Archive for the ‘Tularemia’ Category

Other Arthropod-Borne Bacteria Causing Nonmalarial Fever in Ethiopia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31184993/

2019 Jun 10. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2018.2396. [Epub ahead of print]

Arthropod-Borne Bacteria Cause Nonmalarial Fever in Rural Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in 394 Patients.

Abstract

Bacterial arthropod-borne pathogens are a common cause of fever in Africa, but their precise impact is unknown and usually underdiagnosed in the basic rural laboratories of low-resourced African countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of arthropod-borne bacterial diseases causing fever among malaria smear-negative patients in a rural hospital located in Ethiopia. The study population included patients aged 2 years or older; referred to Gambo Rural General Hospital (West Arsi, Ethiopia), between July and November 2013, for fever or report of fever in the previous 48 h; attending the outpatient department; and testing negative for malaria by Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. We extracted DNA from 394 whole blood samples, using reverse line blot assays of amplicons to look for bacteria from the genera: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia.

Thirteen patients showed presence of DNA for these pathogens: three each by Borrelia spp., the Francisella group (F. tularensis tularensis, F. tularensis holartica, and F. novicia), Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia Felis, and one by Bartonella rochalimae. Thus, in this rural area of Africa, febrile symptoms could be due to bacteria transmitted by arthropods. Further studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenic role of R. bellii.

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**Comment**

What if some of this is mosquito-borne as well? We frankly don’t know because the transmission studies are screaming to be done.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/11/07/are-mosquitoes-transmitting-lyme-disease/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/02/12/wolbachia-laced-mosquitoes-being-released-why-lyme-msids-patients-might-be-negatively-affected/

 

 

 

 

Tick Data – 76% Infected With One Organism, 20% Have Three or More Pathogens

https://www.tickcheck.com/statistics?

Each tick submitted for testing contributes to the research being conducted at TickCheck. By keeping records of all the results generated, we have been able to gain valuable insights into disease prevalence and co-infection rates. The comprehensive testing panel has been especially helpful in contributing to this research by ensuring all diseases and coinfections are accounted for when examining a tick.

Our current research shows:
  • 76% of ticks tested have at least one disease causing organism
  • 49% are co-infected with two or more organisms
  • 20% carry three or more
  • 9% of the ticks tested carry four or more

Infection Visualization by Tick Species

All Ticks Tested
76% Positive for Infection
Negative (24%)
_____________________________
  • 93% Positive for Infection
  • Negative (7%)
  • 63% Positive for Infection
  • Negative (37%)
  • 48% Positive for Infection
  • Negative (52%)

Coinfection Visualization

  • 2+ coinfection 49%
  • No coinfection 51%

Pathogenic Prevalence

The information below shows the positive/negative prevalence ratio of selected pathogens we test for. These pathogens were observed in ticks from the United States and Canada. Data set includes tests performed since TickCheck’s founding in 2014 and is updated in real time. (

Go to link at beginning to filter by state.  I’ve added the 3 listed for Wisconsin next to the entire sample size.  Please note the small sample sizes of WI ticks. 

Borrelia burgdorferi (deer tick) associated with Lyme disease

Sample size of 3,280 ticks.           70 Wisconsin ticks
  • 30% postive                                           33% positive
  • 70% negative                                         67% negative

Borrelia burgdorferi (western blacklegged tick) associated with Lyme disease

Sample size of 279 ticks.
  • 4% positive
  • 96% negative

Borrelia burgdorferi (lone star tick) associated with Lyme disease

Sample size of 899 ticks.
  • 8% positive
  • 92% negative

Borrelia burgdorferi (American dog tick) associated with Lyme disease

Sample size of 901 ticks.
  • 2% positive
  • 98% negative

Anaplasma phagocytophilum associated with anaplasmosis

Sample size of 2,146 ticks.           36 Wisconsin ticks
  • 8% positive                                           11% positive in Wisconsin
  • 92% negative                                        89% negative in Wisconsin

Babesia microti associated with babesiosis

Sample size of 1,894 ticks.           32 Wisconsin ticks
  • 4% positive                                            6% positive
  • 96% negative                                        94% negative

Bartonella spp. associated with bartonellosis

Sample size of 1,060 ticks.
  • 47% positive
  • 53% negative

Ehrlichia chaffeensis associated with ehrlichiosis

Sample size of 857 ticks.
  • 2% positive
  • 98% negative

Rickettsia spp. associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Sample size of 944 ticks.
  • 23% postive
  • 77% negative

Francisella tularensis associated with tularemia

Sample size of 1,028 ticks.
  • 1% positive
  • 99% negative

Borrelia miyamotoi associated with B. miyamotoi

Sample size of 1,091 ticks.
  • 6% postive
  • 94% negative

Borrelia lonestari associated with STARI

Sample size of 831 ticks.
  • 19% postitive
  • 81% negative

Babesia spp. associated with babesiosis

Sample size of 564 ticks.
  • 5% positive
  • 95% negative

Mycoplasma spp. associated with Mycoplasma spp.

Sample size of 948 ticks.
  • 8% positive
  • 92% negative

Borrelia spp. associated with Borrelia spp.

Sample size of 612 ticks.
  • 17% postive
  • 83% negative

Powassan virus Lineage II associated with Deer tick virus

Sample size of 102 ticks.
  • 24% positive
  • 76% negative

Borrelia mayonii associated with Lyme disease

Sample size of 376 ticks.
  • 100% negative

Ehrlichia ewingii associated with ehrlichiosis

Sample size of 283 ticks.
  • 100% negative

Rickettsia amblyommii associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Sample size of 177 ticks.
  • 46% positive
  • 54% negative

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For more about Tickcheckhttps://www.tickcheck.com/about

You can request free tick identification by sending in a quality picture of your tick. Using real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), Tickcheck can determine the presence of certain pathogens with an accuracy level of over 99.9%.  All information about how to send in your tick, costs of various tests, time for results, etc. is found here:  https://www.tickcheck.com/info/faq

Jonathan Weber is the founder and CEO of TickCheck and became acutely aware of the dangers of tick-borne diseases after his father caught Lyme during a family trip on the Appalachian Trail.

___________________

**Comment**

This information supports current research showing many patients are infected with numerous pathogens causing more severe illness & requiring far more than the CDC’s mono therapy of doxycycline:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/30/study-shows-lyme-msids-patients-infected-with-many-pathogens-and-explains-why-we-are-so-sick/

It also supports previous work showing coinfections within ticks:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/05/01/co-infection-of-ticks-the-rule-rather-than-the-exception/

What I want to know is WHY nothing’s being done about this?  Why are people STILL given 21 days of doxycycline when that particular med will not work on numerous pathogens?
Lastly, a word about statistics – this tick data should be used with caution & never to turn sick patients away due to a statistic. If you are the sorry sucker who gets bit by that ONE tick carrying a “statistically insignificant” pathogen, you still got bit and have to deal with it.  
Shame on doctors for turning sick people away due to statistics and maps.
There’s no such thing as an “insignificant” tick bite!

But, Patients are STILL being turned away:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/04/22/its-just-crazy-why-is-lyme-disease-treatment-so-difficult-to-find-in-mississippi/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/03/19/jacksonville-family-shares-daughters-9-month-diagnosis-of-rare-disease-which-isnt-rare-lyme/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/05/31/no-lyme-in-the-south-guess-again/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/24/no-lyme-in-oklahoma-yeah-right/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/09/24/arkansas-kids-denied-lyme-treatment/  “They had the classic symptoms, they had the bulls eye rash, they had the joint pain, they had fevers and had flu like symptoms, yet we were denied treatment for at least two of them and I don’t understand how this is legal,” said Bowerman.

According to Dr. Naveen Patil, Director of the Infectious Disease Program, ADH,

“We don’t have Lyme Disease in Arkansas, we have the ticks that transmit Lyme Disease but we don’t have any recorded cases of Lyme Disease.” 

Bowerman also received a letter from the clinic stating doctors would no longer treat her children because she consistently questioned their medical advice and recommendations.

This is getting to be way beyond ludicrous.

 

Eye Problems in Tick-borne Diseases Other Than Lyme

http://danielcameronmd.com/eye-problems-tick-borne-diseases-lyme/

EYE PROBLEMS IN TICK-BORNE DISEASES OTHER THAN LYME

“Why should an ophthalmologist have a good understanding of Lyme diagnosis and treatment?” asks Sathiamoorthi [1], from the Mayo Clinic, in an article published in the Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. “Vision-threatening ophthalmic manifestations are relatively common in Lyme disease (LD) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.”

by Daniel J. Cameron, MD MPH

“Knowledge of systemic and ophthalmic manifestations combined with an understanding of the epidemiology of disease vectors is crucial for the diagnosis of tick-borne diseases,” she explains.

While manifestations may be present with LD and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ocular involvement is rare in other tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, Powassan encephalitis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Colorado tick fever, Sathiamoorthi points out.

However, the true prevalence of ocular involvement due to tick-borne illnesses is unknown. Limitations with testing can make it difficult to identify patients. “It is crucial to know who is appropriate to test in order to avoid false positive results.” If an individual has been symptomatic for only a short period of time, they “may not have detectable serum IgM antibodies to the causative organism because it takes time for this immune response to develop.”

It can also be difficult to determine the cause of the ocular complaints if there is evidence of more than one tick-borne illness.

“One case report [2] describes a patient with optic neuritis and orbital myositis who had serologic evidence of HME [Human Monocytic Ehrlichioisis], Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia,” cites Sathiamoorthi.

There are more than one species of ticks associated with ocular findings, as well. According to Sathiamoorthi, those include Ornithodoros genus, Dermacentor variabilis Ambylomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis, and Dermacentor andersonii.

Sathiamoorthi advises doctors to “carefully generate a reasonable differential based on clues in the medical and social history regarding exposures and risks.”

“Patients who are most likely to have ophthalmic Lyme disease,” explains Sathiamoorthi, “are those with ocular manifestations commonly associated with Lyme disease (i.e. Bells palsy, cranial nerve palsies and keratitis); tick exposure in Lyme endemic regions; other signs/symptoms of late Lyme disease (i.e. inflammatory arthritis, carditis, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans rash, encephalopathy and meningitis); and negative syphilis testing.”

Read more on eye problems in tick-borne diseases in “A growing list of eye problems in Lyme disease.”

References:

1. Sathiamoorthi S, Smith WM. The eye and tick-borne disease in the United States. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27(6):530-537.
2. Pendse S, Bilyk JR, Lee MS. The ticking time bomb. Surv Ophthalmol. 2006;51(3):274-279.

 

New Comprehensive Testing for Vector-borne Disease – Medical Diagnostic Labs

http://www.genesisbiotechgroup.com/press/VectorBornePR_Final_Branded_3.18.2019.pdf

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, L.L.C., Fights Tick- and Mosquito-borne Epidemic with New Comprehensive Testing for Vector-borne Disease.

Hamilton, NJ., March 18, 2019 –Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, L.L.C., (MDL), a Genesis Biotechnology Group® (GBG) company and CLIA-certified, CAP-accredited laboratory specializing in high-complexity, state-of-the-art, automated DNA-based molecular analyses, has expanded its testing to include a comprehensive program for the detection of vector-borne diseases.

Unfortunately, new tick- and mosquito-borne diseases continue to emerge, increasing in prevalence year after year. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that the number of disease cases from mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas has tripled from 2004 to 2016. Ticks and mosquitos that carry bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens continue to increase in number, species, and geographic range. Currently, tick-borne diseases are widely distributed throughout the United States, with major concentrations in the Northeast, Upper Midwest, and across the middle of the Midwest and Atlantic states.

To combat this growing medical issue, MDL has renewed their efforts to provide the most comprehensive vector-borne disease test menu. Their multi-phase implementation will offer a comprehensive platform blending direct (molecular testing) and indirect (serological) testing methods. This important information helps providers determine their patients’ exposure risk, the pathogen(s) associated with often-overlapping symptomatology, the most effective antimicrobial treatment for active infections, and appropriate prophylactic treatment for exposure. Phase Two, expected to launch in Q2 2019, will feature tick identification. MDL will also offer immune status testing using flow cytometry to evaluate CD3-/CD8-/CD57+ natural killer cells and other immune markers to help assess treatment response for acute and Post-treatment Lyme disease Syndrome patients.

Testing will detect a variety of pathogens associated with tick-borne disease including:

  • Borrelia species (US and European strains of Lyme disease and Relapsing fever)
  • Rickettsia species (Spotted Fever and Typhus Fever)
  • Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichiosis)
  • Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
  • Babesia species (Babesiosis)
  • Powassan virus and Bourbon virus
  • Mosquito-borne viruses will include Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, and Usutu virus.

This is not the first time that MDL has been on cutting-edge of clinical diagnostic testing for vector-borne disease. In 2001 they were the first lab to identify and report, in peer-reviewed scientific journals, co-infections of Ixodes scapularis (deer tick) with Borrelia burgdorferi and Bartonella henselae. According to Dr. Eli Mordechai, Chief Executive Officer (CEO),

“Our laboratory has always poured resources into vector-borne research by developing and enhancing tests in concert with our national and international clinician clients. We’re committed to leading the way in vector-borne diagnostics and partnering with healthcare providers to offer patients the best care possible”.

About MDL

MDL is a CLIA-certified infectious disease laboratory specializing in high-complexity, state-of-the-art, automated, DNA-based molecular analyses. Using unique molecular techniques, MDL provides clinicians from many specialties valuable information to assist in the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of viral, fungal, and bacterial infections. MDL is a member of the Genesis Biotechnology Group located in Hamilton, New Jersey, in “Einstein’s Alley”, the research and technology corridor of New Jersey.

About GBG

GBG is a consortium of vertically-integrated corporate research entities, which facilitates the overall market implementation and delivery of biomedical science products and services related to diagnostics and drug discovery. Through the consolidation of research activities, and the collaboration of diverse groups of scientists with expertise in molecular biology, genetics, high throughput screening (HTS), pharmacology, molecular modeling, and medicinal chemistry, GBG is well-positioned to create and sustain complex research platforms in drug discovery and the design of surrogate biomarkers for chronic diseases.

To find out more, please visit www.mdlab.com.

Scott Gygax, Ph.D. sgygax@mdlab.com609.570.LYMEwww.mdlab.com

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More on testing:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/12/lyme-testing-problems-solutions/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/01/16/2-tier-lyme-testing-missed-85-7-of-patients-milford-hospital/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/12/direct-diagnostic-tests-for-lyme-the-closest-thing-to-an-apology-you-are-ever-going-to-get/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/08/ny-grants-approval-of-igenexs-lyme-immunoblot-tests/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/10/17/igenex-introduces-3-new-lyme-tests/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/12/paving-the-way-for-better-lyme-diagnostic-tests/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/12/07/igenex-presentation/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/12/13/suppression-of-microscopy-for-lyme-diagnostics-professor-laane/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/27/spirochete-culture-microscopy-videos-see-whats-inside-you/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/29/microscopy-of-spirochaete-biofilm/

 

Human Tick-Borne Diseases in Australia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360175/

Published online 2019 Jan 28. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00003
PMCID: PMC6360175
PMID: 30746341

Human Tick-Borne Diseases in Australia

Abstract

There are 17 human-biting ticks known in Australia. The bites of Ixodes holocyclus, Ornithodoros capensis, and Ornithodoros gurneyi can cause paralysis, inflammation, and severe local and systemic reactions in humans, respectively. Six ticks, including Amblyomma triguttatum, Bothriocroton hydrosauri, Haemaphysalis novaeguineae, Ixodes cornuatus, Ixodes holocyclus, and Ixodes tasmani may transmit Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia australis, Rickettsia honei, or Rickettsia honei subsp. marmionii. These bacterial pathogens cause Q fever, Queensland tick typhus (QTT), Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF), and Australian spotted fever (ASF). It is also believed that babesiosis can be transmitted by ticks to humans in Australia.

In addition, Argas robertsi, Haemaphysalis bancrofti, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes hirsti, Rhipicephalus australis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks may play active roles in transmission of other pathogens that already exist or could potentially be introduced into Australia. These pathogens include Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Burkholderia spp., Francisella spp., Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Lake Clarendon virus (LCV), Saumarez Reef virus (SREV), Upolu virus (UPOV), or Vinegar Hill virus (VINHV).

It is important to regularly update clinicians’ knowledge about tick-borne infections because these bacteria and arboviruses are pathogens of humans that may cause fatal illness. An increase in the incidence of tick-borne infections of human may be observed in the future due to changes in demography, climate change, and increase in travel and shipments and even migratory patterns of birds or other animals. Moreover, the geographical conditions of Australia are favorable for many exotic ticks, which may become endemic to Australia given an opportunity. There are some human pathogens, such as Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia rickettsii that are not currently present in Australia, but can be transmitted by some human-biting ticks found in Australia, such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, if they enter and establish in this country.

Despite these threats, our knowledge of Australian ticks and tick-borne diseases is in its infancy.

**Comment**

I appreciate the way the researchers wrote about the possibility of infection even though there are not recorded cases yet.  This open-mindedness is imperative if we are to move forward. Gone are the days where tick-borne illness is presented as if the information were akin to the 10 commandments.

Tick-borne illness has become a true pandemic and is found virtually everywhere.

While Lyme is not mentioned (please note further down that autopsy results showed Lyme all over a man from Sydney) the following infections are on record:

  • Q fever
  • Queensland tick typhus (QTT)
  • Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF)
  • Australian spotted fever (ASF)
  • Babesiosis
  • Anaplasma spp.
  • Bartonella spp.
  • Burkholderia spp.
  • Francisella spp. (Tularemia)
  • Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV)
  • tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)
  • Lake Clarendon virus (LCV)
  • Saumarez Reef virus (SREV)
  • Upolu virus (UPOV)
  • Vinegar Hill virus (VINHV)

I would say that is quite enough to make our Aussie friends quite sick.

For more on TBI’s in Australia:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/21/our-battle-ongoing-lyme-disease-in-australia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/11/03/ld-not-in-australia-here-we-go-again/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/03/aussie-widow-of-lyme-disease-victim-to-sue-nsw-health/  A SYDNEY woman launches a class action against NSW Health after autopsy results showed her husband was riddled with Lyme in his liver, heart, kidney, and lungs. He was only 44 years old and was bitten by a tick while filming a TV show in Sydney.

 https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/18/study-finds-q-fever-rickettsia-typhus-in-australian-ticks-and-people/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/14/python-covered-with-more-than-500-ticks-rescued-in-australia/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/03/23/australian-lyme-disease-research-pilot-funded/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/09/19/tbis-in-australia/

 

 

Ozarks Woman Hopes For Tick-borne Disease Progress With Proposed Federal Legislation

https://www.ky3.com/content/news/Ozarks-woman-hopes-for-tick-borne-disease-progress-with-proposed-federal-legislation-507052841.html

Ozarks woman hopes for tick-borne disease progress with proposed federal legislation

 

https://www.ky3.com/templates/2015_Sub_Video_Share?contentObj=507052841“>https://www.ky3.com/templates/2015_Sub_Video_Share?contentObj=507052841  News Video Here

You probably try to protect yourself and your children from ticks and the diseases they carry with insect repellents. But new federal legislation would add resources to the battle against Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.

The Centers for Disease Control estimates 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the U.S. The proposed legislation would crate a new national strategy to combat tick-borne diseases.

The bill would create an office of oversight and coordination for tick-borne diseases in the Department of Health and Human Services.
It would expand and enhance research, develop new and better diagnostic tests and seek safe and effective vaccines.

Lori Geurin, who lives near Bolivar, hopes more resources are put toward exploring tick-borne diseases. She started having flu like symptoms and severe fatigue about seven years ago.

“My whole body was in pain, and I couldn’t sleep at all,” says Geurin. “I would have night after night of no sleep at all, and I was teaching and a mom of four children and a wife. And it was just all I could do to get up in the morning and get out of bed.”

A year and a half later, Geurin says she tested positive for Lyme disease in one test from a private company, one from her doctor, plus another tick borne disease called tularemia.

“He said that my symptoms, if I had been to the northeast, that he would diagnose me with Lyme because my symptoms were consistent with Lyme,” says Geurin.

“But because I hadn’t been to the northeast, I didn’t have Lyme disease.”

Her long search for answers is one reason she believes more research is needed on Lyme disease and other tick borne illnesses.

“I’ve read a lot that there isn’t enough funding for Lyme, and there’s so many people out there that I hear from every week have the same symptoms and they’ve been told the same things,” says Geurin.

Congresswoman Vicky Hartzler is one of many co-sponsors to the bill, House Resolution 220. It’s been introduced in the house and referred to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

__________________

**Comment**

Another patient told they can’t have Lyme because it doesn’t show up on a man-made map. This is 2019, with information coming out on a daily basis on the spread of ticks and tick borne illness, yet doctors STILL have their heads in the sand.

This, right here, is a very real reason why thousands go undiagnosed.

Medical stupidity.

These maps are outdated and do not explain the whole story. Doctors, please use your God-given brains. Do not smugly rely on outdated information.  Be informed.  Do your homework.

Quit looking at maps and start listening to patients!

For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/16/ticks-that-carry-lyme-disease-are-spreading-fast/

This tick border thing is a man-made constructed paradigm that has never been accurate, but it’s fit the CDC/NIH/IDSA narrative.  http://steveclarknd.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/The-Confounding-Debate-Over-Lyme-Disease-in-the-South-DiscoverMagazine.com_.pdf (go to page 6 and read about Speilman’s maps which are faulty but have ruled like the Iron Curtain, and have been used to keep folks from being diagnosed and treated)

TIME TO PULL THE BLINDERS OFF AND LOOK AT THIS THING AS THE PANDEMIC IT TRULY IS.

There is Lyme in the South:  

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/05/31/no-lyme-in-the-south-guess-again/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/03/02/hold-the-press-arkansas-has-lyme/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/10/25/hope-for-southerners/

 

 

 

Tularemia in Minnesotan Ticks

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/vbz.2018.2388

Prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks, Minnesota, 2017

Tory Whitten, Courtney Demontigny, Jenna Bjork, Mandy Foss, Molly Peterson, Joni Scheftel, Dave Neitzel, Maureen Sullivan, and Kirk Smith
Published Online:https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2388

Introduction: The prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Minnesota ticks is unknown. Ticks collected at seven sites were tested to determine the infection prevalence of F. tularensis in Dermacentor variabilis in Minnesota.

Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from two properties at an epizootic site and at five long-term tick research sites. Ticks were pooled by species, sex, date, and site with a maximum of 10 ticks per pool. Ticks were bisected and homogenized; DNA from supernatant was extracted and tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Twice, additional ticks were collected for bacterial culture and isolation of F. tularensis. Proportion of positive pools and minimum infection rate (MIR) were calculated.

