https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1877959X18302942

Regional prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia bissettiae, and Bartonella henselae in Ixodes affinis, Ixodes pacificus and Ixodes scapularis in the USA

Abstract

The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of Borrelia and Bartonella species in Ixodes spp. ticks collected from 16 USA states. Genus PCR amplification and sequence analysis of Bartonella and Borrelia16SsRNA-23SsRNA intergenic regions were performed on DNA extracted from 929 questing adult ticks (671 Ixodes scapularis, 155 Ixodes affinis, and 103 Ixodes pacificus).

Overall, 129/929 (13.9%) Ixodes ticks were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, 48/929 (5.1%) for B. bissettiae whereas 23/929 (2.5%) were PCR positive for a Bartonella henselae. Borrelia bissettiae or B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. henselae co-infections were found in I. affinis from North Carolina at a rate of 4.5%; in a single I. scapularis from Minnesota, but not in I. pacificus. For both bacterial genera, PCR positive rates were highly variable depending on geographic location and tick species, with Ixodes affinis (n = 155) collected from North Carolina, being the tick species with the highest prevalence’s for both Borrelia spp. (63.2%) and B. henselae (10.3%). Based on the results of this and other published studies, improved understanding of the enzootic cycle, transmission dynamics, and vector competence of Ixodes species (especially I. affinis) for transmission of Borrelia spp. and B. henselae should be a public health research priority.

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**Comment**

One of the most understated studies yet.  Research on transmission and vector competence is screaming to be done – especially for Bartonella as mainstream medicine still thinks it’s a simple disease caused by the scratch of a cat that only affects immunocompromised people.  They also insist the black-legged tick is the sole perp for Lyme.  Both of these tenets are being shattered on a daily basis.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/10/bartonella-henselae-neuroretinitis-in-patients-without-cat-scratch/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/23/chest-imaging-of-cat-scratch-disease-in-2-year-old-immunocompetent-baby-with-no-history-of-cat-contact/

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/07/05/cat-scratch-disease-in-a-1-5-year-old-girl-case-report/  A 1.5-year-old girl who was seen in hospital for the sparing use of her left arm when crawling.  Tested positively for Bartonella henselae.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/04/03/encephalopathy-in-adult-with-cat-scratch-disease/  Case of a 53-year-old healthy man, presenting with confusion.  Serology confirmed Bartonella henselae infection.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/09/transverse-myelitis-guillain-barre-associated-with-bartonella/  Healthy 10 year old girl had coexisting transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) related to infection with Bartonella henselae.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/11/05/skull-infection-due-to-bartonella/  A 3-year-old female with a recent history of typical CSD involving lymph nodes who developed osteomyelitis of the skull.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/01/02/bartonella-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-cancer/

 

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/11/16/study-shows-lyme-in-15-species-of-canadian-ticks-6-of-which-bite-humans-numerous-new-bird-species-acting-as-hosts/  Overall, 1,265 ticks consisting of 27 tick species belonging to four genera were collected.  Of the 18 tick species tested, 15 species (83%) were positive for Bbsl and, of these infected ticks, 6 species bite humans.

Two ticks species known to be transmitters of disease (I. affinis and I. minor) were transported into Canada and are actually more important vectors of Bbsl in the southeastern U.S. than the blacklegged tick.

THESE FINDINGS UNDERSCORE THE FACT PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE TO GO AN ENDEMIC AREA TO CONTRACT LYME DISEASE AND ASSOCIATED TICK-BORNE DISEASES.