Migratory Songbirds Transport Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma maculatum Ticks to Canada

John D Scott1 *, Jaclyn TA McKeown2 and Catherine M Scott1 1 Upper Grand Tick Centre, 365 St. David Street South, Fergus, Ontario N1M 2L7, Canada 2 Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada *Corresponding author(s) John D Scott, Upper Grand Tick Centre, 365 St. David Street South, Fergus, Ontario N1M 2L7, Canada Email: DOI: 10.37871/jbres1659

Submitted: 23 January 2023 Accepted: 02 February 2023 Published: 06 February 2023 Copyright: © 2023 Scott JD, et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0




Birds transport ticks into Canada during northward spring migration, and some of these ticks are infected with tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Some Amblyomma species harbour pathogens that cause debilitating diseases that can be fatal to humans, and domestic and wildlife animals. At least 65 Amblyomma spp. are indigenous in the Western Hemisphere, and approximately half bite humans. Amblyomma longirostre carries Rickettsia amblyommatis which causes spotted fever group rickettsiosis, a febrile disease in humans. Additionally, Amblyomma maculatum harbors and transmits Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group rickettsiosis, and this tick bites humans. In the present study, we use two technologies to identify ticks. To confirm identification, we took microphotographs followed by DNA barcoding of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Based on molecular analysis, we confirmed that the two Amblyomma spp. were Amblyomma longirostre, a neotropical tick and Amblyomma maculatum, the Gulf Coast tick. Based on our tick-bird findings, we confirm that migratory songbirds transport Amblyomma ticks into Canada, and have the potential, either directly or indirectly, to transmit tick-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans.



Amblyomma ticks, like other ticks, have many species.  The best known in the U.S. is Amblyomma americanum, commonly known as the lone star tick, which is fast and aggressive and clusters in groups of 2,000-8,000 until they are nymphs which means those who brush up  against a cluster could have hundreds to thousands attaching simultaneously.  Females are distinguished by a white dot, hence “star” on her back. They have swarmed a town in Martha’s Vineyard and are typically associated with Southern states; however, this important work shows that once again ticks commonly defy the narrative that they only exist in certain geographical locations.  This is a huge problem that needs to be addressed and not blamed on climate change, the latest cash cow for researchers, which will only divert precious research dollars into the hands of those who will not help sick patients one iota.

Patients to this day are denied a diagnosis and treatment due to some bone-headed doctor looking at a map.

Other species of Amblyomma ticks are common in Africa, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Most attach to birds, and migration of avian hosts has been unfortunately downplayed in favor of “climate change,” but is far more implicated in dissemination of tick-borne diseases than “experts” admit.

Recently established populations of Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast) ticks were discovered in New York, further demonstrating that ticks don’t seem to bother with maps.

While rodents, particularly the white footed mouse, get all the air-play regarding tick proliferation, many birds travel great distances and are transporting ticks into new locations.  Rather than focusing on research that will truly help sick patients, researchers have focused on releasing hordes of GMO mice into the wild.  Similarly to the experimental gene therapy COVID injections, nobody has a clue about the unintended consequences.  Funding for said research becomes crystal clear when you discover that DARPA has a defense advanced research project called “Insect Allies” which is designed to genetically modify mature plants in a live environment by releasing insects infected with GMO viruses. They have also developed “remote-controlled insects.”  This type of research is all the rage now.

Their goal: release all this into the wild and repeat, “It’s safe and effective.”
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