Results: A total of 3527 ticks were tested for F. tularensis including 1601 male D. variabilis and 1926 female D. variabilis. Across all sites, 128 (34%) of 378 pools were RT-PCR positive for F. tularensis. Of 128 positive pools, F. tularensis from 96 (75%) was identified as type A; F. tularensis from 32 pools was unable to be subtyped. The overall MIR was 3.6%. The MIR was significantly lower at the epizootic site compared with Morrison County 1 (3.9% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.02) but did not differ between the epizootic site and Pine County 1 (3.9% vs. 2.1%; p = 0.49). Within the epizootic site, the MIR was significantly higher at Washington County 2 compared with the adjacent property (5.7% vs. 2.3%; p < 0.001). F. tularensis was cultured from 6 (15%) of 40 pools.

Conclusions: F. tularensis was found in ticks at a majority of sites tested. The MIR of F. tularensis in D. variabilis ticks in Minnesota varied geographically. Our findings support the hypothesis that D. variabilis plays an important role in the natural history of tularemia in Minnesota. Further ecologic studies are needed to fully understand the importance of tick species in the maintenance and transmission of F. tularensis in Minnesota.

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**Comment**

The Dermacentor variabilis tick is a hard bodied tick, also known as the American Dog tick or Wood tick and is widely known.  It transmits Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and tularemia to humans as well as canine tick paralysis to dogs.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in781

LyraEDISServlet-2

Dorsal view of American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), with male on left, and female on right.  Credit: J.F. Butler, University of Florida

It was been suggested that adult ticks move to the edge of the roads and trails in an attempt to find a host, or “quest.” Some have hypothesized that because many animals typically follow trails, they leave an odor that attracts these ticks causing them to move toward and quest alongside trails in attempts to find a host (Mcnemee et al. 2003).

More on Tularemia:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/10/25/of-rabbits-and-men/ 

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/28/after-tularemia-death-experts-stress-education/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/08/07/tularemia-hunting-dogs-as-possible-vectors/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/02/27/tularemia-infected-ticks-found-on-sorrento-valley-trail-in-ca/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/03/07/hantavirus-tularemia-warnings-issued-in-san-diego-county/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/09/19/glandular-tularemia/

Normally thought of as inhabiting areas east of the Rocky Mountains, the Wood tick is obviously defying entomology maps and traipsing all over – from Minnesota to Missouri, California, and most probably everywhere in-between.

I remember hearing Timothy Lepore, MD, FACS, surgeon at Nantucket Cottage Hospital, at a Lyme conference.  He explained that Tularemia is also a disease of those who work with the land such as landscapers and farmers, as well as those who get bit by a tick. There are cases reported in every state but Hawaii, and many other wild and domestic animals can be infected. The highest rates of infection are in Arkansas.  Please see this link for more details but know that this is a bioweaponized pathogen:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2016/10/25/of-rabbits-and-men/  The WHO estimates that an aerosol dispersal of 50 kg of F. tularensis over an area with 5 million people would result in 25,000 incapacitating casualties including 19,000 deaths.

Transmission: Transmission can occur through the skin or mucous membranes when handling infected animals as well as through tick bite, contact with fluids from infected deer flies, mosquitoes or ticks, handling or eating undercooked rabbit, drinking contaminated water, inhaling dust from contaminated soil, and handling contaminated pelts or paws of animals. It can also be inhaled from infected hay, grain, or soil. Dr. Lepore had patients who contracted it from their pet dog who shook rain water on them after chewing on a dead rabbit, as well as from folks eating road kill, a person who held sick animals, and a gentleman who slept with his pet bunny.

Another reminder – don’t sleep with pets!
The fact that 35% of Minnesotan ticks are infected with Tularemia is concerning.  Spread the word.