Archive for the ‘Babesia’ Category

Patient Contracts Babesia From a Blood Donor: Only 14 States Test For It



Babesia is most commonly transmitted through a tick bite but it can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion. To minimize the risk to the public, blood banks now screen donors for Babesia in endemic states.

In their article “Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing chronic red cell exchange,” Costa and colleagues describe a patient who contracted Babesia from a donor living in Ohio, a state that is not considered endemic for Babesia

According to the authors, a 30-year-old man with sickle cell disease (SCD) required approximately 10 units of red blood cells every 3–4 weeks throughout his childhood.

Approximately 2 months after a red blood cell exchange, he presented with fever, neck pain, and photophobia. Several days later, he developed a persistent fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and loss of appetite.

He was diagnosed with Babesia through identification of parasites in his red blood cells and positive antibodies. He was also borderline positive on an antibody test for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

“Prior to laboratory-based blood donor screening for Babesia, transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) was a leading infectious risk to the blood supply in the United States.”

The young man was treated for Babesia with azithromycin and atovaquone for 10 days with resolution of his symptoms. He was not treated for Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

The patient lived in a state endemic for Babesia but did not recall a tick bite.

“A donor lookback investigation was initiated with the blood supplier,” the authors wrote. They found that in the preceding 6 months, the patient had received 65 units of blood, with 58 units screened for Babesia.

Unfortunately, “One of the donors of the 7 untested units was B. microti seropositive,” the authors wrote. The donor lived in a state not requiring Babesia screening.

“Our case demonstrates the continued vulnerability of the US blood supply to Babesia.”

“The seropositive donor had not had any symptoms of babesiosis; he lived in Ohio and reported being very active over the past year, including hiking and camping in several states (Ohio, Tennessee, and North Carolina),” the authors wrote.

In 2019, the FDA recommended testing of blood donors for Babesia in the 14 states where almost all cases of Babesia have been reported. “The policy confined to 14 states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin),” wrote the authors.

Authors Conclude:

“Heightened awareness and health care provider education are imperative, especially in non-endemic [states] where clinicians may not be accustomed to diagnosing community-acquired or TTB, placing transfusion recipients at risk of delayed diagnosis and severe disease.

  1. Costa V, Mercure-Corriveau N, Gourneau J, et al. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing chronic red cell exchange. Transfusion. Jan 13 2023;doi:10.1111/trf.17244



Once again, the madness of limiting potential infection to certain geographical areas despite the ability of people, animals, and bugs to move around is completely asinine.  Yet, here we are – still in the madness.

For more:

How Serious is Babesia?


Woman sick in bed with Babesia infection.
In some individuals, a Babesia infection can be fatal or cause serious complications in immunocompromised patients. In others, it can be asymptomatic and go unrecognized. In this study, investigators demonstrate how difficult it can be to eradicate Babesia.

By Dr. Daniel Cameron

In the article “Failure of an Approximately Six Week Course of Tafenoquine to Completely Eradicate Babesia microti Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient,” Prasad and Wormser describe a chronic relapsing Babesia infection in an elderly woman.¹

The 74-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital in August 2021 with a 2-day history of fatigue and fevers. She was immunocompromised and had a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with chemotherapy, polymyalgia rheumatica treated with low dose steroids (prednisone 5 mg/day, plus a short trial of a tocilizumab [a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug]), and cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

“A peripheral blood smear was positive for B. microti (0.2% parasitemia),” according to the authors. Her Hgb dropped as low as 6.5 g/dl. She received 10 units of blood.

She was initially treated with a 7-day course of azithromycin and atovaquone. She was also prescribed steroids. Her parasitemia resolved.

However, the woman developed recurrent fatigue and fever with a recurrence of parasitemia (0.3%).

The clinician planned to retreat her with a 6-week course of azithromycin and atovaquone, but added clindamycin due to a persistent parasitemia and fatigue. She was subsequently switched to quinine plus oral clindamycin.

READ MORE: Tafenoquine: Treatment for relapsing Babesia

“This antiparasitic drug regimen was discontinued on 20 January 2022, because she developed symptoms consistent with cinchonism (hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus),” wrote the authors.

Cinchonism resolved after stopping her quinine plus oral clindamycin.

“She then developed severe fatigue and subjective fevers on 22 February 2022 with a recurrence of the babesia parasitemia (<0.1%), along with evidence of worsening hemolysis,” wrote the authors.

She was retreated with oral clindamycin along with a reduced dose of quinine. Her parasitemia continued.

The woman was then prescribed off label tafenoquine, as she tested negative for glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase deficiency.

“She was started on oral tafenoquine 200 mg once a day for 3 days (loading dose) from 7-9 March 2022, and then 200 mg once per week thereafter starting on 16 March 2022,” wrote the authors. The Hgb rose from 6.5 g/dl to 13.3 g/dL without transfusions.

Tafenoquine was stopped after 6 weeks due to neutropenia. “The neutrophil count reached a nadir level of 325 cells/uL,” wrote the authors.

The woman’s severe fatigue, parasitemia (<0.1%), and hemolysis recurred.

“She was started on a new drug regimen of oral azithromycin 1000 mg once daily, atovaquone liquid suspension 750 mg once daily, and four Malarone® tablets once daily (each tablet consisting of 250 mg atovaquone plus 100 mg of proguanil) on 2 June 2022,” wrote the authors.

By the end of June, PCR testing for Babesia was negative.

However, “It was planned to continue treatment for at least 12 weeks,” wrote the authors, “and even to consider chronic suppressive therapy going forward.”

Prasad et al. described two previous cases where tafenoquine was effective for Babesia.

The authors concluded:

  • “Therefore, based on available data, tafenoquine as a single agent may, or may not, be curative of B. microti infection in a chronically immunocompromised patient.”
  • “Clearly, more clinical studies and more studies conducted in animal models are needed to optimize the use of tafenoquine in order to prevent a relapse of B. microti infection in chronically immunocompromised patients with babesiosis when the drug is discontinued.”
    1. Prasad, P.J. and G.P. Wormser, Failure of an Approximately Six Week Course of Tafenoquine to Completely Eradicate Babesia microti Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient. Pathogens, 2022. 11(9).

For more:

3 Reasons Lyme/MSIDS Patients Remain Sick: Dormancy/Persisters, Biofilm, Co-Infection

Metamorphoses of Lyme disease spirochetes: phenomenon of Borrelia persisters


The survival of spirochetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex in a hostile environment is achieved by the regulation of differential gene expression in response to changes in temperature, salts, nutrient content, acidity fluctuation, multiple host or vector dependent factors, and leads to the formation of dormant subpopulations of cells. From the other side, alterations in the level of gene expression in response to antibiotic pressure leads to the establishment of a persisters subpopulation. Both subpopulations represent the cells in different physiological states. “Dormancy” and “persistence” do share some similarities, e.g. both represent cells with low metabolic activity that can exist for extended periods without replication, both constitute populations with different gene expression profiles and both differ significantly from replicating forms of spirochetes. Persisters are elusive, present in low numbers, morphologically heterogeneous, multi-drug-tolerant cells that can change with the environment. The definition of “persisters” substituted the originally-used term “survivors”, referring to the small bacterial population of Staphylococcus that survived killing by penicillin. The phenomenon of persisters is present in almost all bacterial species; however, the reasons why Borrelia persisters form are poorly understood. Persisters can adopt varying sizes and shapes, changing from well-known forms to altered morphologies. They are capable of forming round bodies, L-form bacteria, microcolonies or biofilms-like aggregates, which remarkably change the response of Borrelia to hostile environments. Persisters remain viable despite aggressive antibiotic challenge and are able to reversibly convert into motile forms in a favorable growth environment. Persisters are present in significant numbers in biofilms, which has led to the explanation of biofilm tolerance to antibiotics. Considering that biofilms are associated with numerous chronic diseases through their resilient presence in the human body, it is not surprising that interest in persisting cells has consequently accelerated. Certain diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis, syphilis or leprosy) are commonly chronic in nature and often recur despite antibiotic treatment. Three decades of basic and clinical research have not yet provided a definite answer to the question: is there a connection between persisting spirochetes and recurrence of Lyme disease in patients?




Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii in Europe and Asia, respectively. The infection affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, and the nervous system. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is the most dangerous manifestation of Lyme disease, occurring in 10–15% of infected individuals. During the course of the infection, bacteria migrate through the host tissues altering the coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways and the immune response, reaching the central nervous system (CNS) within 2 weeks after the bite of an infected tick. The early treatment with oral antimicrobials is effective in the majority of patients with LNB. Nevertheless, persistent forms of LNB are relatively common, despite targeted antibiotic therapy. It has been observed that the antibiotic resistance and the reoccurrence of Lyme disease are associated with biofilm-like aggregates in B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, both in vitro and in vivo, allowing Borrelia spp. to resist to adverse environmental conditions. Indeed, the increased tolerance to antibiotics described in the persisting forms of Borrelia spp., is strongly reminiscent of biofilm growing bacteria, suggesting a possible role of biofilm aggregates in the development of the different manifestations of Lyme disease including LNB.


Serological and PCR evidence of Infection in 105 Patients with SPPT

Alexis Lacout1*, Marie Mas4, Michel Franck2, Véronique Perronne3, Julie Pajaud2, Pierre Yves Marcy5, Christian Perronne3

*Corresponding Author: Alexis Lacout, Centre de diagnostic ELSAN, Centre Médico–Chirurgical, 83 avenue Charles de Gaulle, 15000, Aurillac, France

Received: 11 December 2020; Accepted: 22 December 2020; Published: 05 January 2021

Citation: Alexis Lacout, Marie Mas, Michel Franck, Véronique Perronne, Julie Pajaud, Pierre Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne. Serological and PCR evidence of Infection in 105 Patients with SPPT. Archives of Microbiology & Immunology 5 (2021): 139-150.


Introduction: The main aim of this study is to determine the nature of the exposure of patients presenting with polymorphic signs and symptoms to the parasite Babesia, through the study of serology. The secondary aim is to report the different serological or PCR results observed in these patients.

Material and methods: The following serologies were performed in all patients looking for: Babesia divergens, Borrelia, Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The following PCRs were performed looking for: Borrelia spp, Babesia spp, Bartonella (Bartonella spp, B. quintana, B. Henselae,) Coxiella spp, Anaplasma spp, Ehrlichia spp, Rickettsia spp, most often on several matrices (venous blood, capillary blood, urine and saliva).

Results: In this study, 105 patients were included, 62 females and 43 males, sex ratio F/M was 62/43 = 1.44; mean age was 45.5 year old (range; 5 years, 79 years old).

  • Of the 105 serologies for B. divergens, 41% were found to be positive.
  • Of the 104 serologies for Borrelia, 19.2% were found to be positive.
  • Of the 95 serologies for Anaplasma, 27.3% were found to be positive.

Borrelia spp, Babesia spp, Bartonella spp, Coxiella spp, Anaplasma spp, Ehrlichia spp, Rickettsia spp were found by using rtPCR.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that patients with SPPT/PTLDS, a syndrome close to fibromyalgia, could harbor several tick borne microorganisms. Microbiologic analyses should thus not be merely limited to Borrelia’s research alone.



These relatively recent studies (within the past few years) reveal what Lyme literate doctors and their patients have been experiencing from the beginning.  They also reaffirm what many independent researchers have globally been writing about for years.  There are many other reasons patients remain ill as well but these three are biggies.

Yet, reality is best summed up by the following quote from the first study listed above:

Three decades of basic and clinical research have not yet provided a definite answer to the question: is there a connection between persisting spirochetes and recurrence of Lyme disease in patients?

Isn’t that sad?

The same, of course, can be said of biofilm and coinfections as well. Decades have gone by with no definitive answers because The Cabal doesn’t want the truth to be known. Why? Quite simple: a chronic, relapsing illness doesn’t fit their “vaccine” narrative which is the favored golden calf and cash cow of research institutions and our government, which have a cozy relationship with Big Pharma and Big Media.  This is quite convenient for all of them as they control all the messaging as well as threaten, censor, and ban doctors who dissent.

This has been blatantly exposed during the time of COVID but is nothing new.  Lymeland has been riddled with the exact same issues for 40 years.  Unfortunately, even well-meaning advocates and patients evidently can not see this and continue to demand more money and become giddy when they get it from the very agencies behind this debacle, who are incidentally profiting from it.

It’s a hot-mess for sure, but one thing is certain: we must stop playing into their hands by being ignorant or filled with “hopium,” a term I use to describe how hope can become a drug that stops you from thinking critically, logically, and honestly.

