https://www.cell.com/cell-reports-medicine/fulltext/S2666-3791(21)00203-2?s=03#secsectitle0020

Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells

Open AccessPublished: July 14, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100354

Highlights

  • Most recovered COVID-19 patients mount broad, durable immunity after infection
  • Neutralizing antibodies show a bi-phasic decay with half-lives >200 days
  • Spike IgG+ memory B cells increase and persist post-infection
  • Durable polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells recognize distinct viral epitope regions

Summary

Ending the COVID-19 pandemic will require long-lived immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluate 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally up to 8 months and find durable broad-based immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibit a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection also boosts antibody titers to SARS-CoV-1 and common betacoronaviruses. In addition, spike-specific IgG+ memory B cells persist, which bodes well for a rapid antibody response upon virus re-exposure or vaccination. Virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are polyfunctional and maintained with an estimated half-life of 200 days. Interestingly, CD4+ T cell responses equally target several SARS-CoV-2 proteins, whereas the CD8+ T cell responses preferentially target the nucleoprotein, highlighting the potential importance of including the nucleoprotein in future vaccines.
Taken together, these results suggest that broad and effective immunity may persist long-term in recovered COVID-19 patients.

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**Comment**

Please watch numerous doctors state how the COVID response is out of step with medicine and science. 

Previously, Dr. Beda M Stadler, former director of the Institute for Immunology at the University of Bern, a biologist and professor emeritus is on record stating:

  • Firstly, it was wrong to claim that this virus was novel.
  • Secondly, It was even more wrong to claim that the population would not already have some immunity against this virus.
  • Thirdly, it was the crowning of stupidity to claim that someone could have Covid-19 without any symptoms at all or even to pass the disease along without showing any symptoms whatsoever.

Dr. Rodger Hodkinson, a medical specialist in pathology which includes virology, chairman of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Committee in Ottawa, and CEO of a large private medical laboratory in Edmonton, Alberta and chairman of a medical biotechnical company stated:

“This is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on an unsuspecting public.

There is absolutely nothing that can be done to contain this virus other than protecting older more vulnerable people.  It should be thought of as nothing more than a bad flu season. This is not Ebola, it’s not SARS.  It’s politics playing medicine and that’s a very dangerous game.

I’m absolutely outraged that this has reached this level.  It should all stop tomorrow.”

And many, many more have been outspoken of the COVID fiasco.

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