Q fever and rickettsial diseases occur throughout the world and appear to be emergent zoonoses in Chile. The diagnosis of these diseases is currently uncommon in Chile, as their clinical presentations are non-specific and appropriate diagnostic laboratory assays are of limited availability. During a recent outbreak of undiagnosed human atypical pneumonia, we serologically investigated a series of 357 cases from three regions of southern Chile. The aim was to identify those caused by Coxiella burnetii and/or Rickettsia spp. Serological analysis was performed by ELISA and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for acute and convalescence sera of patients. Our results, including data from two international reference laboratories, demonstrate that
- 71 (20%) of the cases were Q fever
- 44 (15%) were a likely rickettsial infection, although the rickettsial species could not be confirmed by serology
This study is the first report of endemic Q fever and rickettsial disease affecting humans in Chile.
For more on Q Fever:
- https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/02/03/understanding-q-fever-risk-to-minnesotans/ Supposedly, the United States ended its biological warfare program in 1969. When it did, C. burnetii was one of seven agents it had standardized as biological weapons. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coxiella_burnetii
For more on Rickettsia:
- https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2019/11/14/study-shows-ticks-can-transmit-rickettsia-immediately/ Ticks can transmit infectious Rickettsia virtually as soon as they attach to the host.
- https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/09/30/two-exotic-disease-carrying-ticks-identified-in-rhode-island-first-case-of-parasitic-soft-ticks-reported-in-new-jersey/ The Asian long-horned tick transmits Lyme disease, SFTS, spotted fever rickettsiosis (RMSF in a lab setting), Anaplasma, & Ehrlichia: https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/06/12/first-longhorned-tick-confirmed-in-arkansas/