November, 2018

Dr. José Lapenta Dermatologist
Dr. José M. Lapenta MD
Hello friends of the network, DERMAGIC EXPRESS with a super hot topic:
A few years after the discovery of the Borrelia Burgorferi in 1981 by Willy Burgdorfer, some scientists began to suspect that mosquitoes and other insects could be involved in the spread of Lyme borreliosis; and specifically in 1985-1987 studies began to appear on this subject, some controversial, others more convincing of the fact that mosquitoes that feed on blood from animals contaminated with Borrelia, could be vectors of the disease and contribute to the epidemic that attacks the whole world today by this spirochete.
Ticks are always spoken of as the only and great vector, but today I bring you some references that will make you think that there is something “hidden” and perhaps not revealed about Lyme Borreliosis: mosquitoes as transmitting vectors.
Not to make it long I’m going to name the most outstanding aspects of some studies and I’ll leave the references of the facts:
  • Historically in the year 1961 Robert J.A. I first proved the experimental transmission of Borrelia, in this case Borrelia anserina, (discovered by Saknarof in the year 1891) by the hematophagous insect Aedes aegypti in geese of the Caucasus, since then it has been isolated from the blood of infected geese, turkeys, ducks, fowls, partridges, crows and sparrows from all parts of Africa, Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Brazil, Egypt, East Indies, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, the U.S.S.R., Rumania and Turkey.
  • In 1985 Dolby et al. published in France a work of 4 Chronic Erythema Migrans (ECM) cases, where only 1 could be checked the sting by ticks, and raise the possibility that the transmission could have been by mosquitoes and flies (horseflies,  tabanid).
  • In 1987 Magnareli et al.  conducted a study in Connecticut, United States collecting mosquitoes, horse flies and deer flies, in total 18 species, which were tested for Borrelia Burgdorferi finding a percentage of positivity that varied between 2.9 and 14.3% for blood-sucking insects. They also placed in cages insects with hamsters not contaminated with Borrelia; 11 species of females contaminated with Borrelia Burgdorferi fed on the blood of the hamsters. The spirochete was not found in the hamsters, but one of them presented positive titers of anti-Borrelia antibodies.
From these years they continued publishing works in relation to this subject where it is demonstrated that in a low percentage the Borrelia Burgdorferi can be transmitted by mosquitoes, horse flies, deer flies, and others.
It is important to note that most of the studies were conducted in Europe, being perhaps the most relevant those made in the Czech Republic, where among them, in one study 5% of the mosquitoes studied were shown contaminated with spirochetes and one of them corresponded to the strain (BR-84) identified as Borrelia Afzelii.
Another detail to highlight is that the CDC does not mention these blood-sucking insects as a possible transmitter of Lyme borreliosis, which, although being low in the percentage shown in the studies, could be a factor in the spread of this disease by the world.
Here I leave the bibliographical references that prove these facts and in the attach one of the species of mosquitoes in which the Borrelia Burgdorferi was found.
“Under the sun there is nothing hidden, and sooner or later the evidence appears that shows that what you tried to hide, became the evidence that became a truth”

1.) Doby JM , Chastel C , Couatarmanac’h A , Cousanca C , Chevrant-Breton J , Martin A , Legay B , Guiguen C .  [Etiologic and epidemiologic questions posed by erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme disease. Apropos of 4 cases at the Regional Hospital Center, Rennes]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 1985;78(4):512-25.b[Article in French]

2.) Magnarelli LA1, Anderson JF. Ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Aug;26(8):1482-6.

3.) J.H. (Han) van der Kolk. Borrelia burgdorferi seeks vectors. Page 119 | Taylor and Francsi online. Published online: 15 Dec 2014.

4.) Chang YF, Novosel V, Chang CF, Summers BA, Ma DP, Chiang YW, Acree WM, Chu HJ, Shin S, Lein DH. 2001 Jul. Experimental induction of chronic borreliosis in adult dogs exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks and treated with dexamethasone. Am J Vet Res. 62:1104–1112.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

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16.) Petr Zeman. Borrelia-infection rates in tick and insect vectors accompanying human risk of acquiring Lyme borreliosis in a highly endemic region in Central Europe. Folia Parasitologica 45[4] 319-325 (1998). Regional Center of Hygiene, Dittrichova 17, 120 07 Prague 2, Czech Republic

17.) Zákovská A1, Nejedla P, Holíková A, Dendis M. Positive findings of Borrelia burgdorferi in Culex (Culex) pipiens pipiens larvae in the surrounding of Brno city determined by the PCR method. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(2):257-9.

18.) Kosik-Bogacka D1, Bukowska K, Kuźna-Grygiel W. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in mosquitoes (Culicidae) in recreational areas of the city of Szczecin. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(1):55-7.

19.) Kosik-Bogacka D1, Kuźna-Grygiel W, Bukowska K. The prevalence of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks Ixodes ricinus and mosquitoes Aedes spp. within a selected recreational area in the city of Szczecin. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(1):105-8.

20.) Zákovská A1, Capková L, Serý O, Halouzka J, Dendis M. Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):345-8.

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22.) Alexandre C.Atalibaa. José S.Resendeb. NatalinoYoshinaric. Marcelo B.Labrunaa. Isolation and molecular characterization of a Brazilian strain of Borrelia anserina, the agent of fowl spirochaetosis.Research in Veterinary Science. Volume 83, Issue 2, October 2007, Pages 145-149

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24.) Petra Nejedla 1,   Adam Norek 1,   Karel Vostal 1,   Alena Žákovská 1. What is the percentage of pathogenic borreliae in spirochaetal findings of mosquito larvae?. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009;16(2):273–276

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