – 1991, getting his PhD in 1992.  He is member of the Swiss Association for tick-borne diseases, the German Association of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, and the German Society for Medical Laboratory Specialists.  He is an Advisory Board member of AONM London, England, and Board member of German Borreliosis Society, and Member and former Board Member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) and has served as an expert on advisory committees on Lyme Disease in England, Australia, Canada, Ireland, France, and Germany.  Dr. Schwarzbach is the founder and CEO of ArminLabs in Augsburg, Germany and has specialized in diagnostic tests and treatment options for patients with tick-borne diseases for over 20 years.

Key Takeaways

  • What is an EliSpot?
  • What organisms can be tested for using EliSpot technology?
  • How specific is the EliSpot in testing for Borrelia, Bartonella, Babesia, and other organisms?
  • Does the state of the immune system matter when considering EliSpot results?
  • Which infections are the most persistent?
  • Can the EliSpot be used to track progress or success of treatment?
  • What is Yersinia and where might it be encountered?
  • Can EliSpot testing be used in newborns and infants?
  • What role do viruses such as EBV, CMV, Coxsackie, and others play in chronic illness?
  • Can Mast Cell Activation Syndrome be triggered by viruses?
  • Why are Mycoplasma and Chlamydia so important to explore?
  • Why is IgA testing a promising new direction in laboratory medicine?
  • Is CD57 helpful clinically?
  • What microbes are more commonly associated with specific medical conditions?
  • How common are Rickettsial organisms?
  • What is “Post Lyme Syndrome”? Is it real?

Connect With My Guest


The content of this show is for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness or medical condition. Nothing in today’s discussion is meant to serve as medical advice or as information to facilitate self-treatment. As always, please discuss any potential health-related decisions with your own personal medical authority.

Mexican Doctors Getting Trained to Treat Lyme Disease  Go Here to Watch Stricker’s Presentation

Dr. Stricker helps train doctors in Mexico to treat Lyme disease


Going Outside? Watch Out For Asian Longhorned Tick Now in Kentucky–510400381.html  News Story in Link

Going outside? Watch out for unusual tick found in Eastern Kentucky

By WYMT News Staff

MARTIN COUNTY, KY. (WAVE) – It’s Memorial Day weekend and more people will head outside as the summer season kicks off. While you’re out having fun, be sure to keep an eye out for a tick that is new to the area.

This year’s tick season is different in Kentucky because a new tick has popped up in our area.

The University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment has received more calls about seeing ticks, but reports that incidents of tick-borne diseases in the state are very low.

People still need to use precautions because ticks are out there. They’re looking to suck blood three times in their lives in order to reproduce. This year’s tick season is different in Kentucky because a new tick has popped up in our area.

“The most common ticks we have are the Lone Star Ticks and the American Dog Tick,” Spencer County Agriculture agent Bryce Roberts said. “The new one we found is the Asian Longhorned Tick.”

Roberts said the Asian Longhorned Tick was found in Eastern Kentucky, in Martin County.

It’s very concerning because of the diseases they do carry,” Roberts said.

New ticks bring new diseases. Before or when someone gets a tick disease, they see epidemiologist Dr. Paul Schulz.

“The two we encounter the most are Ehrlichia and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever,” Schulz said.

Schulz said the infectious disease department at Norton Healthcare found its first tick-borne disease of the year in March, a sign that tick season could be starting early.

“(In) well over 50 percent of diagnosed infections, the patient didn’t know they had tick exposure,” Schulz said.

People often don’t see or feel when a tick is biting them. However, there are ways to protect yourself and your summer experience: Cover up as much of your skin as you can, use a spray with DEET, avoid overgrown wooded areas, check yourself and your children every night.


For more: this tick exists, it is an important vector of human and animal disease agents. In China and Japan, it transmits the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), which causes a human hemorrhagic fever (2), and Rickettsia japonica, which causes Japanese spotted fever (3). Studies in Asia identified ticks infected with various species of Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia, and all of these pathogen groups circulate zoonotically in the United States (4,5). In addition, parthenogenetic reproduction, a biologic characteristic of this species, allows a single introduced female tick to generate progeny without mating, thus resulting in massive host infestations.


Authorities have been relatively mum on what this tick transmits and I’ve had to dig to find it.  So far there are no noted human illnesses caused by this tick in the U.S., but the ones listed above have occurred other countries.  Do they really think this tick isn’t going to acquire disease and transmit here?  Maybe in an alternative reality, but then again, the CDC lives in an alternative reality.






Rickettsiales in Ticks Removed From Outdoor Workers From Georgia & Florida

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019

Research Letter

Rickettsiales in Ticks Removed from Outdoor Workers, Southwest Georgia and Northwest Florida, USA

Elizabeth R. Gleim1Comments to Author , L. Mike Conner, Galina E. Zemtsova, Michael L. Levin, Pamela Wong, Madeleine A. Pfaff, and Michael J. Yabsley  DOI: 10.3201/eid2505.180438

The southeastern United States has multiple tick species that can transmit pathogens to humans. The most common tick species, Amblyomma americanum, is the vector for the causative agents of human ehrlichioses and southern tick-associated rash illness, among others (1). Dermacentor variabilis ticks can transmit the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Ixodes scapularis ticks can transmit the causative agents of Lyme disease, babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (1). Although less common in the region, A. maculatum ticks are dominant in specific habitats and can transmit the causative agent of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis (1).

Persons who have occupations that require them to be outside on a regular basis might have a greater risk for acquiring a tickborne disease (2). Although numerous studies have been conducted regarding risks for tickborne diseases among forestry workers in Europe, few studies have been performed in the United States (2,3). The studies that have been conducted in the United States have focused on forestry workers in the northeastern region (2). However, because of variable phenology and densities of ticks, it is useful to evaluate tick activity and pathogen prevalence in various regions and ecosystems.

Burn-tolerant and burn-dependent ecosystems, such as pine (Pinus spp.) and mixed pine forests commonly found in the southeastern United States, have unique tick dynamics compared with those of other habitats (4). The objective of this study was to determine the tick bite risk and tickborne pathogen prevalence in ticks removed from forestry workers working in pine and mixed pine forests in southwest Georgia and northwest Florida, USA.

During June 2009–December 2011, forestry workers in southwestern Georgia (7 counties) and northwestern Florida (1 county) submitted ticks crawling on or attached to them. We identified ticks and tested them for selected pathogens (Appendix). Immature forms of the same species from the same day and person were pooled (<5 nymphs and <20 larvae) for testing.

A total of 53 persons submitted 362 ticks (Table). Excluding larvae, the most common tick species submitted was A. maculatum, followed by A. americanum, I. scapularis, and D. variabilis. On 4 occasions, 1 person submitted A. tuberculatum ticks (3 batches of larvae and 1 batch of nymphs) from a longleaf pine site in Baker County, Georgia. Average submissions per persons were 2.6 ticks (median 1 tick), but 1 person submitted 100 ticks. A total of 24 persons submitted ticks more than once, and they submitted an average of 0.08–6.5 ticks/month (overall average submission rate of 1.1 ticks/month). Three ticks were engorged (1 D. variabilis adult, 1 A. americanum nymph, and 1 Amblyomma sp. nymph); only the Amblyomma sp. nymph was positive for a pathogen (R. amblyommatis).

  • Rickettsia spp. prevalence was 36.4% in adult, 27.9% in nymphal, and 20% in larval A. americanum ticks; R. amblyommatis was the only species identified (Table).
  • Rickettsia spp. were detected in 23% of A. maculatum adults; R. amblyommatis was most common (6.0%), followed by R. parkeri (4.8%).
  • A previously detected novel Rickettsia sp. was identified in 10 of 11 A. tuberculatum larval pools and was reported by Zemtsova et al. (6). An additional pool of A. tuberculatum nymphs was tested in this study and also was positive for the novel Rickettsia sp.
  • E. chaffeensis was detected in 1 A. maculatum adult (prevalence 1.2%), and Panola mountain Ehrlichia sp. was detected in 2 A. maculatum adults (prevalence 2.4%) and 1 D. variabilis adult (prevalence 10%).
  • No ticks were positive for Borrelia spp., E. ewingii, or Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

Thus, forestry workers were found to encounter ticks on a regular basis, and peak encounter rates reflected previously reported tick seasonality in this region (4). Only 3 (0.8%) of the ticks submitted were engorged, indicating prompt removal of most ticks and thus low risk for pathogen transmission. A. maculatum, a fairly uncommon tick in the southeastern United States, was the most commonly submitted tick. However, A. maculatum ticks dominate in regularly burned pine ecosystems (4), which is where most of these workers spent their time.

