Archive for the ‘Biofilm’ Category

Infection Strategies of Mycoplasmas: Unraveling the Panoply of Virulence Factors

Infection strategies of mycoplasmas: Unraveling the panoply of virulence factors

Free PMC article

Mycoplasmas, the smallest bacteria lacking a cell wall, can cause various diseases in both humans and animals. Mycoplasmas harbor a variety of virulence factors that enable them to overcome numerous barriers of entry into the host; using accessory proteins, mycoplasma adhesins can bind to the receptors or extracellular matrix of the host cell. Although the host immune system can eradicate the invading mycoplasma in most cases, a few sagacious mycoplasmas employ a series of invasion and immune escape strategies to ensure their continued survival within their hosts. For instance, capsular polysaccharides are crucial for anti-phagocytosis and immunomodulation. Invasive enzymes degrade reactive oxygen species, neutrophil extracellular traps, and immunoglobulins. Biofilm formation is important for establishing a persistent infection. During proliferation, successfully surviving mycoplasmas generate numerous metabolites, including hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide; or secrete various exotoxins, such as community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin, and hemolysins; and express various pathogenic enzymes, all of which have potent toxic effects on host cells. Furthermore, some inherent components of mycoplasmas, such as lipids, membrane lipoproteins, and even mycoplasma-generated superantigens, can exert a significant pathogenic impact on the host cells or the immune system. In this review, we describe the proposed virulence factors in the toolkit of notorious mycoplasmas to better understand the pathogenic features of these bacteria, along with their pathogenic mechanisms.

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Hemotropic mycoplasma is caused by bacteria from the Mycoplasma genus, which lack a cell wall and are unable to replicate by themselves. To survive they have to infect red blood cells. Like the other bacteria discussed here, emerging species are found in bats. Hemotropic mycoplasma may be a co-factor in white nose syndrome, a fungal disease that is killing bats.

Antiviral Effects of Nattokinase

Antiviral Effects of Nattokinase

Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and Bovine Herpes Virus-1 Demonstrated in Vitro

MAY 3, 2023

By Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH

Recently there has been intense focus on “natto” derived from the fermentation of steamed soy by bacillus subtilis. Nattokinase is a proteolytic enzyme used as an oral supplement by the Japanese for the chronic treatment of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Now a recent study in the COVID-19 era by the Japanese demonstrated preventive antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains and bovine herpes virus type 1. The mechanism appears to be proteolytic cleavage of viral proteins.

Oba and colleagues performed a series of experiments with various concentrations of nattokinase in preclinical models. They found: 1) nattokinase effectively stopped infection of human cells in culture from SARS-CoV-2 and bovine herpes virus type 1, 2) the proteolytic effect of nattokinase was heat sensitive.  (See link for article)



Besides having an ability to help “vaccine” injuries and prevent COVID and other viruses, Nattokinase and other proteolytic enzymes have been used by Lyme literate doctors (LLMD) for their role in breaking downbiofilm, the protective colonies many bacteria create which make them hard to eradicate.  Some use the zero-calorie sugar stevia for this purpose as well.

McCullough states that while it’s too early to make therapeutic claims, he says Nattokinase is the most promising data seen among all solutions to end the final state of the crisis: long COVID, “vaccine” injury, and recurrent infections.  For this reason don’t expect it to become mainstream!  This is precisely why they gave ivermectin and HCQ the death toll.  These, cheap, safe, effective drugs just do too many things that compete with the spin of Big Pharma, bought out government health agencies, and Big Media.

Study here:

Bartonella Update: Best Brain Fog Options  Video Here (Approx. 5 Min)

Updated: 1/18/23

Marty Ross MD Discusses Rifamycins, Azoles and Methylene Blue for Bartonella Brain Fog

Bartonella Treatment in Lyme Disease—A Lot Has Changed

The latest laboratory experiments suggest effective Bartonella treatments must do more than kill growing germ forms—they should also kill hibernating persister forms of Bartonella and include agents to remove biofilms and fibrin nests.

Persisters and Biofilms

Research published in 2019 and early 2020 is changing the approach I take to treat Bartonella. Previously, research showed Bartonella has rapidly growing germ forms; therefore, the antibiotics I recommended in the past treated growing forms only. New research shows that Bartonella also has non-growing forms called persisters. Think of a persister as a hibernating form of the germ that ignores most antibiotics and immune system attacks. This new research also shows that Bartonella forms protective sugar-slime coverings called biofilms. These biofilms can block the immune system and antibiotics from reaching Bartonella. This new research is based on petri-dish laboratory experiments.

Bartonella-Fibrin Nests

In addition to these key findings, some with chronic Bartonella may require enzymes to break up nests of Bartonella and the blood clotting protein called fibrin that can form in narrow and small blood vessels. These Bartonella nests limit blood flow to tissues and may block antimicrobials and the immune system from killing these germs. Lumbrokinase, a group of enzymes that come from earthworms, is very effective at breaking up fibrin. Other options include nattokinase or serapeptase, but these enzymes are much weaker than lumbrokinase.  (See link for article)


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3 Reasons Lyme/MSIDS Patients Remain Sick: Dormancy/Persisters, Biofilm, Co-Infection

Metamorphoses of Lyme disease spirochetes: phenomenon of Borrelia persisters


The survival of spirochetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex in a hostile environment is achieved by the regulation of differential gene expression in response to changes in temperature, salts, nutrient content, acidity fluctuation, multiple host or vector dependent factors, and leads to the formation of dormant subpopulations of cells. From the other side, alterations in the level of gene expression in response to antibiotic pressure leads to the establishment of a persisters subpopulation. Both subpopulations represent the cells in different physiological states. “Dormancy” and “persistence” do share some similarities, e.g. both represent cells with low metabolic activity that can exist for extended periods without replication, both constitute populations with different gene expression profiles and both differ significantly from replicating forms of spirochetes. Persisters are elusive, present in low numbers, morphologically heterogeneous, multi-drug-tolerant cells that can change with the environment. The definition of “persisters” substituted the originally-used term “survivors”, referring to the small bacterial population of Staphylococcus that survived killing by penicillin. The phenomenon of persisters is present in almost all bacterial species; however, the reasons why Borrelia persisters form are poorly understood. Persisters can adopt varying sizes and shapes, changing from well-known forms to altered morphologies. They are capable of forming round bodies, L-form bacteria, microcolonies or biofilms-like aggregates, which remarkably change the response of Borrelia to hostile environments. Persisters remain viable despite aggressive antibiotic challenge and are able to reversibly convert into motile forms in a favorable growth environment. Persisters are present in significant numbers in biofilms, which has led to the explanation of biofilm tolerance to antibiotics. Considering that biofilms are associated with numerous chronic diseases through their resilient presence in the human body, it is not surprising that interest in persisting cells has consequently accelerated. Certain diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis, syphilis or leprosy) are commonly chronic in nature and often recur despite antibiotic treatment. Three decades of basic and clinical research have not yet provided a definite answer to the question: is there a connection between persisting spirochetes and recurrence of Lyme disease in patients?




Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii in Europe and Asia, respectively. The infection affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, and the nervous system. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is the most dangerous manifestation of Lyme disease, occurring in 10–15% of infected individuals. During the course of the infection, bacteria migrate through the host tissues altering the coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways and the immune response, reaching the central nervous system (CNS) within 2 weeks after the bite of an infected tick. The early treatment with oral antimicrobials is effective in the majority of patients with LNB. Nevertheless, persistent forms of LNB are relatively common, despite targeted antibiotic therapy. It has been observed that the antibiotic resistance and the reoccurrence of Lyme disease are associated with biofilm-like aggregates in B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, both in vitro and in vivo, allowing Borrelia spp. to resist to adverse environmental conditions. Indeed, the increased tolerance to antibiotics described in the persisting forms of Borrelia spp., is strongly reminiscent of biofilm growing bacteria, suggesting a possible role of biofilm aggregates in the development of the different manifestations of Lyme disease including LNB.


Serological and PCR evidence of Infection in 105 Patients with SPPT

Alexis Lacout1*, Marie Mas4, Michel Franck2, Véronique Perronne3, Julie Pajaud2, Pierre Yves Marcy5, Christian Perronne3

*Corresponding Author: Alexis Lacout, Centre de diagnostic ELSAN, Centre Médico–Chirurgical, 83 avenue Charles de Gaulle, 15000, Aurillac, France

Received: 11 December 2020; Accepted: 22 December 2020; Published: 05 January 2021

Citation: Alexis Lacout, Marie Mas, Michel Franck, Véronique Perronne, Julie Pajaud, Pierre Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne. Serological and PCR evidence of Infection in 105 Patients with SPPT. Archives of Microbiology & Immunology 5 (2021): 139-150.


Introduction: The main aim of this study is to determine the nature of the exposure of patients presenting with polymorphic signs and symptoms to the parasite Babesia, through the study of serology. The secondary aim is to report the different serological or PCR results observed in these patients.

Material and methods: The following serologies were performed in all patients looking for: Babesia divergens, Borrelia, Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The following PCRs were performed looking for: Borrelia spp, Babesia spp, Bartonella (Bartonella spp, B. quintana, B. Henselae,) Coxiella spp, Anaplasma spp, Ehrlichia spp, Rickettsia spp, most often on several matrices (venous blood, capillary blood, urine and saliva).

Results: In this study, 105 patients were included, 62 females and 43 males, sex ratio F/M was 62/43 = 1.44; mean age was 45.5 year old (range; 5 years, 79 years old).

  • Of the 105 serologies for B. divergens, 41% were found to be positive.
  • Of the 104 serologies for Borrelia, 19.2% were found to be positive.
  • Of the 95 serologies for Anaplasma, 27.3% were found to be positive.

