Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA.
Most tickborne disease studies in the United States are conducted in low-intensity residential development and forested areas, leaving much unknown about urban infection risks. To understand Lyme disease risk in New York, New York, USA, we conducted tick surveys in 24 parks throughout all 5 boroughs and assessed how park connectivity and landscape composition contribute to Ixodes scapularis tick nymphal densities and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. We used circuit theory models to determine how parks differentially maintain landscape connectivity for white-tailed deer, the reproductive host for I. scapularis ticks.
We found forested parks with vegetated buffers and increased connectivity had higher nymph densities, and the degree of park connectivity strongly determined B. burgdorferi nymphal infection prevalence.
Our study challenges the perspective that tickborne disease risk is restricted to suburban and natural settings and emphasizes the need to understand how green space design affects vector and host communities in areas of emerging urban tickborne disease.
Until we can restrict movement of all birds, rodents, reptiles, lizards and people, ticks will be transported everywhere. The idea of looking at a map to diagnose and treat people is pure folly and has done nothing to hurt patients for over 40 years. Doctors desperately need education and to start using their brains rather than relying on ancient, unscientific information such as faulty maps and mythology.
Please watch this video of how ticks were found in the cracks of sidewalks in CA: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/05/17/video-showing-questing-ticks-in-the-middle-of-the-sidewalk/
Ticks have been found in caves, on rocks, underneath picnic benches, and have fallen from trees onto patios: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/06/07/ticks-on-beaches/
It’s a good thing they don’t fly. But, they do blow in the wind. Advocates have told me stories of ticks blowing into their swimming pools. My neighbor with a farm field mowed his lawn, blowing the grass toward my house. I found ticks crawling on my basement screens and a few found their way inside the house on the walls.