Mycoplasma genitalium: A new superbug
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen. It is an important cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men and is associated with cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, putting them at risk of infertility. Multiple factors that aid pathogenesis of MG include its ability of adhesion, gliding motility, and intracellular invasion by means of the tip organelle. Through intracellular localization and antigenic variation, MG could result in treatment-resistant chronic infection. There are limited data on the prevalence of MG in Indian patients with urogenital syndromes. Recently, a high prevalence of extra genital infection with MG has been reported. Molecular assays are the major diagnostic techniques of MG infection. Antimicrobial agents such as macrolides, along with fluoroquinolones, are the treatment of choice for MG infections. The issue of drug resistance to azithromycin and fluoroquinolones in MG is rising globally. As molecular tests are becoming available for MG, both for the diagnosis and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, any patient with MG infection should then be tested for antimicrobial resistance. Consideration of MG as a cause of sexually transmitted disease in the Indian population is crucial in diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. The purpose of this review is to understand the prevalence of MG in different clinical scenarios, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, current status of antimicrobial resistance, and its impact on MG treatment.