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Might SARS‐CoV‐2 Have Arisen via Serial Passage through an Animal Host or Cell Culture?

A potential explanation for much of the novel coronavirus’ distinctive genome

Karl SirotkinDan SirotkinFirst published: 12 August 2020


Despite claims from prominent scientists that SARS‐CoV‐2 indubitably emerged naturally, the etiology of this novel coronavirus remains a pressing and open question: Without knowing the true nature of a disease, it is impossible for clinicians to appropriately shape their care, for policy‐makers to correctly gauge the nature and extent of the threat, and for the public to appropriately modify their behavior. Unless the intermediate host necessary for completing a natural zoonotic jump is identified, the dual‐use gain‐of‐function research practice of viral serial passage should be considered a viable route by which the novel coronavirus arose. The practice of serial passage mimics a natural zoonotic jump, and offers explanations for SARS‐CoV‐2’s distinctive spike‐protein region and its unexpectedly high affinity for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), as well as the notable polybasic furin cleavage site within it. Additional molecular clues raise further questions, all of which warrant full investigation into the novel coronavirus’s origins and a re‐examination of the risks and rewards of dual‐use gain‐of‐function research.



Serial Passage is another way of saying “tinkered with in a lab setting.” 

Excerpt from paper:

The long‐standing practice of serial passage is a form of gain‐of‐function research that forces zoonosis between species, and requires the same molecular adaptations necessary for a natural zoonotic jump to occur within a laboratory, leaving the same genetic signatures behind as a natural jump but occurring in a much shorter period of time.

The paper points out that ‘serial passage’ is often used for vaccine programs.

The paper also admits: 

The dual‐use gain‐of‐function research tool of serial passage was first applied to a strain of H1N1 Swine Flu, a variant of the pandemic influenza virus that was genetically modified before it either leaked out of a Soviet lab or was introduced as part of an attenuated vaccine trial in 1977. Although no one has ever taken responsibility for the introduction of this virus, it would become the first known example of a virus created by serial passage leaving a lab, which was later determined due to its inexplicable genetic distance from any known sister strain.[8]

Please refresh your memory on the H1N1 fiasco: (It’s all very similar to COVID-19)

This genetic engineering happened right here in my home state by Dr. Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the Universities of Tokyo and Wisconsin using:

“genetic engineering to combine genes from the H1N1 Swine Flu as well as the H5N1 Bird Flu to create a chimeric virus that was then serially passed through ferrets, creating another airborne virus with potentially pandemic properties.[12] Both experiments created a modified genome that appeared to be the result of natural, albeit accelerated, selection since the process of serial passage forces the mutations selected for in natural zoonotic jumps, and masks the direct genetic engineering done on the viruses. These experiments were viewed by many as being sufficiently dangerous that they should not be published,[13] however they were both eventually released with certain methodological and sequence details left out.”

This is discussed here by Dr Luc Montagnier:


He, along with numerous other scientists, states the virus (COVID-19) has been manipulated and that components of HIV have been inserted into the viral sequence, perhaps in pursuit of an AIDS vaccine.

He mentions that the U.S. funded the Wuhan lab in China:  Dr. Fauci, head of NIAID and part of the coronavirus task force, is the one who sent U.S. tax payer money to China after a moratorium was given to stop this sort of research. That is called breaking the law and he should be in jail.


And whether or not gain‐of‐function research is determined to have played a role in SARS‐CoV‐2’s emergence, the fact that it creates opportunities for pandemic viruses to leak out of labs calls for a re‐examination of the moratorium against this practice, because the emergence of this novel coronavirus has demonstrated that the international public health community is not prepared to handle the leak of a pandemic virus. Furthermore, none of the gain‐of‐function research conducted since 2014 has provided humanity with any tools at all to fight back against the ongoing pandemic caused by this novel coronavirus.

Please considering signing the petition to stop ‘gain of function’ research:  Sign petition here: