Archive for the ‘Pregnancy’ Category

Young Boy Infected Congenitally With Lyme Speaks in Ottawa House of Commons

 Approx. 4 min.

Eleven year old Daniel Stimmer, infected with Lyme disease congenitally, addresses over 40 Federal MPs and the Speaker of the House at the House of Commons building in Ottawa.

Daniel is one busy guy.  Besides starting his own advocacy group (L.E.T. Ontario) he has made an informative video about Lyme disease here:

Daniel is speaking out in his sphere of influence – and then some!  If we all educate those around us we can make a huge difference in the plight of patients everywhere.

For more on congenital Lyme/MSIDS:





Gestational Lyme & Other Tick-borne Diseases – Dr. Jones

Dr. Charles Ray Jones – Rock Star

FB_IMG_1541741969447From left, Sherry Sievewright, Wisconsin Lyme Network, Dr. Charles Ray Jones, Alicia Cashman, Madison Lyme Support Group

Dr. Charles Ray Jones specializes in treating Lyme/MSIDS patients.  He has treated over 12,000 children with Lyme/MSIDS, and spoke recently at the Chicago ILADS convention.

Here is the executive summary of his presentation:

  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) can be transmitted via ticks, gestationally, breast milk, and semen (yes, that means sexually).  While there isn’t a large NIH double-blind study, clinically LLMD’s are finding infected couples.  For more data on animals:  (Scroll down to info on sexual transmission)


  • Gustafason & Burgess demonstrated gestational Bb infection in dogs.  Of the inoculated bitches, 80% became infected who then birthed mostly infected pups.1


  • A retrospective study showed 480 children with gestational Lyme/MSIDS. Diagnosis was based on clinical physical and history. 3


  • About 10% of Dr. Jones’ patients are infected gestationally.


  • Two cases of in vitro fertilization caused embryonic infection.


  • Mothers not treated resulted in 50% gestational transmission compared to mothers treated with 1 antibiotic resulting in a 25% transmission.  70% of infected mothers reported a difficult pregnancy.  ALL children improved with appropriate antibiotic treatment.  


  • Antibiotic treatment for Pregnant mothers:
  1. Amoxil 1000mg every 8 hours
  2. Ceftin 500 mg every 12 hours
  3. Omnicef 300 mg-600mg twice daily
  4. Mepron 750mg twice daily
  5. Zithromax 500mg twice daily
  • Other options for those who can not tolerate oral antibiotics:
  1. Bicillin 1.2 million units IM 1-3 times weekly
  2. Ceftiaxone 2 gms IV daily
  3. Cefotaxime 6 gms daily either continuous infusions or 2gms IV every 8 hours
  • Top 6 gestational Lyme symptoms:
  1. 90% low muscle tone (delays in motor skills, excess flexibility, drooling)
  2. 80% irritability (impulsive, risky behavior, interrupts, anger/mood swings)
  3. 72% fatigue
  4. 69% pain
  5. 60% low grade fevers with pale skin & dark circles under eyes
  6. 50% painful joints with stiffness & decreased range of motion
  • Coinfection rate found in study.3
  1. 30% Bartonella
  2. 20% Babesia
  3. 7% Strep
  4. 6% Ehrlichiosis
  5. 5% Leptospirosis
  • Male Child Case Study Findings.  Daily fevers between 101-102 degrees with severe joint pain, could not process stimuli, and poor muscle control.  Mother was infected with Bb during pregnancy and child had numerous tick bites.  Was initially diagnosed with a virus and was told he’d “grow out of it.”  Grandparents in desperation hired a priest to exorcise him.  Within 3 months of a clinical diagnosis of Bb (Western Blot positive) and multiple TBI’s (Babesia, Bartonella, Mycoplasma) and appropriate antibiotic treatment, he was doing well in school & athletics, and improved on all perimeters.  Treatment is ongoing.


  • Gestational treatment options:
  1. Combination of penicillin, cephalosporins, macrocodes, atovaquone (tetracycline, doxycyline & minocycline not usually used in those under 8) 


  • A 1995 study by Gardner showed 15% abnormal babies in treated mothers vs 67% of abnormal babies in mothers not treated.4


  • A 1989 study by MacDonald showed the following Lyme infection outcomes during pregnancy.5
  1. prematurity
  2. fluid in the brain
  3. blindness
  4. Sudden infant death syndrome
  5. blood infection
  6. Fetal death
  7. cardiovascular system anomalies
  8. growth retardation
  9. respiratory distress
  10. excess of bilirubin in the blood


  1. Gustafson, J.M., E.C Burgess, et al.(1993). “Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. “Am J Vet Res 54(6): 882-890
  2.  Xiao, J., et al. 2011. “How Different Strains of Parasite Infection Affect Behavior Differently”. Infection and Immunity. March 2011 . Quoted in science daily, March 22, 2011.
  3.  Jones, Charles Ray, Smith, Harold, Gibb, Edina and Johnson, Lorraine JD, MBA, “Gestational Lyme Disease Case Studies of 102 Live Births, Lyme Times, 2005”. 
  4. Gardner, T. (1995). Lyme disease. Infectious disease of the fetus and newborn infant. J. S Remington and J.O Klein. Philadelphia, Saunders. Chapter 11:447- 528. 
  5. MacDonald, A.B. (1989) “Gestational Lyme Borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. “Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 15(4): 657-677. 
  6. Goldenberg, R.L and C. Thompson (2003) “The infectious origin of stillbirth”. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(#): 861-873.


More on Pregnancy with Lyme/MSIDS:  (Great videos here)  Great read on Lyme/MSIDS in children.  “Rationale for Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy in Treating Lyme Disease.”  By Charles Ray Jones, M.D.

Canada Acknowledges Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Lyme Disease


This Picture:  Left to Right – Steven Sternthal (Director General for Zoonosis Division), Dr. Howard Njoo (Deputy Chief Public Health Officer), Tamara House (Vice-President of Families and Children, LymeHope), Kim Elmslie (Vice-President Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control), Dr. Siddika Mithani (President, Public Health Agency of Canada), Jennifer Kravis (Co-Founder, LymeHope), Dr. Nick Ogden (Senior Research Scientist, Zoonosis Division PHAC), Jane Bailey (Lyme Advocate), Dr. Robbin Lindsay (Research Scientist PHAC, National Microbiology Laboratory) and Sue Faber (RN, Co-Founder of LymeHope).  We were also joined via teleconference with Dr. Charles Ray Jones, (Pediatric Lyme Specialist, New Haven Connecticut), Dr. Ralph Hawkins (Internal Medicine Physician), Dr. Lisa Waddell (Epidemiologist with the National Microbiology Laboratory, PHAC) and Dr. Matthew Gilmour (Scientific Director General of National Microbiology Laboratory, PHAC).

Breaking News: Canada Acknowledges Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Lyme Disease!


“What is the value of one child’s life?”
As Canadians, we soon will be coming together to celebrate a cherished national holiday Thanksgiving.   At LymeHope we are genuinely thankful for the incredible news which we will now share with you.

This news pertains to all Canadians suffering from or concerned about Lyme disease, but specifically those who are concerned about the issue of maternal-fetal (in-utero) infection also described as transplacental transmission.  Lyme disease is not only transmitted through a tick-bite, it can be passed from human-to-human, mother to child in pregnancy as reported in the scientific and medical literature.

This morning we met with senior scientists and executive officials at our Federal Public Health Agency of Canada as part of our ongoing discussions about transplacental transmission of Lyme disease.  We had started these discussions over 18 months ago with the Agency anchored in a respectful, transparent and collaborative approach – doors opened, we walked through them.

We were incredibly honoured to have U. S. Dr. Charles Ray Jones, MD, the world’s foremost expert in pediatric and adolescent tick-borne diseases join in this meeting.  Dr. Jones shared his experience of treating over 30,000 children, from every continent in the world and every Province of Canada, over 60 years of practicing medicine and saving lives. He talked about the hundreds of congenitally infected children he has seen, and more importantly, how he has been able to cure them of their tick-borne diseases and allow them to live healthy lives.  A short 1 minute video about Dr. Jones pioneering work here:

32 years ago, in 1988, our Public Health issued a bulletin stating that transplacental transmission of Lyme disease had been documented, and yet somehow, despite 30 years going by, the majority of Canadians and medical professionals remain unaware of this.  Even worse, many experts have stated, to patients and publicly it “doesn’t exist”.  We have been determined to change this.

Today, our senior most officials at Public Health acknowledged that transplacental transmission of Lyme disease can occur, AND that they will be updating their website to reflect this.

As mothers with suspected congenitally infected children, tears streamed down our face and hope rose in our hearts, that this truly is the beginning of a new era in Canada, a breath of fresh air.  This means mothers who are told “maternal-child transmission of Lyme disease doesn’t exist” can now update their medical teams of this acknowledgement by our very government, following on the heels of the recent acknowledgement of the World Health Organization.

We must urgently come together to do our very best thinking – an all hands-on-deck approach to research this alternate mode of transmission and help children and families currently affected, many of whom reach out to us personally on a day-to-day basis.

Each of you, through your signing and sharing this Petition, sharing your stories and comments, encouraging and touching our hearts, shares in this miraculous and well-deserved news.  Thank you from the bottom of our hearts.

LymeHope is already taking active steps to engage and assemble a multi-disciplinary working group of interested medical experts, scientists and meaningful patient representation.  We must now come together to re-examine this critical issue and help implement the necessary steps to create a new reality in Canada, where pregnant women and their medical professionals are aware of the risks of transplacental transfer and are taking steps to ensure our future generations are protected from these devastating diseases.  Dr. Jones today said he would be honoured to be a part of this initiative.

We have promised our own precious children and indeed the children of Canada that we will not stop our work until the day when they all are able to walk into a doctor’s office and receive appropriate care and treatment.  We are now a step closer to our dream becoming a reality.

There is much work to be done; however, today we want to share this wonderful news with you.  As we gather with our friends and family this weekend, we will be giving thanks for many things, including this first important step in changing the lives of Canadian mothers, babies and children.  We wish you a wonderful Thanksgiving weekend, and, as always, thank you for your continued engagement and support as change happens.

In closing, just as the two-hour meeting came to a close, Dr. Jones shared the last word.  He asked,

“what is the value of one child’s life?”  Without hesitation he answered with these words.  “It’s Priceless.”

We all agreed and so, we step forward with renewed hope.

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook @lymehopecanada

If you haven’t already, please continue to sign, comment and share this petition.


Sue Faber
Jennifer Kravis
Tamara House
(the “LymeMoms”)

# Thankful


For More:

Congenital Transmission of Lyme – Myth or Reality?

July 22, 2018



1.) Dr. Lapenta, J Medic Surgeon, Specialty Dermatology, 24 years of exercise. Highly trained in the field of research; University of Carabobo, Venezuela. CEO DERMAGIC EXPRESS.

2.) Dr. Lapenta, JM. Medic Surgeon. University of Carabobo. Diplomat in Facial Aesthetics Occupational Medicine and Prehospital Auxiliary. Resident Doctor Ambulatorio Del Norte Maracay Aragua State. COO DERMAGIC EXPRESS.


Lyme disease or Erythema Migrans, described many years ago, and previously known under the name of Lyme Juvenile Arthritis, is produced by a spirochete transmitted by the bite of a family tick. Ixodidade, Ixodes scapularis and many others; discovered by the scientist Willy Burgdorfer in the year of 1981, being named Borrelia Burgorferi, in honor of its discoverer. Apart from the numerous cutaneous and organic manifestations attributed to Borrelia, it is nowadays discussed in the scientific field if it is capable of crossing the placenta and causing fetal damage. In this review we will show you that this biological agent, as in syphilis, produced by Treponema Pallidum, another spirochete, crosses the placenta and can produce serious consequences to the fetus, including death.

Key words: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, congenital lyme, fetal damage and pregnancy


The main objective of this work is to demonstrate that Lyme disease and their biological agent, spirochete Borrelia Burgdorferi, is not only an illness with cutaneous manifestations. It can cross the placenta during pregnancy and produce fetal damage that in severe cases can cause death in newborns.


1.) Describe the clinical manifestations in children born from positive Lyme mothers who did not receive treatment in pregnancy, or in those who received treatment with resistance to it.

2.) Alert the World community that there is indeed transplacental transmission of Borrelia Burgdorferi in pregnant Lyme positive women and if there is not adequate treated in time, both the mother and fetus can present clinical symptoms ranging from mild, to severe, even stillbirth.

3.) To call attention to the World Health Organization so that in the revision of the international codes of diseases (ICD-11), this year 2018, the code “Congenital Lyme” be  included in them.


The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affirms in its website that the pregnant woman Lyme positive when making her treatment, the child will be born healthy and recommends for this, the use of the antibiotic amoxicillin or cefuroxime, because doxycycline, which is the antibiotic of choice, can cause damage to the developing fetus. [1]

Other antibiotics recommended by the CDC are the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin or erythromycin in case of allergy or intolerance to those previously mentioned. [2]

The CDC itself recognizes that Lyme disease and its causative agent Borrelia Burgdorferi can cross the placenta and cause stillbirths. [1-2]

The question here is what would happen if the Borrelia species, as in some cases, is resistant to amoxicillin or another antibiotic, or the antibiotic to which Borrelia is sensitive cannot be indicated because it would harm the fetus? And beyond, if the patient does not receive the treatment by omission or carelessness? [3]

As we said previously the Borrelia Burgdorferi was discovered by Willy Burgdorfer in the year 1981, and just two (2) year later, in 1983 the first study was published by Shirts SR, and Brown MS, Bobitt Jr, where it is suspected that this spirochete can cross the placenta. [4]

After this study others began to appear, who definitely showed that this spirochete is able to cross the placenta and cause fetal damage, of which we will present in chronological order the most important and confirm the above said.



The first suspicion described that ante partum fever may be caused by the Borrelia Burgdorferi species, was made in 1983 in two febrile pregnant women in the third-trimester. The two newborn survived, but the scientists suggested the establishment of early laboratory tests to identify the causative agent and the establishment of a rapid treatment to avoid future complications in the pregnant and the fetus. [4]


Really, the first study describing the maternal-fetal transmission of Lyme disease, Borrelia Burgdorferi was published in 1985 by Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, and Stillman MT., Where they describe a case of a pregnant woman who acquired Lyme Borreliosis and did not receive treatment with antibiotics. The child was born at 35 weeks of pregnancy and died of congenital heart disease the first week of life. The autopsy revealed the Borrelia Burgdorferi spirochete in the spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. [5]


In the year 1986, MacDonald A, describes 4 cases of abortions in pregnant women who tested positive for Lyme, and in whose fetuses the Borrelia Burgdorferi was found in their tissues. This same author does another work in 1989 about Lyme disease and its implications for the fetus and describes side effects such as fetal death, hydrocephalus, cardiovascular abnormalities, neonatal respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia, intrauterine growth retardation, cortical blindness, sudden death syndrome of the infant and maternal toxemia of pregnancy, and raises the similarity of these with neonatal syphilis. [6-7].


Later, the same Willy Burgdorfer the discoverer of the Borrelia Burgdorferi, together with Dr. Alan Mc Donald and Jorge Benach PhD, published in year 1987 (31 years ago) a work where they relate this disease with children born dead associated in pregnant Lyme positive.

Among the highlights the description of congenital malformations, fetal death, cardiac anomalies and alert the scientific community to investigate exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy in the presence of Borrelia Burgdorferi; and in this cases to determine if cardiac organogenesis is complete by the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. They also recommend starting treatment with Penicillin at the same dose of syphilis in those cases of pregnant women who show signs and early symptoms of the disease. [8]


In these 24 years a total of more than 80 papers were published where Lyme disease is effectively related to pregnancy with fetal damage, studies done in the countries: United States, Canada, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Africa, Turkey, Czech Republic, Poland and Belgrade former Yugoslavia, and others [10-52]

Another study that is worth noting is that carried out by the updated MEDLINE database for the year of July 2012, the last revision of November 2012 of 88 journal articles from the PUBMED database, which we summarize in this way

Maternal-fetal transmission of Lyme disease (Findings):

1.) Mothers with active Lyme disease, treated: 14.6% of pregnancies resulted in sequel (a morbid condition following or occurring as a consequence of having Lyme).

2.) Mothers with active Lyme disease not treated: 66.7% of pregnancies resulted in sequel.

3.) Positive Lyme mothers, the treatment is unknown: 30.3% resulted in sequel.

4.) Specific adverse results included:

– Cardiac 22.7%,

– Neurological 15.2%,

– Orthopedic 12.1%,

– Ophthalmologic 4.5%,

– Genitourinary 10.6%,

– Miscellaneous anomalies 12.1%. [53]

Now we will put a summary of the most frequent clinical manifestations described in a study of more than 100 children born to mothers with LYME positive disease, conducted in the year 2005.


1.) Low grade fever: 59% -60%
2.) Fatigue and lack of resistance: 72%
3.) Nocturnal sweating: 23%
4.) Pale, dark circle under the eyes: 42%
5.) Abdominal pain: 20-29%
6.) Diarrhea or constipation: 32%
7.) Nausea: 23%
8.) Cardiac anomalies: 23%: palpitations / PVC, heart murmur, mitral valve prolapse.
9.) Orthopedic disorders: sensitivity (55%), pain (69%) spasms and generalized muscle pain (69%), rigidity and / or retarded motion (23%).
10.) Respiratory infections of the superior tract and otitis: 40%
11.) Arthritic disorders and painful joints: 6% -50-%
12.) Neurological disorders:
A- Headaches: 50%
B-) Irritability: 54%.
C-) Bad memory: 39%
13.) Delay in development: 18%
14.) Seizure disorder: 11%
15.) Vertigo: 30%
16.) Tic disorders: 14%
17.) Involuntary athetoid movements: 9%.
18.) Earning disorders and humor changes: 80%
A-) Cognitive speaking: 27%
B-) Speech delay: 21%
C-) Reading-writing problems: 19%
D.) Problems of vocal articulation: 17%.
E-) Auditory / visual processing problems: 13%
F-) Word selection problems: 12%
G-) Dyslexia: 8%
19.) Suicidal thoughts: 7%
20.) Anxiety: 21%
21.) Anger or rage: 23%
22.) Aggression or violence: 13%
23.) Irritability: 54% -80%
24.) Emotional disorders: 13%
25.) Depression: 13%
26.) Hyperactivity: 36%
27.) Photophobia: 40-43%
28.) Gastroesophageal reflux with vomiting and coughing: 40%
29.) Secondary eruptions: 23%
30.) Other eruptions: 45%
31.) Cavernous haemangioma: 30%
32.) Ocular problems: posterior cataracts, myopia, stigmatism, conjunctive erythema (Lyme eyes), optical nerve atrophy and / of uveitis: 30%
33.) Sensitivity of skin and noise (hyperacuity): 36-40%
46.) Autism: (9%). [41]


In recent years the number of cases of Lyme disease has increased notably in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa; in the United States and Canada, it is the most commonly transmitted vector-borne disease reported today [54-62].

For the year 2017 the World Health Organization (WHO) in charge of “coding” diseases through the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases year 2.017), had not yet included and recognized the code “Congenital Lyme”. It is expected for this year 2018 that all codes of Lyme disease will be recognized by this organization. [63-68]

You can read this classification and codes here:  UNDERSTANDIG THE LYME DISEASE CLASSIFICATION AND CODES. [69]


1.) Lyme disease is caused by the bite of a tick transmitted by the Borrelia Burgdorferi spirochete, discovered by Willy Burgdorfer in the year 1981. Initially, skin, joint and cardiac manifestations were described in those affected, but not in pregnant women or the fetus.

2.) Two years later, in 1983, was described the suspicion of infection in pregnant women, and in 1985 it was found the first clinical manifestations in pregnant women and fetuses, highlighting congenital malformations and fetal death.

3.) We demonstrate scientifically that definitely Lyme disease, in addition to its multiple organic manifestations, its causative agent Borrelia Burgdorferi, crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus in pregnant women, producing the side effects already described.

4.) All pregnant women living in endemic areas of Lyme disease should take the tests to rule out Borreliosis of pregnancy, to establish immediate treatment in case of being positive.

5.) In addition to establishing adequate treatment, we alert the population to defend against the bite of possibly infected ticks.

6.) We urge the World Health Organization to recognize all the codes and classification of Lyme disease in ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases year 2.018).


To the community of patients affected by Lyme disease.

To the organizations that fight for the recognition of this pathology as a public health problem World.



The Lyme community owes a debt of gratitude to the doctors Lapenta.  You will see many of their articles on my website as they have painstakingly combed through the research and condensed it for laypeople to clearly see the ramifications of Lyme and other tick borne illnesses.

This article makes plain that Lyme can be passed congenitally to infants.

For more on pregnancy with Lyme:




33 Years of Documentation of Maternal-Child Transmission of Lyme Disease and Congenital Lyme Borreliosis – A Review

33 Years of Documentation of Maternal-Child Transmission of Lyme Disease and Congenital Lyme Borreliosis – A Review

by Sue Faber, RN, BScN


‘Transplacental transmission, adverse outcomes and reports of congenital infection of Borrelia Burgdorferi have been clearly documented over the last 33 years (1985 to 2018) by multiple international physicians, researchers, scientists and other experts. As entire families worldwide are affected by Lyme borreliosis resulting in serious debilitating illness and complex multi-systemic chronic infection, we must take this alternate mode of transmission – from mother to child in pregnancy, seriously.

For Lyme disease to be passed from mother to child in pregnancy drastically changes the narrative, we know that, it opens up new issues and challenges – however, recognizing it for what it is, is the right thing to do. It means upheaval and reordering and re-prioritizing in what has been taught and rethinking many areas of concern which perhaps have been looked over – but we must remember – we have no choice but to act with the highest integrity and honesty.

We have no option but to constructively engage, discuss and determine solutions and a clear path forward which will be a light for those who suffer, a beacon of Hope and healing. We need to prevent more miscarriages, stillbirths and babies from being born with Lyme and tick-borne illnesses – potentially leading to chronic pervasive, persistent and often disabling illness’. Sue Faber, RN.  (Excerpt below.  Please see link for more studies)

“Now we have found a spirochete capable of spreading transplacentally to the organs of the fetus, causing congenital heart disease and possible death of the infant.”

Dr. Willy Burgdorfer – The Enlarging Spectrum of Tick-Borne Spirochetoses: R. R. Parker Memorial Address, Reviews of Infectious Diseases. Vol 8, No 6. November-December 1986.

“It is clear that B. Burgdorferi can be transmitted in the blood of infected pregnant women across the placenta into the fetus. This has now been documented with resultant congenital infections and fetal demise. Spirochetes can be recovered or seen in infant’s tissues including the brain, spleen and kidney. The chronic villi of the placenta show and increase in Hofbauer cells as in luetic placentitis. Inflammatory changes of fetal or neonatal changes are not as pronounced as in the adult, but cardiac abnormalities, including intracardiac septal defects, have been seen. It is not known why inflammatory cells are so sparse from maternal transmission, but it is possible that an immature immune system plays a role.”

Dr Paul Duray and Dr Allen Steere – Clinical Pathologic Correlations of Lyme Disease by Stage. 1988.

“It is anticipated that more infants and fetuses with complications related to gestational Lyme borreliosis will be diagnosed in the future as the diagnosis is more frequently considered; it eventually will be possible to better describe the various clinical manifestations of congenital Lyme borreliosis.

“ order for infants with congenital Lyme borreliosis and therefore initiation of prompt antibiotic therapy of the congenitally infected infant usually depend on suspicion or confirmation of Lyme borreliosis in the mother. Therefore, in order for infants with congenital Lyme borreliosis to be recognized, it is essential for clinicians caring for newborns and infants to become familiar with the various manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in the adult, as well as in the congenitally infected infant.”

(serology) does not appear to be a sensitive method of diagnosis and reliance on sero-positivity leads to misdiagnosis of the majority of congenitally infected infants.”

“Large-scale, prospective studies of sufficient numbers of patients with Lyme borreliosis with follow-up to determine the pregnancy outcome of each enrolled patient; B burgdorferi-specific evaluation of any fetal or neonatal demise; and long-term follow-up of each infant born to determine the occurrence of possible early and late sequelae are needed.”

Dr. Tessa Gardner, Pediatric Infectious Disease MD, trained at Harvard University, 2001. Gardner, T. Lyme disease. In: Remington JK, J. editor. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn. 5th ed: Saunders; 2001

“Transmission of Borrelia infection occurs via both zoonotic vectors and other humans. Congenital transfer is an established fact. Maternal to fetal transfer of Borrelia, can furthermore be clinically silent or unrecognized, and if not successfully treated, infection can be life long and latency, late activation and reactivation can occur.”

O’Brien J, Hamidi O. Lyme Disease ( Infection with Borrelia: Implications for Pregnancy, Nov. 2017.

“Intra-human transfer of Borrelia can be initially silent or unrecognized’

‘The similarities of the clinical presentation of congenital syphilis to pregnancies with acute Lyme disease helps guide ante partum management. Due to the severity of previously documented cases, there should be a low threshold of suspicion to diagnose cases of Lyme disease in pregnancy.

O’Brien J, Hamidi O. ‘Borreliosis Infection during Pregnancy’. Ann Clin Cytol Pathol 3(8). Oct. 2017.

“Pregnant women who are acutely infected with Borrelia burgdorferi (the primary cause of Lyme disease) and do not receive treatment have experienced multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, infants born with rash and stillbirth.”

“In obstetric patients acutely infected during the first trimester, a fetal echocardiogram is reasonable, given the demonstrated high potential of fetal cardiac abnormalities.’

O’Brien J, Baum, J. Case Report. The Journal of Family Practice. Vol 66, No 8, Aug, 2017.

“It was stated and proved transplacental transfer of borrelia

“We need serious studies among pregnant women and newborn children in endemic regions…and in the future such patients should be monitored throughout pregnancy and after childbirth. Children born to these women should be examined for tick-borne infections at least during the first two years of life.”

Utenkova EO. Lyme disease and Pregnancy. Kirov State Medical Academy, Kirov Russia. Journal of Infectology, Volume 8, Number 2, 2016. *translated from Russian

“a new acronym is needed to include other, well-described cause of in utero infection: syphilis, enteroviruses, varicella zoster virus, HIV, Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and parvovirus.”

In utero infection and intrapartum infections may lead to late-onset disease. Such infections may not be apparent at birth but may manifest with signs and symptoms weeks, months or years later.”

Maldonado Y, Nizet V, Klein J et al. Current Concepts of Infections of the Fetus and Newborn Infant (Chapter 1). Found in Remington and Klein’s Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 8th ed., 2016.

“Histological observations have confirmed the presence of Bb in children with congenital Lyme disease. It is interesting that spirochetes may exist in the spleen, kidney, bone marrow and nervous system.”

“The ability of long term survival of Bb sl in tissues and spreading of spirochetes in the body despite antibiotic treatment can contribute to intergenerational infection with Lyme disease.”

Jasik K, Okla H, Slodki J et al. Congenital Tick-Borne Diseases, is this an alternative route of transmission of tick- borne pathogens in mammals? Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 15, Number 11, 2015.

“these documented cases strongly suggest that transplacental transfer occurred via identification of Borrelia Burgdorferi in fetal tissues by culture, immunohistochemistry or indirect immunofluorescence.”

“the outcome of a pregnancy affected by Lyme disease remains relatively unknown and unstudied. However, it is still important to equip obstetrical patients with information that will help protect them against Lyme disease and provide treatment options if a suspected case of Lyme disease occurs during pregnancy.”

O’Brien JM, Martens MG. Lyme disease in Pregnancy, a New Jersey Medical Advisory. MD Advisor, 2014;7:24- 27.

Borrelia Burgdorferi does appear to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. There are data to suggest an increased incidence of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformations associated with Lyme disease.”

“Adverse pregnancy outcomes are also more likely in women with untreated Lyme disease.”

Dotters-Katz S, Kuller J, Heine P. Arthropod-Borne Bacterial Diseases in Pregnancy. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, Vol 68(9). 2013.

“The parents of the five children in the study could not pinpoint an exact date of infection, but their treating physician suggested that the Bb bacteria could have been transmitted congenitally since all five of their mothers were diagnosed with Lyme disease and Bb has been shown to be transmitted congenitally in infected mothers. If the Bb bacteria were transmitted congenitally and this latency period presented itself in the infected children it could lead to an explanation of their late onset autistic symptomology.”

Kuhn M, Grave S, Bransfield R, Harris S. Long term antibiotics therapy may be an effective treatment for children co-morbid with Lyme Disease and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medical Hypothesis (2012)

“The clinical picture of a fetus infected by B Burgdorferi is similar to that seen in the course of a syphilis infection. Most frequently they are: premature birth, intrauterine foetus death and malformation

“In the second stage of the illness, B. Burgdorferi traverses the placental barrier. Apart from foetal death, the following occur most frequently: syndactyly, sight loss, premature birth, neonatal rash, heart, liver, kidney damage or damage to the central nervous system.”

Relic, M, Relic, G. Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy. Vojnosanit Pregl 2012; 69(1):994-998. *translated from Polish

For more: