Borrelia and Chlamydia Can Form Mixed Biofilms in Infected Human Skin Tissues

E. Sapi1*,K. Gupta1, K. Wawrzeniak1, G. Gaur1, J. Torres1, K. Filush1, A. Melillo1 and B. Zelger21
Received: 15 January 2019; accepted: 04 March 2019
Our research group has recently shown that Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease bacterium, is capable of forming biofilms in Borrelia-infected human skin lesions called Borrelia lymphocytoma (BL). Biofilm structures often contain multiple organisms in a symbiotic relationship, with the goal of providing shelter from environmental stressors such as antimicrobial agents. Because multiple co-infections are common in Lyme disease, the main questions of this study were whether BL tissues contained other pathogenic species and/or whether there is any co-existence with Borrelia biofilms.
Recent reports suggested Chlamydia-like organisms in ticks and Borrelia-infectedhuman skin tissues; therefore, Chlamydia-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were performed in Borrelia-positive BL tissues. Analyses of the sequence of the positive PCR bands revealed that Chlamydia spp. DNAs are indeed present in these tissues, and their sequences have the best identity match to Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Fluorescent immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods demonstrated the presence of Chlamydia antigen and DNA in 84% of Borrelia biofilms. Confocal microscopy revealed that Chlamydia locates in the center of Borrelia biofilms, and together, they form a well-organized mixed patho-
genic structure.
In summary, our study is the first to show BorreliaChlamydia mixed biofilms in infected human skin tissues, which raises the questions of whether these human pathogens have developed a symbiotic relationship for their mutual survival.



This study is important as once again, they show biofilm formation and the involvement of other pathogens. Mainstream medicine better wake up soon. The potential symbiotic relationship between these organisms shouldn’t be underestimated and they certainly should be factored into the problem with testing that only tests for one organism and treatments that only treat for one thing. Mainstream med isn’t even hitting the broad side of the barn on this one.

Chlamydia-like organisms are in ticks:

Here, researchers identify chlamydia along with other pathogens in Alzheimer’s:

Chlamydia is best defined from the latin word: cloak. Yep. Another stealth pathogen.

Great read on the types of chlamydia: The first two are mentioned in the abstract:

  • Chlamydia trachomatis can be passed from one person to another via unprotected sexual intercourse. Pain English: this is a STD.
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), a nonsexually transmitted disease that infects the lungs and causes bacterial pneumonia.
  • Chlamydia psittaci is another chlamydia strain that can lead to a rare condition called psittacosis, aka “parrot fever.”



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