Borrelia spp, Babesia spp, Bartonella spp, Coxiella spp, Anaplasma spp, Ehrlichia spp, Rickettsia spp were found by using rtPCR.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that patients with SPPT/PTLDS, a syndrome close to fibromyalgia, could harbor several tick borne microorganisms. Microbiologic analyses should thus not be merely limited to Borrelia’s research alone.



These relatively recent studies (within the past few years) reveal what Lyme literate doctors and their patients have been experiencing from the beginning.  They also reaffirm what many independent researchers have globally been writing about for years.  There are many other reasons patients remain ill as well but these three are biggies.

Yet, reality is best summed up by the following quote from the first study listed above:

Three decades of basic and clinical research have not yet provided a definite answer to the question: is there a connection between persisting spirochetes and recurrence of Lyme disease in patients?

Isn’t that sad?

The same, of course, can be said of biofilm and coinfections as well. Decades have gone by with no definitive answers because The Cabal doesn’t want the truth to be known. Why? Quite simple: a chronic, relapsing illness doesn’t fit their “vaccine” narrative which is the favored golden calf and cash cow of research institutions and our government, which have a cozy relationship with Big Pharma and Big Media.  This is quite convenient for all of them as they control all the messaging as well as threaten, censor, and ban doctors who dissent.

This has been blatantly exposed during the time of COVID but is nothing new.  Lymeland has been riddled with the exact same issues for 40 years.  Unfortunately, even well-meaning advocates and patients evidently can not see this and continue to demand more money and become giddy when they get it from the very agencies behind this debacle, who are incidentally profiting from it.

It’s a hot-mess for sure, but one thing is certain: we must stop playing into their hands by being ignorant or filled with “hopium,” a term I use to describe how hope can become a drug that stops you from thinking critically, logically, and honestly.

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Hottest Lyme Disease Treatment Update 2022  Video Here (Approx. 11 Min)

Hottest Lyme Disease Treatment Updates in 2022

Marty Ross MD on Top Lyme Treatment Updates of 2022

In the video in the link above Marty Ross MD describes the latest Lyme disease treatment updates in his integrative medicine practice. For more information about the topics discussed in the video article see the following resources:

Dr. Ross’s new book, Hacking Lyme Disease: An Action Guide to Wellness, will be released by early December 2022.


The ideas and recommendations on this website and in this article are for informational purposes only. For more information about this, see the sitewide Terms & Conditions.



Dr. Ross discusses peptides. These are not antimicrobials but help the body in fighting off infections and restoring the issues infections cause.  Ross as well as Dr. Holtdorf is evidently having a lot of success with them.

Ross also discusses biofilm busters such as lumbrokinase, which helps improve circulation, decrease muscle pain, and improve medicine delivery deep into tissues.  Those with hypercoagulation would also do well to check it out.  

A golden nugget he discussed was the finding that cryptolepis, a drug normally given for Babesia, also has action against Lyme (in vitro – or the lab, which may not transfer over to the human body or in vivo) This study also found that black walnut, Japanese knotweed, sweet wormwood, ccat’s claw, Cistus incanus, and Chinese skullcap at 1% extracts had good activity against Bb’s stationary phase compared to control antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime.

Important note: The minimum inibitory concentration (MIC) values of Artemisia annua, Juglans nigra, and Uncaria tomentosa were quite high for the growing phase of Bb, despite their strong activity against the non-growing stationary phase. On the other hand, the top two active herbs, Cryptolepis and Japanese Knotweed showed strong activity against both growing Bb and non-growing stationary phase.  In subculture studies, only 1% Cryptolepis extract caused complete eradication, while doxycycline and cefuroxime and other active herbs could not eradicate B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells as many spirochetes were visible after 21-day subculture.

Ross states both herbs are helpful for Bartonella as well as diflucan/fluconazole.  My LLMD had us pulse diflucan twice a week throughout our entire treatment (5 years).  I can say with experience we herxed on this drug, often.  It is a known anti-fungal; however, Dr. Hoffman (RIP) stated he believed it did far more than that, and I tend to agree having taken it.

In contrast, the study showed that Stevia rebaudiana, Andrographis paniculata, Grapefruit seed extract, colloidal silver, monolaurin, and antimicrobial peptide LL37 had little or no activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi A few years ago all kinds of headlines came out that stevia cured Lyme. Nothing could be further from the truth.  Per usual, if something seems too good to be true, it usually is.

Dr. Klinghardt uses a sublingual form of Hyaluronic Acid to fool the cyst forms to open and become spirochetes so they can be killed by antimicrobials.  For more on Klinghardt’s treatment:  Klinghardt Lyme Protocol.

Hyaluronic Acid is a type of sugar molecule.  Many other Lyme literate doctors also use forms of sugar such as Stevia or Erythritol as “cyst busters,” in their treatment regimens.  Look for reputable sources of Erythritol as it is most commonly made with GMO cornstarch.

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