Fluorescent Image of Borrelia, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease.

Click on link for picture. Permission granted by Dr. Benjamin L. Clark, University of Minnesota Medical School, Director, Bridges to the Baccalaureate Degree  Program, Director, Pathways to Advance Degrees in the Life Sciences, 218-726-6587

  • Green is the intracellular Borrelia, blue-purple is the nucleus of the macrophage, a type of white blood cell of the immune system that is supposed to engulf and digest pathogens and anything else considered a foreign invader.


  • The red is a cell surface marker (CD86) known as Cluster of Differentiation 86, a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival. It is the ligand for two different proteins on the T cell surface: CD28 and CTLA-4. CD86 works in tandem with CD80 to prime T cells. Co-stimulation is an essential step in the induction of adaptive immune responses.


  • There are probably 4 or more spirochetes in the phagosome (a vacuole within a phagocyte that contains bacteria or other ingested particles that becomes fused with a lysosome which functions as the digestive system of the cell).
Dr. Clarke’s future work will be to study that internal chamber and how the spirochete potentially thrives.

When it is proven & accepted that Bb infects white blood cells, it will give a potential answer to some late-disseminated Lyme cases as an immune-deficiency syndrome demonstrating why some patients have frequent and prolonged infections and may acquire new allergies as well as Mast Cell issues.

We also need post-mortem studies to demonstrate persistent infection:

This is a list of  700 Peer-Reviewed Evidence of Persistence of Lyme:MSIDS copy

For more:  There is a video in this link showing Bb’s ability to get into and out of the blood stream & lymphatic system quickly demonstrating its ability to go anywhere in the body to colonize.

%d bloggers like this: