.2020 May 15;1-18.

doi: 10.1080/1040841X.2020.1760786.Online ahead of print.

Bacterial Infection and non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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One quarter of all cancers are linked to infectious diseases. The link between viral infection and cancer has been widely studied, but few reports have focused on the carcinogenic role of bacterial infection. Nonetheless, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi and Campylobacter jejuni are bacteria that can be associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), the most common haematologic malignancy. Here, we review the evidence in favour of a link between these bacterial infections and NHL. Sero-epidemiological observation makes it possible to identify a link between H. pylori, C. burnetii, B. burgdorferi infection and NHL.

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Chlamydia psittaci
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Borrelia burgdorferi
  • Campylobacter jejuni

could be identified in NHL tissue samples at the site of chronic inflammation, where B and T lymphocytes are attracted to participate in follicle formation. Lymphoma remissions have been observed under antimicrobial therapies supporting the carcinogenic contribution of bacteria. If the theory of causality is characterized by the lack of universal criteria for establishing a causal link between two diseases, infection and lymphoma, epidemiological, clinical, and histological evidences reported here, should lead clinicians to pay attention to these infectious agents, to detect early lymphoma transformation.