https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/29554975/

First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

Ravagnan S, et al. Parasit Vectors. 2018.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the first detection of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in two independent studies conducted in 2016 in the north-eastern and north-western Alps, Italy.

RESULTS: Three out of 405 nymphs (0.74%) tested positive for Borrelia miyamotoi. In particular, B. miyamotoi was found in 2/365 nymphs in the western and in 1/40 nymphs in the eastern alpine area. These are the first findings of B. miyamotoi in Italy.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to B. miyamotoi and risk of human infection may occur through tick bites in northern Italy. Relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi has not yet been reported in Italy, but misdiagnoses with tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis or other relapsing fever can occur. Our findings suggest that B. miyamotoi should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients originating from Lyme borreliosis endemic regions. The distribution of this pathogen and its relevance to public health need further investigation.

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**Comment**

That last sentence is the understatement of the year.  Unfortunately, Science is in the Dark Ages regarding all things Lyme/MSIDS with experts clinging to ancient, dusty, and often unscientific research that desperately needs updating.

https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/03/11/italy-5-year-tick-survey/  It appears our Italian friends now are on record for having Rickettsia species, Anaplasma, & Bartonella.

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My daughter in Rome, Italy

Please remember that up until 1994 B. miyamotoi wasn’t even on the radar except in Japan and there it was in Ixodes persulcatus ticks.  Human cases weren’t reported until 2011 in Russia and then the U.S., Europe, and Japan.  Think of all the patients who presented with severe illness but went undiagnosed.  This is still happening.  

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25892254/?i=2&from=/28714333/related

B. miyamotoi species are usually transmitted by soft-bodied ticks or lice; however, it has been found in at least six Ixodes tick species in North America and Eurasia that transmit Lyme as well.  A great reminder that we need to be very careful about being closed-minded regarding what ticks carry what.  

Also important to note is the lack of belief of mainstream medicine on the severity, complexity, and length of illness these pathogens can cause.  While it’s true some who are treated quickly get better, others do not and suffer for years with debilitating illness:  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2018/02/02/hopkins-study-shows-severe-symptoms-in-some-after-lyme-treatment/  (Please read my comment after the study)

Mainstream medicine STILL does not take into account ALL of the pathogens involved.  They test and treat for ONE pathogen, whereas patients are often coinfected with numerous pathogens – including bacteria, viruses, funguses, parasites, and even nematodes (worms).  Until patients are treated for ALL pathogens and a faulty immune system they will not improve.  Again, all the doxy in the world isn’t going to cure this.  https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2017/07/01/one-tick-bite-could-put-you-at-risk-for-at-least-6-different-diseases/  (The actual number is 16 & counting)