Archive for the ‘Borrelia Miyamotoi (Relapsing Fever Group)’ Category

Lyme Wars Part 5 – Coinfections Oct. 27, 2017 (News video in link)

Man dies of Powassan virus and doctors are sounding the alarms to not only Lyme disease, but other tick-borne illnesses. Stefan Holt reports in the final part of News 4’s 5-part series on the Lyme Wars.



Another informative report on the dangers of other TBI’s (tick borne illness) besides Lyme Disease.  Please remember that a tick’s gut is a literal garbage can of pathogens that work synergistically to make us extremely sick.  This is why throwing doxycycline like napalm doesn’t work for a significant portion of patients and until doctors become educated and admit that Lyme Disease is usually MSIDS (multi systemic infectious disease syndrome) we are doomed as there is often far more than just Lyme (borrelia) at play requiring different medications.  The CDC/IDSA unscientific and antiquated guidelines are seriously behind the 8 ball.  (The actual number of pathogens is far greater than 6 and new ones are being continually discovered)

Also, please do not be taken in by doctors such as Dr. Wormser, chief of infectious diseases at NY Medical College, who claim this or that disease is “rare.”  That type of verbiage has kept thousands from being tested, diagnosed, and treated for decades.  I assure you all of this is more common than currently believed and until every TBI is reportable we have no clue about numbers.  Reporting criteria also needs to be brought up to speed as a majority of patients don’t meet the current arbitrary standards created by the CDC that follows the controlled narrative.


As of 2015, Wisconsin has the 2nd highest number of cases of Powassan:  While it’s true Powassan can be spread in mere minutes, the minimum transmission time for Lyme (borrelia) as not been determined.  Please know multitudes have become infected with LD in far less than 24 hours:


Bartonella – Dr. Phillips states many doctors completely ignore Bartonella, and while the CDC states there is no convincing evidence that ticks transmit Bartonella, Phillips is not surprised.  He says research on Bartonella is where Lyme was 30 years ago.  The majority of WI patients I work with have Bart symptoms.

Borrelia Miyamotoi (Relapsing Fever Group)  Antibiotics that have been used effectively include doxycycline for uncomplicated B. miyamotoi infection in adults and ceftriaxone or penicillin G for meningoencephalitis.


  • Prior to 2008, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis infections were referred to as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), respectively.
  • Since 2008, surveillance for human anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are classified as:
    • –  Anaplasmosis caused by the A. phagocytophilum bacteria (transmitted by the blacklegged tick).
    • –  Ehrlichiosis caused by E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii (transmitted by the Amblyomma americanum or lone star tick).
    • –  Anaplasmosis/Ehrlichiosisundetermined(speciesunknown) including the new species E. muris-like (EML).
  • Increase in probable cases of E. chaffeensis (lone star tick vector not traditionally seen in Wisconsin.)
  • In 2009, identified a cluster of novel E. muris-like cases.
    • In 2009, EML was first identified in a cluster of four case-patients from Wisconsin (3) and Minnesota (1). This atypical Ehrlichia had never before been identified in North America.
      • From 2009-2012, a total of 33 confirmed EML cases have been identified from both states and one case-patient was cultured positive.
  • It is uncertain how widely spread the E. muris-like infections are in Wisconsin because of the limited testing available.
  • DPH is currently working with laboratories to bring the 34 multiplex PCR testing on board.   Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin and Minnesota: a frequent infection with the potential for persistence.

Anaplasmosis Treatment

Prevention Tips:

If one thing is clear it’s that none of this is straight forward and simple.  Research and testing for all things TBI is abysmal and has been a controlled narrative from the beginning.  Until researchers and doctors have an unbiased approach patients are caught in the Lyme Wars.

Please spread the word.





Bm in Manitoba 2011-2014

Human seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Manitoba, Canada, in 2011-2014: a cross-sectional study


Background: Hard tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi has been reported in Russia, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan and the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. We sought to investigate the presence of B. miyamotoi infection in humans in Manitoba, Canada.


Methods: Two hundred fifty sera collected from residents of Manitoba with suspected Lyme disease between 2011 and 2014 were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi antibody using a C6 peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by Western blot. Residual sera were then anonymized, stored at -80°C and subsequently thawed and tested for B. miyamotoi antibody using a 2-step glycerosphosphodiester phosphodiesterase-based ELISA and Western blot assay.


Results: Twenty-four of the 250 (9.6%) sera tested positive for B. miyamotoi immunoglobulin G. Participants who were B. miyamotoi seropositive were predominantly male (54%) and younger on average than those who were seronegative (32 and 44 yr of age, respectively). Participants who were seropositive for B. burgdorferiwere significantly more likely to be B. miyamotoi seropositive than those who were B. burgdorferi seronegative (20.3% v. 6.6%, respectively, odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.5-8.5).


Interpretation: This initial report of human B. miyamotoi infection in Canada should raise awareness of hard tick-borne relapsing fever among clinicians and residents of areas in Canada and western North America where Lyme disease is endemic.


Transmission of Borrelia Miyamotoi Sensu Lato Relapsing Fever Group Spirochetes in Relation to Duration of Attachment by Ixodes Scapularis Nymphs

Transmission of Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes in relation to duration of attachment by Ixodes scapularis nymphs

Nicole E.Breuner, Marc C.Dolan, Adam J.Replogle, Christopher Sexton, Andrias Hojgaard, Karen A.Boegler, Rebecca J.Clark, Lars Eisen
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 8, Issue 5, August 2017, Pages 677-681.


Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes are emerging as causative agents of human illness (Borrelia miyamotoi disease) in the United States. Host-seeking Ixodes scapularis ticks are naturally infected with these spirochetes in the eastern United States and experimentally capable of transmitting B. miyamotoi. However, the duration of time required from tick attachment to spirochete transmission has yet to be determined.

We therefore conducted a study to assess spirochete transmission by single transovarially infected I. scapularis nymphs to outbred white mice at three time points post-attachment (24, 48, and 72 h) and for a complete feed ( > 72–96 h). Based on detection of B. miyamotoi DNA from the blood of mice fed on by an infected nymph, the probability of spirochete transmission increased from 10% by 24 h of attachment (evidence of infection in 3/30 mice) to 31% by 48 h (11/35 mice), 63% by 72 h (22/35 mice), and 73% for a complete feed (22/30 mice).

We conclude that
(i) single I. scapularis nymphs effectively transmit B. miyamotoi relapsing fever group spirochetes while feeding,
(ii) transmission can occur within the first 24 h of nymphal attachment, and
(iii) the probability of transmission increases with the duration of nymphal attachment.


I thank the authors for stating transmission can occur in 24 hours and that transmission increases with attachment time.  

At first I thought I’d posted this before; however, in this study, No evidence of infection with or exposure to B. mayonii occurred in mice that were fed upon by a single infected nymph for 24 or 48 h. The probability of transmission by a single infected nymphal tick was 31% after 72 h of attachment and 57% for a complete feed.”

In essence the newer study found greater evidence of infection in shorter transmission times.  

Transmission time research, similarly to geographical maps of tick populations, has been used against patients for decades. Please read all transmission time studies with healthy skepticism, realizing many patients have become infected in under the oft quoted 24-72 hours. Thankfully, the CDC is now telling doctors to treat patients empirically, without waiting for test results, if they suspect tick borne illness. Bob Giguere of IGeneX states a case of a little girl who went outside to play about 8:30a.m. and came inside at 10:30 with an attached tick above her right eye. By 2 o’clock, she had developed the facial palsy. At the hospital she was told it couldn’t be Lyme as the tick hadn’t been attached long enough. They offered a neuro-consult…..(not treatment) Borrelia Burgdorferi (Bb) and Borrelia Miyamotoi (Bm) can both be transmitted by the same hard-bodied (ixodid) tick species, Bm is put with the relapsing fever group – normally transmitted by soft-bodied ticks.  Bm  may cause severe disease, including meningoencephalitis. The most common clinical manifestations of B. miyamotoi infection are fever, fatigue, headache, chills, myalgia, arthralgia, and nausea. Symptoms of B. miyamotoi infection generally resolve within a week of the start of antibiotic therapy. B. miyamotoi infection should be considered in patients with acute febrile illness who have been exposed to Ixodes ticks in a region where Lyme disease occurs. Because clinical manifestations are nonspecific, etiologic diagnosis requires confirmation by blood smear examination, PCR, antibody assay, in vitro cultivation, and/or isolation by animal inoculation. Antibiotics that have been used effectively include doxycycline for uncomplicated B. miyamotoi infection in adults and ceftriaxone or penicillin G for meningoencephalitis.