By Aristos Georgiou, 5/18/18


blob: (News video here)

When mosquitoes bite you, hundreds of different proteins present in their saliva enter your bloodstream, in addition to any pathogens they may be carrying.

Some of these proteins help the mosquito to suck blood from you. But they may also have more wide-ranging effects, increasing the severity of any diseases that the mosquitos are carrying by causing a significant immune response that can last for days after a bite, according to new research.

In a new study, published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, scientists from Baylor College of Medicine examined the effects of mosquito bites on human immune cells. To do this they bioengineered mice using human stem cells, which effectively gave the rodents some features of a human immune system. These features included a complete set of human white blood cells, including the so-called ‘T cells’ that fight disease.

The mice were bitten by mosquitoes uninfected with any pathogens in a lab environment. Afterwards, the scientists analyzed any change in the functioning of the humanized immune cells.

They found that the mosquito spit alone produced an immune response involving more types of cells and lasting far longer than expected. In fact, the scientists detected immune cells traveling to the site of the bite up to seven days after it occurred. Furthermore, the immune response was observed in various tissue types, including the blood, skin and bone marrow.

“The biological significance of these changes remains to be determined, but it might explain how some pathogens, such as viruses, can spread through the body in these cells, replicate to higher extents, and even remain in some tissues for far longer than detected in blood,” the researchers wrote in the study.

Previous studies have also indicated that some properties of a mosquito bite, including its saliva, may exacerbate diseases that the insects carry.

For example, mouse experiments have shown that infections caused by a mosquito bite are often more severe than those caused by injecting the same parasite with a needle. However, whether or not the results of previous studies looking into this issue would translate to humans is an open question, as the experiments used bioengineered mice that provide a less accurate model of our immune system in comparison to the mice used in the latest study.

Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are a growing public health concern. Around the world, 750,000 people die every year from mosquito-borne diseases—including malaria, dengue, West Nile, Zika and chikungunya.

Treatment options are often limited for these diseases and their incidence is only expected to rise in the next few decades, as the host ranges of multiple mosquito species increase due to climate change.

“Understanding how mosquito saliva interacts with the human immune system not only helps us understand mechanisms of disease pathogenesis but also could provide possibilities for treatments,” the researchers wrote in the study.

“If we know which mosquito saliva components enhance pathogenesis of diseases, we could create a human vaccine to counteract these effects for multiple infections,” they said.



What does this mean for Lyme/MSIDS patients?  According to this study, mosquitoes carry Lyme disease (borrelia):

Here is an excellent read by Dr. Sponaugle on the study:  He explains that the fact mosquitoes bite quickly makes some question their ability to transmit Bb; however, Sponaugle states, “Mosquitoes might have the equipment after all to enable Borrelia spirochetes the ability to survive for the durations necessary to be viable vectors of Lyme disease.”

Reading this current information on the various proteins & other pathogens present in their saliva altering human immune systems certainly screams for more intense study of the potential not only of spreading Bb but of amplifying all pathogens in the mosquito as well as the human.  The combination of tick and mosquito transmission would certainly help explain the far-ranging (world-wide) transmission rates of Lyme/MSIDS.  And, what about the other coinfections?  Much must be done with clear, unbiased studies starting at ground zero.

We need transmission studies more than we need climate studies.  People are dying out here.

For more:

GMO mosquitoes:

Wolbachia as a biocontrol:  Ticks carry worms and transmit them to humans.  Here’s what’s scary about Wolbachia: “Dogs treated for heart worm (D. immitis) have trouble due to the heart worm medication causing Wolbachia to be released into the blood and tissues causing severe Inflammation in pulmonary artery endothelium which may form thrombi and interstitial inflammation. Wolbachia also activates pro inflammatory cytokines.”  Nobody’s talking about what this could do to humans – particularly humans with worms.

GMO Mice:

Regarding tick eradication, controlled burns are 78-98% effective, yet are not huge money makers and isn’t garnering support.  It’s up to We the People to spread the truth: