Gallic Acid for Lyme Study

Inhibition of Borrelia Burgdorferi-Induced TLR2-NFκB Canonical Signaling by Gallic Acid through Targeting the CD14+ Adaptor Protein and p65 Molecule

Department of Infectious Diseases, Dr. Rath Research Institute, San Jose, CA 95138, USA
*Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Natália Cruz-Martins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 202223(19), 10987;
Received: 29 August 2022 / Revised: 12 September 2022 / Accepted: 14 September 2022 / Published: 20 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-inflammatory Phytochemicals 2.0)
The cases of Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection have been increasing throughout Northern America and Europe. This pathogen, if not treated in a timely manner with antibiotics, can cause persisting and debilitating health outcomes. In the search for novel agents against B. burgdorferi, we investigated a phenolic compound—gallic acid—for its anti-Borrelia and anti-inflammatory effects. Our results showed its biocidal effect starting from 100 μg/mL against active spirochetes, persisters/round-shaped bodies, and biofilm like aggregates of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Activation of macrophages by live B. burgdorferi also resulted in a robust NFκB-dependent proinflammatory responses seen in increased production of cytokines. Using human CD14+ macrophages in vitro, we showed that CD14+ adaptor and phosphorylated p65 molecule are impeded at nonbiocidal and noncytotoxic concentrations of gallic acid, resulting in the inhibition of both expression and secretion of cytokines IL1β, IL6, and TNFα. Our findings demonstrate efficacy of gallic acid against B. burgdorferi and provide potential mechanistic insight into its TLR2/CD14+-NFκB mediated mode of action. Further studies on the potential of gallic acid as a safe and effective compound against Borrelia-caused infection are warranted. View Full-Text
Gallic acid is an antioxidant and phenolic compound found in many foods including:
  • numerous fruits (strawberries, grapes, bananas, blueberries, apples, mangos, pomegranates, mulberries, guavas, blackcurrants, and avocados)
  • nuts: walnuts, cashews, hazelnuts
  • red wine
  • green tea

It’s been known that it may help modulate the immune system and act as a natural defense against microbial infections including foodborne pathogens like Campylobacter, Escherichia coliListeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas, as well as a bacteria found in your mouth called Streptococcus mutans.  It also appears to be anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, reduce oxidative stress and fat storage in the obese by improving insulin signaling, and neuroprotective.   Source

This recent study showed that Quercus infectoria gall (Aleppo Oak) and its active constituent, gallic acid, showed remarkable activity against vaginal pathogens: Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

The study mentions: The antimicrobial and anti-trichomonas activity of extract was more than gallic acid. It seems that ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria gall could inhibit the growth of vaginal pathogens.

Regarding this specific small tree, galls form on young branches when gall wasps sting the tree and deposit their larvae causing a chemical reaction with resulting hard balls (galls) to be formed.  These galls contain the highest naturally occurring level of tannin, as well as a number of other compounds including about 2-4% of gallic and ellagic acid.  Once again showing the marvels of nature in producing things that help human health.

%d bloggers like this: