2019 Jun 8. pii: S1877-959X(18)30483-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.06.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Co-infection of bacteria and protozoan parasites in Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in the Alsace region, France.


Fifty nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Alsace, France, identified by morphological criteria and using MALDI-TOF MS, were tested by PCR to detect tick-associated bacteria and protozoan parasites. Seventy percent (35/50) of ticks contained at least one microorganism; 26% (9/35) contained two or more species. Several human pathogens were identified including Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (4%), Borrelia afzelii (2%), Borrelia garinii (2%), Borrelia valaisiana (4%), Borrelia miyamotoi (2%), Rickettsia helvetica (6%) and “Babesia venatorum” (2%). Bartonella spp. (10%) and a Wolbachia spp. (8%) were also detected. The most common co-infections involved Anaplasmataceae with Borrelia spp. (4%), Anaplasmataceae with Bartonella spp. (6%) and Anaplasmataceae with Rickettsia spp. (6%). Co-infection involving three different groups of bacteria was seen between bacteria of the family Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp. and Bartonella spp. (2%). Results highlight the panel of infectious agents carried by Ixodes ricinus. Co-infection suggests the possibility of transmission of more than one pathogen to human and animals during tick blood feeding.



Ixodes ricinus, commonly known as the castor bean tick, sheep tick, or deer tick, transmits numerous pathogens of medical and veterinary importance including Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. causing Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum causing human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Francisella tularensis causing Tularaemia, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis, Babesia divergens and Babesia microti responsible for Babesiosis, Louping ill virus and Tribec virus. Numerous pathogens identified plus the fact many were located IN the tick’s salivary glands indicating faster transmission time for infection.

For decades we’ve been told by the CDC that it takes a minimum of 36-48-hours for a tick to transmit Lyme to a human. Then, in 2013 we were told they needed to be embedded for 24 hours or more:

Then, microbiologist Holly Ahern came out with a fantastic video revealing that research on minimum attachment times have NEVER been done:

Transmission Time:  Only one study done on Mice. At 24 hours every tick had transmitted borrelia to the mice; however, animal studies have proven that transmission can occur in under 16 hours and it occurs frequently in under 24 hours.  No human studies have been done and  no studies have determined the minimum time it takes for transmission.


This study once again supports the fact that patients are often coinfected with many pathogens transmitted from the same tick and that the CDC/IDSA myopic viewpoint of a singular disease is a joke that the mono-therapy of doxycycline won’t touch in a million years: