https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30235361

Deer ked: a Lyme-carrying ectoparasite on the move.

Kelsey A1, Finch J1.

Abstract
Lipoptena cervi, known as the deer ked, is an ectoparasite of cervids traditionally found in northern European countries such as Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Although rarely reported in the United States, this vector recently has been shown to carry Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophylum from specimens collected domestically. Importantly, it has been suggested that deer keds are one of the many disease-carrying vectors that are now found in more expansive regions of the world due to climate change.

We report a rare sighting of L cervi in Connecticut. Additionally, we captured a high-resolution photograph of a deer ked that can be used by dermatologists to help identify this disease-carrying ectoparasite.

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**Comment**

Besides, Bb and Anaplasma, Bartonella has been found in Norwegian Deer Flies: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/02/bartonella-found-in-deer-flies-deer-moose/  Bartonella, a huge player in Lyme/MSIDS, was found in 85% pools of adult wingless deer ked (n = 59). Two Bartonella lineages were identified based on phylogenetic analysis of the gltA gene and ITS region sequences.

Research is now desperately needed to connect these potential dots of how Lyme/MSIDS patients are acquiring Bartonella and other TBI’s.  We need transmission studies done on many, many vectors.  The one used by entomologists to down play other vectors is 30 years old:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=3170711

And even it shows Bb infection or antibodies in various horse flies & mosquitoes.