We observed several unique findings related to pathogens during this study. Larvae and nymphs of A. tuberculatum ticks were submitted on multiple occasions, a tick rarely reported on humans (7). These findings in conjunction with the identification of a novel Rickettsia sp. (6), suggest that additional research is warranted. This study also identified E. chaffeensis and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia in A. maculatum ticks. Although A. americanum ticks are considered the primary vector of Ehrlichia spp., these pathogens have been occasionally reported in questing A. maculatum ticks, suggesting that this tick might be involved in their transmission cycles (5,8). We also detected Panola Mountain Ehrlichia in 1 D. variabilis tick. Thus, further research regarding these alternative tick species as potential vectors of these pathogens is warranted, particularly in the case of A. maculatum ticks, which were a common species on forestry workers and are widespread in this region (4).

At the time of this study, Dr. Gleim was a research scientist at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA. She is currently a disease ecologist at Hollins University, Roanoke, VA. Her research interests include wildlife and zoonotic diseases with a particular emphasis on tickborne diseases.


We thank the persons whom submitted ticks for this study and members of the Yabsley and Levin laboratories for providing laboratory assistance.

This study was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/University of Georgia (UGA) collaborative grant (#8212, Ecosystem Health and Human Health: Understanding the Ecological Effects of Prescribed Fire Regimes on the Distribution and Population Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses); the Oxford Research Scholars Program at Oxford College of Emory University; the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center, the Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources (UGA); the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (UGA) through the Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act (50 Statute 917); and Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study sponsorship from fish and wildlife agencies of member states.


  1. Stromdahl  EY, Hickling  GJ. Beyond Lyme: aetiology of tick-borne human diseases with emphasis on the south-eastern United States. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59(Suppl 2):4864. DOIPubMed
  2. Covert  DJ, Langley  RL. Infectious disease occurrence in forestry workers: a systematic review. J Agromed. 2002;8:95111. DOIPubMed
  3. Lee  S, Kakumanu  ML, Ponnusamy  L, Vaughn  M, Funkhouser  S, Thornton  H, et al. Prevalence of Rickettsiales in ticks removed from the skin of outdoor workers in North Carolina. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:607. DOIPubMed
  4. Gleim  ER, Conner  LM, Berghaus  RD, Levin  ML, Zemtsova  GE, Yabsley  MJ. The phenology of ticks and the effects of long-term prescribed burning on tick population dynamics in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida. PLoS One. 2014;9:e112174. DOIPubMed
  5. Loftis  AD, Kelly  PJ, Paddock  CD, Blount  K, Johnson  JW, Gleim  ER, et al. Panola Mountain Ehrlichia in Amblyomma maculatum From the United States and Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Caribbean and Africa. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:6968. DOIPubMed
  6. Zemtsova  GE, Gleim  E, Yabsley  MJ, Conner  LM, Mann  T, Brown  MD, et al. Detection of a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia in the gophertortoise tick. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:7836. DOIPubMed
  7. Goddard  J. A ten-year study of tick biting in Mississippi: implications for human disease transmission. J Agromed. 2002;8:2532. DOIPubMed
  8. Allerdice  ME, Hecht  JA, Karpathy  SE, Paddock  CD. Evaluation of Gulf Coast ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:4814.




Again, folks down South should be taken seriously when they present with symptoms.  BTW: Southern advocates tell me that STARI looks, smells, and feels just like Lyme disease.  

Lyme IS in the South:

The take home: Clark is finding borrelia (Lyme) strains in the South that the current CDC two-tier testing will never pick up in a thousand years.

The take home: Clark found live Bbsl (bissettii-like strain) in people from the Southeast who had undefined disorders not typical of LD, and were treated for LD even though they were seronegative, proving that B. bissetti is responsible for worldwide human infection.

He also showed DNA of Bbsl in Lone Star ticks which might be a bridge vector of transmission to humans.

Dr. Clark was the first to report finding LD spirochetes in animals and ticks in South Carolina, as well as in wild lizards in South Carolina and Florida. He has documented the presence of LD Borrelia species, Babesia microti, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia species, and other tick-borne pathogens in wild animals, ticks, dogs, and humans in Florida and other southern states.

Clark is infected.  Surprised?  This is why he’s finding answers – it’s much more than a job to him.

Time to start believing people!

Three Strains of Borrelia & Other Pathogens Found in Salivary Glands of Ixodes Ticks – Suggesting Quicker Transmission Time

2019 Apr 2;12(1):152. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3418-7.

Tick-borne pathogen detection in midgut and salivary glands of adult Ixodes ricinus.



The tick midgut and salivary glands represent the primary organs for pathogen acquisition and transmission, respectively. Specifically, the midgut is the first organ to have contact with pathogens during the blood meal uptake, while salivary glands along with their secretions play a crucial role in pathogen transmission to the host. Currently there is little data about pathogen composition and prevalence in Ixodes ricinus midgut and salivary glands. The present study investigated the presence of 32 pathogen species in the midgut and salivary glands of unfed I. ricinus males and females using high-throughput microfluidic real-time PCR. Such an approach is important for enriching the knowledge about pathogen distribution in distinct tick organs which should lead to a better understanding I. ricinus-borne disease epidemiology.


  • Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia spielmanii and Borrelia garinii, were detected in both midgut and salivary glands suggesting that the migration of these pathogens between these two organs might not be triggered by the blood meal.
  • In contrast, Borrelia afzelii was detected only in the tick midgut.
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica were the most frequently detected in ticks and were found in both males and females in the midgut and salivary glands.
  • In contrast, Rickettsia felis was only detected in salivary glands.
  • Finally, Borrelia miyamotoi and Babesia venatorum were detected only in males in both midguts and salivary glands.
  • Among all collected ticks, between 10-21% of organs were co-infected.
  • The most common bacterial co-infections in male and female midgut and salivary glands were Rickettsia helvetica + Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica + Borrelia lusitaniae, respectively.


Analysing tick-borne pathogen (TBP) presence in specific tick organs enabled us to (i) highlight contrasting results with well-established transmission mechanism postulates; (ii) venture new hypotheses concerning pathogen location and migration from midgut to salivary glands; and (iii) suggest other potential associations between pathogens not previously detected at the scale of the whole tick. This work highlights the importance of considering all tick scales (i.e. whole ticks vs organs) to study TBP ecology and represents another step towards improved understanding of TBP transmission.

Ixodes ricinus, commonly known as the castor bean tick, sheep tick, or deer tick, transmits numerous pathogens of medical and veterinary importance including tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme), and frequently bites humans.
The really important discovery was that three borrelia strains were found not only in the midgut but in the salivary glands – suggesting that the migration of these pathogens between these two organs might not be triggered by the blood meal.
For decades we’ve been told by the CDC that it takes a minimum of 36-48-hours for a tick to transmit Lyme to a human. Then, in 2013 we were told they needed to be embedded for 24 hours or more:
Then, microbiologist Holly Ahern came out with a fantastic video revealing that research on minimum attachment times have NEVER been done:

Transmission Time:  Only one study done on Mice. At 24 hours every tick had transmitted borrelia to the mice; however, animal studies have proven that transmission can occur in under 16 hours and it occurs frequently in under 24 hours.  No human studies have been done and  no studies have determined the minimum time it takes for transmission.

Yet, “authorities” continue to propagate this longer window, despite Lyme/MSIDS being a true 21st century pandemic & plague.

This study finally begins pushing the ball down the hill by showing it may not take a blood meal for spirochetes already within the saliva to be much more quickly injected into humans, causing infection much more quickly.

Lastly, this is a French study. The CDC probably won’t even look at it.