https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30616666

2019 Jan 7;12(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3240-7.

Combination of microbiome analysis and serodiagnostics to assess the risk of pathogen transmission by ticks to humans and animals in central Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Arthropod-borne diseases remain a major health-threat for humans and animals worldwide. To estimate the distribution of pathogenic agents and especially Bartonella spp., we conducted tick microbiome analysis and determination of the infection status of wild animals, pets and pet owners in the state of Hesse, Germany.

RESULTS:

In total, 189 engorged ticks collected from 163 animals were tested. Selected ticks were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS) and confirmatory PCRs, blood specimens of 48 wild animals were analyzed by PCR to confirm pathogen presence and sera of 54 dogs, one cat and 11 dog owners were analyzed by serology. Bartonella spp. were detected in 9.5% of all ticks and in the blood of 17 roe deer. Further data reveal the presence of the human and animal pathogenic species of genera in the family Spirochaetaceae (including Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia garinii), Bartonella spp. (mainly Bartonella schoenbuchensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks. Co-infections with species of several genera were detected in nine ticks. One dog and five dog owners were seropositive for anti-Bartonella henselae-antibodies and one dog had antibodies against Rickettsia conorii.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study provides a snapshot of pathogens circulating in ticks in central Germany. A broad range of tick-borne pathogens are present in ticks, and especially in wild animals, with possible implications for animal and human health. However, a low incidence of Bartonella spp., especially Bartonella henselae, was detected. The high number of various detected pathogens suggests that ticks might serve as an excellent sentinel to detect and monitor zoonotic human pathogens.

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For more:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/05/01/co-infection-of-ticks-the-rule-rather-than-the-exception/  Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens, opening new avenues of enquiry regarding their effects on pathogen transmission and vector competence.
https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/10/30/study-shows-lyme-msids-patients-infected-with-many-pathogens-and-explains-why-we-are-so-sick/  For the first time, Garg et al. show a 85% probability for multiple infections including not only tick-borne pathogens but also opportunistic microbes such as EBV and other viruses.
https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/11/07/zoonotic-implications-of-changing-tick-populations/  Co-infections are common in individuals exhibiting disease from an Ixodes tick vector. Ten percent of individuals infected with Anaplasma also had antibodies to B burgdorferi or Babesia microti.