For more:

Patients Want Canadians to Know About Lesser-Known Tick-Borne Diseases

‘Be vigilant’: Patients want Canadians to know about lesser-known tick-borne diseases

While these infections are indeed spreading, it has nothing to do with the climate.  Faulty climate change maps which have been used to push a ‘climate change’ agenda have been debunked, with many experts finally coming forth and denying that man has anything to do with the climate at all.
Important to note: neither of these spreading pathogens are listed as a nationally notifiable disease in Canada, which simply means nobody has a clue as to their prevalence.  This is true for many of the “lesser  known” tick-borne diseases as well, and is a real problem.  You can’t state how big a problem is if you aren’t even looking for it.
One of the patients sent her tick to a private lab and paid out of pocket for tests that look for a wide range of pathogens. 
This is another real problem that needs to be addressed.  Since everyone and their brother knows ticks are spreading everywhere and are often infected with pathogens transmitted to animals and humans, tick testing should be widely available and FREE.  There is no tick testing for the public right here in Wisconsin, an epicenter for Lyme, Powassan, and other infections.  This simply shouldn’t be.
Rather than fund more faulty, erroneous climate change research, how about we fund labs for something practical like testing ticks and all the pathogens they carry?
Since so many patients slip through the cracks, testing ticks directly would help us know what pathogens are in an area and an idea about prevalence.

This information; however, should never be used against patients, which has happened historically.  The lunacy of telling someone they can’t have Lyme disease because certain ticks don’t exist there or “there aren’t any recorded cases,” is shear madness and defies all sound logic.  Ticks travel everywhere due to migrating birds and other animals that don’t understand borders.

For more:

To be clear, a test only picks up what it is created to pick up.  To this day, many strains of of the pathogens infecting humans do not have testing, and those that do aren’t accurate.

Molecular Detection of Anaplasma, Babesia odocoilei, Babesia spp. & Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Songbirds

Molecular Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia odocoilei, Babesia species and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Songbirds

John D Scott1 *, Elena McGoey2, Ana Morales3 and Risa R Pesapane2,4 1 Upper Grand Tick Centre, 365 St. David Street South, Fergus, Ontario, N1M 2L7, Canada 2 School of Environmental and Natural Resources, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA 3 McGill Bird Observatory, Ste Anne de Bellevue, QC, Canada H9X 0A6 4 Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1920 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 43210, USA


The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is known to carry various tick-borne zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause debilitating human and animal diseases. Juvenile I. scapularis parasitize songbirds and, perhaps, these avifauna are competent hosts of common microbial pathogens. We extracted brachial venous blood from 18 groundforaging passerine birds that were parasitized by I. scapularis larvae and nymphs. Using molecular identification, namely PCR, DNA sequencing, and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), we targeted Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Overall,

  • 15 (83%) of 18 passerine birds were positive for 3 microbial zoonotic pathogens that comprised of A. phagocytophilum (n = 8), Babesia odocoilei (n = 6), Babesia spp. 20-5A74 (n = 1), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (n = 9).
  • The pathogen load consisted of 8 singles, 5 doubles, and 2 triples.
  • One novel Babesia sp. (Babesia spp. 20-5A74) was found, and the remaining Babesia infections were B. odocoilei.

Our findings reveal that ground-foraging, passerine birds are avian hosts of zoonotic pathogens. We provide the first-ever documentation that songbirds are hosts of B. odocoilei. Based on our data, B. odocoilei outnumbered other Babesia spp., and elucidated the authentic fact that B. odocoilei is the predominant Babesia sp. in North America. As avian hosts, passerine birds play a significant role in the enzootic transmission cycle of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Babesia species.

Important excerpts:

In the USA, tick researchers have reported B. odocoilei in Indiana [41-43], Michigan [44] Maine [42,43], Massachusetts [41-43], New York [45], Oklahoma [46,47], Pennsylvania [48,49] Texas [50,51], Virginia [52], and Wisconsin [42,43]. As well, B. odocoilei has been detected in I. pacificus in California [53]. In Canada, B. odocoilei has been detected in Saskatchewan [54], Ontario [7,15,55-59], and Quebec [55,57,58]. And yet, acarologists and ecologists have not reported B. microti in these three provinces [7,15,21,55-59]. Babesia odocoilei, which is a sequestering Babesia sp., can be recalcitrant to treat in human patients [7].

Not only do groundfrequenting songbirds transport ticks, they may also be hosts for tick-borne, zoonotic pathogens. Migratory songbirds widely disperse zoonotic pathogens across North America and, therefore, one does not have to frequent or live in an endemic area to contract human babesiosis caused by B. odocoilei.

For more: