Identification of immunoreactive linear epitopes of Borrelia miyamotoi
Rafal Tokarz, Teresa Tagliafierro, Adrian Caciula, Nischay Mishra,b, Riddhi Thakkar, Lokendra V. Chauhan, Stephen Sameroff, Shannon Delaney, Gary P. Wormser, Adriana Marques, W. Ian Lipkin,
A B S T R A C T
Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging tick-borne spirochete transmitted by ixodid ticks. Current serologic assays for B. miyamotoi are impacted by genetic similarities to other Borrelia and limited understanding of optimal antigenic targets. In this study, we employed the TBD-Serochip, a peptide array platform, to identify new linear targets for serologic detection of B. miyamotoi.
Today’s letter to the corresponding author……
April 9, 2020
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health
722 West 168th St.
NY, NY 10032
Attn: Rafal Tokarz, PhD, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology
Dear Prof Tokarz,
In reference to the detection of tick-borne disease, please take a moment if you will to review the following list of publications using direct detection methods for identifying ongoing spirochetal infection. I will summarize the purpose of this correspondence at the end of this list:
1. Seronegative Chronic Relapsing Neuroborreliosis. (Stony Brook Lyme clinic)
“We report an unusual patient with evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection who experienced repeated neurologic relapses despite aggressive antibiotic therapy. Each course of therapy was associated with a Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction. Although the patient never had detectable free antibodies to B. burgdorferi in serum or spinal fluid, the CSF was positive on multiple occasions for complexed anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies, B. burgdorferi nucleic acids and free antigen.”
2. Cardiac Tropism of Borrelia burgdorferi: An Autopsy Study of Sudden Cardiac Death Associated with Lyme Carditis.(March 2016)
“Fatal Lyme carditis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi rarely is identified. Here, we describe the pathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of five case patients.”
3. CDC Case Study #2: A case report of a 17-year old male with fatal Lyme carditis
Borrelia burgdorferi was identified via special stains, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction. The findings support B. burgdorferi as the causative agent for his fulminant carditis and that the patient suffered fatal Lyme carditis.
4. Granulomatous hepatitis associated with chronic Borrelia burgdorferi infection: a case report
The patient had active, systemic Borrelia burgdorferi infection and consequent Lyme hepatitis, despite antibiotic therapy. Spirochetes were identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by molecular testing with specific DNA probes.
5. Culture evidence of Lyme disease in antibiotic treated patients living in the Southeast.
Rudenko and colleagues reported culture confirmation of chronic Lyme disease in 24 patients in North Carolina, Florida, and Georgia. All had undergone previous antibiotic treatment
6. DNA sequencing diagnosis of off-season spirochetemia with low bacterial density in Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi infections.
Faulty/misleading antibody tests landed a sixteen year old male in a psychiatric ward when his lab results did not meet the CDC’s strict criteria for positive results. His Western blot had only four of the required five IgG bands. Subsequent DNA sequencing identified a spirochetemia in this patient’s blood so his psychiatric issues were a result of neurologic Lyme disease misdiagnosed by antiquated/misleading serology. This patient was previously treated with antibiotics.
7. The Long-Term Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferiAntigens and DNA in the Tissues of a Patient with Lyme Disease
Autopsy tissue sections of the brain, heart, kidney, and liver were analyzed by histological and immunohistochemical methods (IHC), confocal microscopy, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS)/metagenomics. We found significant pathological changes, including borrelial spirochetal clusters, in all of the organs using IHC combined with confocal microscopy.
8. Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease
“This pilot study recently identified chronic Lyme disease in twelve patients from Canada. All of these patients were culture positive for infection (genital secretions, skin and blood) even after multiple years on antibiotics so there was no relief from current antimicrobials. Some of these patients had taken as many as eleven different types of antibiotics.”
Note: For the sake of time this is just a short list of the hundreds of publications identifying persistent Borrelia infection.
What is the purpose of this email?
Direct detection methods, specifically DNA testing has the ability to identify persistent infection whereas serology cannot be used to gauge treatment failure or success. Not to mention that humans do not produce antibodies against Borrelia for 4-6 weeks after a tick bite. By the time serology tests are positive, the spirochetes have already invaded various deep tissues, like those in syphilis, and are hard to eradicate with antibiotics.
Serology has allowed the 30-year dogma to persevere whereas direct detection methods are exposing the exact opposite.
We are dealing with a life-altering/life-threatening infection with faulty/misleading antibody tests, inadequate treatment, no medical training and absolutely no disease control whatsoever; a public health disaster.
It is time to utilize 21st century technology for the purpose of rapid detection and efficacy of treatment.
If DNA testing is accepted for the 21st century pandemic (COVID-19)  ; why not for the 20th century plague (Lyme disease) that has been allowed to proliferate unchecked?
Lyme Endemic Hudson, NH
Cc: The tick-Borne Disease Working Group
1. Lyme Disease Is Hard to Catch And Easy to Halt, Study Finds
New York Times By GINA KOLATA Published: June 13, 2001
2. The Science Behind the Test for the COVID-19 Virus
Email to the attention of Dr. Paul Mead, Chief of the CDC Bacterial Diseases Branch
Today’s letter to Paul Mead of the CDC regarding the continued use of serology mentioned in the latest study on Borrelia miyamotoi at the top of the page.
Apr 13, 2020
Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
3156 Rampart Rd
Fort Collins, Colorado CO 80521
Attn: Paul Mead, MD, MPH Acting Branch Chief
Dear Dr. Mead,
In October of 2018 you coauthored the following paper in Clinical Infectious Diseases and made the following statement regarding serologic testing for Lyme disease:
Direct Diagnostic Tests for Lyme Disease
Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciy614, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy614
Published: 11 October 2018
Excerpt: (Quote from Paul Mead)
“… serologic tests cannot distinguish active infection, past infection, or reinfection. Reliable direct-detection methods for active B. burgdorferi infection have been lacking in the past but are needed and appear achievable.”
Dr. Mead…. So why is the National Institutes of Health funding Dr. Gary Wormser’s study for the serologic detection of B. miyamotoi?
Obviously Dr. Wormser didn’t get your memo or you are just providing lip service to give the illusion that our public health officials have everything under control.
What is the status of Direct Diagnostic Tests for Lyme Disease Dr. Mead? Persistent infection after extensive antibiotic treatment has been identified through the use of direct detection methods in academic centers and autopsy findings yet the average patient cannot obtain these tests to justify how sick they are with their chronic active infection.
Please provide a list of grants issued by the CDC or National Institutes of Health for studies actively involved in developing Direct Diagnostic Tests for Lyme Disease.
I expect a prompt reply to this inquiry.
Lyme Endemic Hudson, NH
 More of the same focus on Serology!
For more on the concerted suppression of direct testing for borrelia: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/12/13/suppression-of-microscopy-for-lyme-diagnostics-professor-laane/
BTW: The CDC is directly behind the COVID-19 testing fiasco. This article points out that insisting upon their own tests is the MO of the CDC – even when human lives are at stake: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/03/27/cdcs-deadly-testing-fiasco-centralization-of-public-health-authority-a-threat-to-national-security/ The reason for this is so they control all the parameters for further products that will make them money – everything from test kits to drugs to vaccines.
The CDC has controlled Lyme testing for decades and it rules like the iron curtain even though research clearly shows it is abysmal and misses at least half of all cases – and often times much more.