Borrelia burgdorferi Co-Localizing with Amyloid Markers in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain Tissues
Accepted Oct. 24, 2021, Published Dec. 5, 2021
Authors: Senejani, Alireza G.a; * | Maghsoudlou, Jasmina | El-Zohiry, Dinaa | Gaur, Gauria | Wawrzeniak, Keitha | Caravaglia, Cristinaa | Khatri, Vishwa A.a | MacDonald, Alanb | Sapi, Evaa
Affiliations: [a] Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT, USA | [b] Molecular Interrogation Research Laboratory, Naples, FL, USA
Correspondence: [*] Correspondence to: Alireza G. Senejani, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of New Haven, 300 Boston Post Road, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA. E-mail: email@example.com.
Infections by bacterial or viral agents have been hypothesized to influence the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.
This study examined the potential presence of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete, the causative agent of Lyme disease, in brain autopsy tissue of patients diagnosed with either Alzheimer’s (AD) or Parkinson’s diseases.
Brain tissue sections from patients with age-matched controls were evaluated for antigen and DNA presence of B. burgdorferi using various methods. Positive Borrelia structures were evaluated for co-localization with biofilm and AD markers such as amyloid and phospho-tau (p-Tau) using immunohistochemical methods.
The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi antigen and DNA in patients with AD pathology and among those, one of them was previously diagnosed with Lyme disease. Interestingly, a significant number of Borrelia-positive aggregates with a known biofilm marker, alginate, were found along with the spirochetal structures. Our immunohistochemical data also showed that Borrelia-positive aggregates co-localized with amyloid and anti-phospho-tau markers. To further prove the potential relationship of B. burgdorferi and amyloids, we infected two mammalian cell lines with B. burgdorferi which resulted in a significant increase in the expression of amyloid-β and p-Tau proteins in both cells lines post-infection.
These results indicate that B. burgdorferi can be found in AD brain tissues, not just in spirochete but a known antibiotics resistant biofilm form, and its co-localized amyloid markers. In summary, this study provides evidence for a likely association between B. burgdorferi infections and biofilm formation, AD pathology, and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.
My holistic doctor (RIP) was in his 90’s when he retired. His proclivity for studying history was a marvel, and it would behoove us to do the same. A few interesting facts:
- Syphilis was initially treated with mercury.
- Later, they used malaria to induce a high fever (hyperthermia) which cured some patients.
- Hyperthermia is used today in some Lyme clinics.
- The development of penicillin in the 1940s sounded the death knell for syphilis. Source
My old, retired doc reminded me that the mental wards were emptied out after they administered penicillin, as many of the patients had late-stage syphilis and all they needed was help killing the spirochetes in their brains. It makes complete logical sense that this approach – and studying other antimicrobials for effectiveness as well, would also work with many Lyme/MSIDS patients who have dementia and Alzheimer’s, but our corrupt public health ‘authorities’ are too busy trying to control our lives to be concerned with such trifles.
Please note that two of the researchers that did the study have been attempting to bring the spirochetal-brain connection for decades. We owe Dr. McDonald and Dr. Sapi a debt of gratitude we will never be able to repay,