Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity is maintained at 6 months following primary infection

Jianmin Zuo, Alex Dowell, Hayden Pearce, Kriti Verma, Heather Long, Jusnara Begum, Felicity Aiano, Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Bassam Hallis, Lorrain Stapley, Ray Borrow, Ezra Linley, Shazaad Ahmad, Ben Parker, Alex Horsley, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Kevin Brown, Mary E Ramsay, Shamez Ladhani, Paul Moss


The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical in both controlling primary infection and preventing re-infection. However, there is concern that immune responses following natural infection may not be sustained and that this may predispose to recurrent infection. We analysed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response in 100 donors at six months following primary infection and related this to the profile of antibody level against spike, nucleoprotein and RBD over the previous six months. T-cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 were present by ELISPOT or ICS analysis in all donors and are characterised by predominant CD4+ T cell responses with strong IL-2 cytokine expression. Median T-cell responses were 50% higher in donors who had experienced an initial symptomatic infection indicating that the severity of primary infection establishes a set-point for cellular immunity that lasts for at least 6 months. The T-cell responses to both spike and nucleoprotein/membrane proteins were strongly correlated with the peak antibody level against each protein. The rate of decline in antibody level varied between individuals and higher levels of nucleoprotein-specific T cells were associated with preservation of NP-specific antibody level although no such correlation was observed in relation to spike-specific responses. In conclusion, our data are reassuring that functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses are retained at six months following infection although the magnitude of this response is related to the clinical features of primary infection.


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lymphocytes from 20–50% of unexposed donors display significant reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigen peptide pools1,2,3,4.

In conclusion, it is now established that SARS-CoV-2 pre-existing immune reactivity exists to some degree in the general population.  Excerpt:

  1. Firstly, it was wrong to claim that this virus was novel.

  2. Secondly, It was even more wrong to claim that the population would not already have some immunity against this virus.

  3. Thirdly, it was the crowning of stupidity to claim that someone could have Covid-19 without any symptoms at all or even to pass the disease along without showing any symptoms whatsoever.  Excerpt:

SAGE made – and continues to make – two fatal errors in its assessment of the SAR-CoV-2 pandemic, rendering its predictions wildly inaccurate, with disastrous results. These errors led SAGE to conclude that the pandemic is still in its early stages, with the vast majority (93%) of the UK population remaining susceptible to infection and that, in the absence of more action, a very high number of deaths will occur.

  • Error 1: Assuming that 100% of the population was susceptible to the virus and that no pre-existing immunity existed.
  • Error 2: The belief that the percentage of the population that has been infected can be determined by surveying what fraction of the population has antibodies.
Both of these points run entirely counter to known science regarding viruses


Sunetra Gupta Takes on Deepti Gurdasanti Regarding Herd Immunity

Although mainstream media have been terming Deepti Gurdasani an “epidemiologist” and “peer” of Sunetra Gupta, (who is a Professor of Theoretical Epidemiology at the University of Oxford), her LinkedIn profile [1] and academic page [2] indicate this may be a weak claim. Her present role is “Senior Lecturer Machine Learning”. In any case, her publications to date [2] appear irrelevant to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19.   For more on viruses and herd immunity: